Caliphatism in the period of decline and collapse of the Ottoman Empire

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The article analyses the historical role of the movement for defenсe of the Caliphate, which emerged in various regions of the Muslim world as a response to weakening and fall of the Ottoman Empire. The authors also focus on the social and political discussions of the 1920s - 1930s about the destiny of Muslim unity and the role of the future Caliphate. The article also deals with the transformation of conceptions of the Caliphate in the works of eminent ideologists and politicians of the Muslim world - Jamal al-Din al-Afghani, Abd al-Rahman al-Kawakibi, Muhammad Rashid Rida and Abul Kalam Azad. The authors give an overview of the history of Caliphatist congresses and conferences of 1920s - 1930s. The aims and tasks of the Caliphatist movement among the Muslims of South Asia are also under study. The article examines the reaction of the South Asian princely elites to the weakening of the Ottoman state and explores the interrelation between pro-Ottoman sentiments of Caliphatists and the radicalization of anti-colonial struggle of Indian Muslims. A special attention is given to the role of leaders of Indian Caliphatists in preparation of the antiBritish uprisings in North-Western Hindustan. The authors also examine common and specifi c features of views and political actions of advocates and supporters of the Caliphate in the Middle East and in the Islamic communities of South Asia. The analysis of the source data reveales several patterns of reaction of Muslims in the Middle East, North Africa and South Asia to the repudiation of the Caliphate by the Republican Turkey.



About the authors

Svetlana A Kirillina

Institute of Asian and African Studies, Lomonosov Moscow State University

Author for correspondence.

D. Sc. (History), Professor, Department of Middle and Near East History

11 Mohovaya St., bldg. 1, Moscow, 125009, Russia

Alexandra L Safronova

Institute of Asian and African Studies, Lomonosov Moscow State University


D. Sc. (History), Professor, Head of Department of South Asian History

11 Mohovaya St., bldg. 1, Moscow, 125009, Russia

Vladimir V Orlov

Institute of Asian and African Studies, Lomonosov Moscow State University; Institute of Oriental Studies RAS


D. Sc. (History), Professor, Department of Middle and Near East History, Institute of Asian and African Studies, Lomonosov Moscow State University; Senior Research Fellow, Centre of Arab and Islamic Studies, Institute of Oriental Studies, Russian Academy of Sciences

11 Mohovaya St., bldg. 1, Moscow, 125009, Russia; 12 Rozhdestvenka St., Moscow, 107031, Russia


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Copyright (c) 2018 Kirillina S.A., Safronova A.L., Orlov V.V.

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