RUDN Journal of PhilosophyRUDN Journal of Philosophy2313-23022408-8900Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia3211310.22363/2313-2302-2022-26-3-658-671Research ArticleHermann Cohen’s logic of the pure knowledge as a philosophy of scienceSokulerZinaida A.<p>Doctor of Philosophy, Professor, Chair of Ontology and Theory of Knowledge</p>zasokuler@mail.ruhttps://orcid.org/0000-0002-0602-4295Lomonosov Moscow State University3009202226365867101102022Copyright © 2022, Sokuler Z.A.2022<p style="text-align: justify;">The connection of Hermann Сohen’s “The Logic of Pure Knowledge” with the revolutionary transformations in physics and mathematics at the end of the 19th century is shown. Сohen criticised Kant’s answer to the question “How is mathematics possible”? If Kant refers to a priori forms of pure intuition, Сohen sees in it a restriction of freedom of mathematical thinking by limits of intuition. It has been shown that Cohen's position is in accordance with the main development of mathematics in the last decades of the 19th century, in particular, with K. Weierstrass’ striving to get rid of geometrical or mechanical images and intuitions in the mathematical analysis. Cohen was also well informed about the latest ideas in physics of his time. They are also discussed in “The Logic of Pure Knowledge.” The revolutionary spirit of physics and mathematics was appealing to Cohen, and he felt a corresponding enthusiasm for it. The ongoing scientific revolution is consonant with Cohen’s assertion that the foundations of science are hypotheses. The purity of pure thinking does not guarantee the correctness of any of its constructions. Each step in the development of science requires a critique of existing notions. The development of knowledge from the naive to the critical one shows a movement from a picture of the world as a set of stable things to a picture of continuous movement and change, where change is more important than what changes. Cohen sees such a development in an evolution of the concept of substance in modern physics and he welcomes the replacement of material substance by energy, seeing this movement as a confirmation of critical idealism. Finally, it is discussed whether we can speak of the actuality of Cohen’s logic of pure knowledge.</p>H. CohenI. KantK. WeierstrassA. EinsteinW. Ostwaldidealismhypothesisrevolution in physicsГ. КогенИ. КантК. ВейерштрассА. ЭйнштейнВ. Оствальдидеализмгипотезареволюция в физике[Sokuler ZA. Hermann Cohen i ego ideya logiki chistogo poznaniya [Hermann Cohen and His Idea of the Logic of Pure Knowledge]. RUDN Journal of Philosophy. 2021;25(3):378—393. (In Russian). DOI: 10.22363/2313-2302-2021-25-3-378-393.][Cohen H. Das Princip der Infinitesimal-Methode und seine Geschichte. Berlin: Dümmler; 1883.][Belov VN. Metod beskonechno malyh kak princip teorii poznaniya v sistematicheskih postroeniyah H. Cohena [The Method of the Infinitesimal as the Principle of the Theory of Knowledge in Systematic Constructions of H. Cohen]. Voprosy filosofii. 2018.(3): 68—74. (In Russian).][Cohen H. Logik der reinen Erkenntnis. Dritte Aufl. Berlin: B. Cassirer; 1922.][Sinkevich GI. Razvitie ponyatiya chisla i nepreryvnosti v matematicheskom analize do konca XIX veka [The development of the concept of number and continuity in mathematical analysis until the end of the 19th century]. Avtoreferat dissertacii na soiskanie uchenoj stepeni doktora fiziko-matematicheskih nauk. Moscow; 2018. (In Russian).][Medvedev FA. Razvitie teorii mnozhestv v XIX veke [Development of the set theory in XIX century]. Moscow: Nauka; 1965. (In Russian).][Asmus VF. Problema intuicii v filosofii i matematike [The Intuition problem in the philosophy and in the mathematics]. Moscow: Mysl' Publ.; 1965. (In Russian).][Hahn H. The Crisis in Intuition. In: Hahn H. Empiricism, Logic, and Mathematics. Philosophical Papers. Brian McGuinness ed. Dordrcht: Reidel; 1980. P. 73—102.][Plato. Gosudarstvo [The Republic]. In: Plato. Sochineniya v 3-h tt. T.3, chast' 1. [Platon. Collected works, in 3 vols. Vol. 3 (1)]. Moscow: Mysl'; 1971. (In Russian).][Mejyasu K. Posle konechnosti. Esse o neobhodimosti kontingentnosti. [Meillassoux Qu. After Finitude. An Essay on the Necessity of Contingency] Ekaterinburg — Moscow: Kabinetnyi Utchenyi; 2015. (In Russian).][Ostval’d VF. Natur-filosofiya. Lekcii, chitannye v Lejpcigskom universitete [Oswald W. F. Natural Philosophy. Lectures given at the University of Leipzig] Moscow: KomKniga; 2006. (In Russian).][Cohen H. Ethik des reinen Willens. Dritte Aufl. Berlin: B. Cassirer; 1921.]