Discrete and Continuous Models and Applied Computational ScienceDiscrete and Continuous Models and Applied Computational Science2658-46702658-7149Peoples' Friendship University of Russia named after Patrice Lumumba (RUDN University)14563Research ArticleSpherically Symmetric Solution of the Weyl-Dirac Theory of Gravitation and its ConsequencesBabourovaO Vbaburova@orc.ruFrolovB Nfrolovbn@orc.ruKudlaevP Epavelkudlaev@mail.ruRomanovaE Vsolntce_07@mail.ruMoscow Pedagogical State University151220164849214122016Copyright © 2016,2016The Poincar´e and Poincar´e-Weyl gauge theories of gravitation with Lagrangians quadratic on curvature and torsion in post-Riemannian spaces with the Dirac scalar field is discussed in a historical aspect. The various hypotheses concerning the models of a dark matter with the help of a scalar field are considered. The new conformal Weyl-Dirac theory of gravitation is proposed, which is a gravitational theory in Cartan-Weyl spacetime with the Dirac scalar field representing the dark matter model. A static spherically symmetric solution of the field equations in vacuum for a central compact mass is obtained as the metrics conformal to the Yilmaz-Rosen metrics. On the base of this solution one considers a radial movement of an interplanetary spacecraft starting from the Earth. Using the Newton approximation one obtains that the asymptotic line-of-sight velocity in this case depends on the parameters of the solution, and therefore one can obtain, on basis of the observable data, the values of these parameters and then the value of a rest mass of the Dirac scalar field.Dark matterDirac scalar fieldWeyl-Dirac theory of gravitationCartan-Weyl spacetimeYilmaz-Rosen metricsspacecraft Earth flybyтёмная материяскалярное поле Диракатеория гравитации Вейля- Диракапространство-время Картана-Вейляметрика Илмаза-Розенаоблёт Земли косми- ческим аппаратом1. Introduction In [1] a gauge principle has been applied to Poincar´e group that has resulted in construction a gauge theory of gravitation in a post-Riemannian space with curvature and torsion - a Riemann-Cartan space. In [1] a curvature scalar (generalized on a Riemann-Cartan space) was used as a Lagrangian of the theory. Such generalized theory of gravitation has been named the Einstein-Cartan theory of gravitation. The similar gauge theory of gravitation was proposed in [2-5] where it was offered to use as a Lagrangian along with a curvature scalar also quantities quadratic on curvature and torsion. Later in [6] the most general Lagrangian of a such kind in a Riemann-Cartan space was constructed containing ten arbitrary connection constants. A gauge theory of gravitation with quadratic Lagrangians has received the name the Poincar´e gauge theory of gravitation, see Refs. in [7-9]. Then in [10, 11] it was advanced a conformally invariant generalization of the Poincar´e gauge theory of gravitation was proposed which uses the method offered by Dirac in his well-known work [12]. The given method is based on using in a Lagrangian of the theory an additional scalar field which in [10] was named as a Dirac scalar field. In [13, 14] the gauge theory of gravitation was constructed, proceeding from the requirement of the gauge invariance of the theory concerning the Poincar´e-Weyl group, supplementing the Poincar´e group by a group of spacetime stretching and compression (dilatations). It was shown that from this requirement spacetime obtains a geometrical structure of Cartan-Weyl space. Besides, in this theory a requirement appears of necessary existence of the additional scalar field having so fundamental geometrical status, as well as the metrics. The further development of the theory has shown, that the given scalar field coincides by the properties with the scalar field entered by Dirac in [12]. Further on the basis of the given result the theory of gravitation in a Cartan-Weyl space has been constructed [15-18], which generalizes the Einstein-Cartan and the Poincar´e gauge theories of gravitation in presence of nonmetricity of the Weyl’s type and uses the Received 30th June, 2016. Dirac scalar field for supporting conformance of the theory. This generalized theory of gravitation is pertinent to be named the Weyl-Dirac theory of gravitation. According to Gliner [19], the cosmological constant in the Einstein equation determines a vacuum energy density (dark energy). In the Weyl-Dirac conformal theory of gravitation, an effective cosmological constant appears, which value is determined by the Dirac scalar field. Application of the Weyl-Dirac theory to the early universe cosmology has allowed to find the solution of a well-known cosmological constant problem [18, 20-22], which represents the important problem of modern physics [23, 24]. Matos with co-authors [25] within the framework of a Riemann geometry in GR advanced a cosmological SFDM model, in which the dark matter was modelled with the help of a scalar field using a special kind of a potential. The full solution of a cosmological scenario was obtained. To the hypothesis that the scalar field can carry out the same problems, which are assigned to a dark matter, Capozziello with coauthors have joined [26]. In [26] the Yukawa interaction between the scalar field and substance is used. In the monography [18] within the framework of the Weyl-Dirac theory of gravitation, the hypothesis has been stated that the Dirac scalar field in Cartan-Weyl space not only determines a size of the effective cosmological constant (dark energy density), but also plays a role of the basic component of a dark matter. Then the spherically symmetric solution of the Weyl-Dirac theory for the central mass in vacuum [18, 27, 28] was found. Thus, the hypothesis about a possible modeling of dark matter by a scalar field is fruitful idea, which now is developed by some modern researchers. In the present work a new method of deriving the spherically symmetric solution of the conformal Weyl-Dirac theory of gravitation is elaborated, and also possible influence of dark matter on movement of space vehicles within the limits of Solar system is found out. 2. Lagrangian Density and Field Equations in Weyl-Dirac Theory Let us consider [18] a connected 4D oriented differentiable manifold equipped with a metric ˆ of the index 3, a linear connection Γ and a volume 4-form . Then a Cartan-Weyl space 4 is defined as such manifold equipped with a curvature 2-form , a torsion 2-form and a nonmetricity 1-form obeying the Weyl condition 1 = 4 . (1) Here = -, and = d + Γ ∧ . . . is the exterior covariant differential. In [13, 14] the Poincar´e-Weyl gauge theory of gravitation (PWTG) has been developed. The gauge field introduced by the subgroup of dilatations is named the dilatation field, its vector-potential is the Weyl 1-form, and quanta of this field can have nonzero rest mass. An additional scalar field ��() is introduced in PWTG as an essential geometrical addendum to the metric tensor, the tangent space metrics being the form, = -2 , (2) where are the constant components of the Minkowski metric tensor. The properties of the field ��() coincide with those of the scalar field introduced by Dirac [12]. Some terms of the Dirac scalar field Lagrangian have structure of the Higgs Lagrangian and can cause an appearance of nonzero rest masses of particles [11]. On the basis of PWTG, the conformal theory of gravitation in Cartan-Weyl spacetime with Dirac scalar has been developed [15-18] with the Lagrangian density 4-form (in exterior form formalism) [20, 21], = + mat + 4Λ ∧ (︂ 1 - 4 )︂ , (3) = 20 [︂ 1 2 ∧ 4 1 - Λ + 4 ∧ * + 12 ∧ *+ 2 2 + 22( ∧ ) ∧ *( ∧ ) + 32( ∧ ) ∧ *( ∧ )+ ]︁ ]︁ + 2 ∧ * + 2 ∧ ∧ * + 1d ∧ *d+ a a + l2d ∧ ∧ *a +l3d ∧ *�� . (4) * ∧ * ∧ here is the gravitational field Lagrange density, mat is the matter Lagrange density. The first term in is the Gilbert-Einstein Lagrangian density generalized to the Cartan- Weyl space ( = ( ), 0 = 4/16), the second term is a generalized cosmological term describing vacuum energy (Λ is the Einstein cosmological constant). We use the exterior form variational formalism on the base of the Lemma on the commutation rule between variation and Hodge star dualization [29]. The independent variables are the nonholonomic connection 1-form Γ, the basis 1-form , the Dirac scalar field ��(), and the Lagrange multipliers Λ. Λ-equation yields the Weyl’s condition (1). The variational field equations of the theory (Γ-equation, -equation and -equation) can be found in [18, 21]. These variational field equations have been solved for the very early stage of evolution of universe for the scale factor () and the field (), when the matter density is very small [18, 20-22]. This solution realizes exponential diminution of the field ��, and thus sharp exponential decrease of physical vacuum energy (dark energy) by many orders. Thus this result can explain the exponential decrease in time at very early Universe of the dark energy being described by the effective cosmological constant. This can give way to solving one of the fundamental problems of the modern theoretical physics - the problem of the cosmological constant (see [23, 24]) - as a consequence of fields dynamics at the early Universe. 3. Spherically Symmetric Solution of the Weyl-Dirac Theory Now a static spherically symmetric solution of the field equations in vacuum (in case of Λ = 0, = 0) is obtained for a central compact mass [18, 27, 28]. * ∧ * * ∧ * ∧ ∧ In the spherically symmetric case the torsion 2-form is, = (1/3) , = ( ), where is a torsion trace 1-form. As a consequence of the Γ-equation, one can conclude that the torsion 1-form and the nonmetricity 1-form can be realized as = d�� , = d , = log , where and are arbitrary constants. We shall find a static spherically symmetric solution with a metrics of the form, (︀ )︀ (︀ )︀ d2 = -2 ()[︁-()d2 - () d2 + 2(d2 + sin2 d2) ]︁ . (5) After calculation the Γ-, - and -equations with the help of this metrics, one can conclude that these equations are reduced to the following equations, 2 2 ′′ + 2 ′ = 0 , ′ = ± ′ , = √2 0 , (6) - - - - with = 8, = 6, and -2 = 1 under some conditions on the coupling constants of the Lagrangian density 4-form (4). The equations (6) have solutions, which lead to the metrics, 0 = , () = 0 0 ± ± 2 , (7) 2 ∓ 2 2 ∓ 2 0 d = d , (8) 0 0 (︀ )︀ 0 0 (︀ )︀ YR YR YR d2 = - d2 - d2 + 2(d2 + sin2 d2) . (9) With the help of the conformal transformation ˇ 0 ∓ ∓ = , (10) the metrics (8) can be transformed to the metrics (9), the Cartan-Weyl space being transformed to the Riemann-Cartan space. If one puts 0 = = 2/2, the metrics (9) is known as the Yilmaz-Rosen (YR) metrics [30-32]. In this case this metrics in the post-Newtonian approximation at large distances gives the same results as the Schwarzschild metrics. The metrics (9) belongs to the Majumdar-Papapetrou class of metrics [33, 34]. The metrics (8) will be named the genera√lized Yilmaz-Rosen metrics. In the simplest case the constant can be chosen as = 1/ 1, where 1 is the coupling constant in the Lagrangian density (4). 4. Possible Influence of Dark Matter on the Interplanetary Spacecraft Motion Let’s consider a radial motion of a test body under the influence of the metrics (8). The -component of the geodesic equation has the first integral, d d -(1±) = = const . (11) d 0 0 Let us divide (8) by d2 and put d = 0, d = 0. Then after some transformations we shall obtain for radial movement the following functional dependence between the velocity of a test body and the radial coordinate , 2 2 = This equation yields the identity, 2 - (︂ - (︂ 1 0 0 1 - 2 -(1±) )︂ -(1±) )︂ . (12) 2 inf 2 = 1 - 1 0 0 2 , (13) where inf is an asymptotical value of the test body velocity at infinity. Let’s apply the equalities (12) and (13) to the motion of interplanetary spacecraft starting from the Earth (ignoring its rotation). If we use the Newton approximation in this case, then we obtain the approximate equality, - - 2 2 inf inf /0 (︁ )︁ 2 ≈ ∓ , (14) Earth where inf /0 is the value of the test body velocity at infinity calculated under the condition = 0. s s The data on Galileo, Cassini and other Earth flyby of the interplanetary spacecrafts show the increase ∆inf in the asymptotic line-of-sight velocity inf, of the order of 1-10 mm [35]. Therefore the value of (14) is not zero. From this fact one can make two conclusions. First, we need to choose the second sign in the solutions (7), (9). Second, the formula (14) allows to estimate the values of and 1, and thus the value of the Dirac field rest mass. In [11] one can see, how a scalar field, which is a model of dark matter, can obtain a rest mass by the Higgs machinary. 5. Conclusions As a consequence of the Poincar´e-Weyl gauge theory of gravitation, the Dirac scalar field, which has an equally fundamental status as the metrics, should exist in Nature, and spacetime has a geometrical structure of the Cartan-Weyl space. We have named such gravitational theory as the Weyl-Dirac theory of gravitation. In this theory we derive a static spherically symmetric solution of the field equations in vacuum for a central mass. With this solution we consider a radial motion of an interplanetary spacecraft starting from the Earth. Using the Newton approximation we obtain that the asymptotic line-of-sight velocity inf in this case depends on the parameter of the solution. Using the observable data, one can obtain the value of this parameter and then the value of the Dirac field rest mass. The results were obtained within the framework of performance of the State Task No 3.1968.2014/K of the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation. References 1. T. W. B. Kibble, Lorentz Invariance and the Gravitational Field, Journal of Mathe- matical Physics 2 (1961) 212-221. 2. B. N. Frolov, Principle of Local Invariance and Noether Theorem, Vestnik Moskovskogo Universiteta 6 (1963) 48-58, (in Russian). 3. B. N. Frolov, Principle of Local Invariance and Noether Theorem, in: Proceedings, Modern Problems of Gravitation, 2nd Soviet grav. conf., Publ. House Tbilisi Univ, Tbilisi, 1967, pp. 270-278, (in Russian). 4. B. N. Frolov, Tetrad Palatini Formalism and Quadratic Lagrangians in the Gravita- tional Field Theory, Acta Physica Polonica B 9 (1978) 823-829. 5. B. N. Frolov, On Foundations of Poincar´e-gauged Theory of Gravity, Gravitation and Cosmology 6 (2004) 116-120. 6. K. Hayashi, Gauge Theories of Massive and Massless Tensor Fields, Progress of Theoretical Physics 39 (1968) 494-515. 7. F. W. Hehl, J. L. McCrea, E. W. Mielke, Y. Ne’eman, Metric-Affine Gauge Theory of Gravity: Field Equations, Noether Identities, World Spinors, and Breaking of Dilaton Invariance, Physics Reports 258 (1995) 1-171. 8. B. N. Frolov, Poincar´e Gauge Theory of Gravitation, MPGU, Moscow, 2003, (in Russian). 9. M. Blagojevi´c, F. W. Hehl, Gauge Theory of Gravitation, WSPC, Imperial College Press, London, 2013. 10. B. N. Frolov, Gravitatziya i elektromagnetizm, Universitetskoe, Minsk, 1992, Ch. Generalized-conformal Poincar´e-gauged Quadratic Theory of Gravity, pp. 174-178, (in Russian). 11. B. N. Frolov, Gravity, Particles and Spacetime, World Scientific, Singapore, 1996, Ch. Generalized Conformal Invariance and Gauge Theory of Gravity, pp. 113-144, (in Russian). 12. P. A. M. Dirac, Long Range Forces and Broken Symmetries, Proceedings of the Royal Society A 333 (1973) 403-418. 13. O. V. Babourova, B. N. Frolov, V. C. Zhukovsky, Gauge Field Theory for Poincar´e- Weyl Group, Physical Review D 74 (2006) 064012-1-125. 14. O. V. Babourova, B. N. Frolov, V. C. Zhukovsky, Theory of Gravitation on the Basis of the Poincar´e-Weyl Gauge Group, Gravitation and Cosmology 15(1) (2009) 13-15. 15. O. V. Babourova, B. N. Frolov, Dark Energy, Dirac’s Scalar Field and the Cosmological Constant Problem, ArXive: 1112.4449 [gr-qc] (2011). 16. O. V. Babourova, B. N. Frolov, R. S. Kostkin, Dirac’s Scalar Field as Dark Energy with the Frameworks of Conformal Theory of Gravitation in Weyl-Cartan Space, ArXive: 1006.4761[gr-qc] (2010). 17. O. V. Baburova, R. S. Kostkin, B. N. Frolov, The Problem of a Cosmological Constant within the Conformal Gravitation Theory in the Weyl-Cartan Space, Russian Physics Journal 54(1) (2011) 121-123. 18. O. V. Babourova, B. N. Frolov, Mathematical Foundations of the Modern Theory of Gravitation, MPGU, Moscow, 2012, (in Russian). 19. E. B. Gliner, Inflationary Universe and the Vacuumlike State of Physical Medium Space, Physics-Uspekhi (Advances in Physical Sciences) 45(2) (2002) 213-220. 20. O. V. Babourova, K. N. Lipkin, B. N. Frolov, Theory of Gravity With the Dirac Scalar Field and the Problem of Cosmological Constant, Russian Physics Journal 55(7) (2012) 855-857. 21. O. V. Babourova, B. N. Frolov, K. N. Lipkin, Theory of Gravity With a Dirac Scalar Field in the Exterior Form Formalism and Cosmological Constant Problem, Gravitation and Cosmology 18(4) (2012) 225-231. 22. O. V. Babourova, B. N. Frolov, Dark Energy as a Cosmological Consequence of Existence of the Dirac Scalar Field in Nature, Physical Research International (ID 952181) (2015) 1-6. 23. S. Weinberg, The Cosmological Constant Problem, Reviews of Modern Physics 61(1) (1989) 1-23. 24. M. Li, X.-D. Li, S. Wang, Y. Wang, Dark Energy, Communications in Theoretical Physics 56 (2011) 525-560. 25. T. Matos, L. A. Urena-Lopez, On the Nature of Dark Matter, International Journal of Modern Physics D 13 (2004) 2287-2292. 26. D. F. Mota, V. Salzano, S. Capozziello, Unifying Static Analysis of Gravitational Structures With a Scale-Dependent Scalar Field Gravity as an Alternative to Dark Matter, Physical Review D 83 (2011) 084038. 27. O. V. Babourova, B. N. Frolov, E. V. Febres, Spherically Symmetric Solution of Gravitation Theory With a Dirac Scalar Field in the Cartan-Weyl Space, Russian Physics Journal 57(9) (2015) 1297-1299. 28. O. V. Babourova, B. N. Frolov, P. E. Kudlaev, E. V. Romanova, Spherically Symmetric Solution in Cartan-Weyl Space with Dirac Scalar Field, in: Proceedings of the Twelfth Asia-Pacific International Conference on Gravitation, Astrophysics, and Cosmology dedicated to the Centenary of Einstein’s General Relativity, Moscow, 28 Jun-5 July 2015, World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd., Singapore, 2016, pp. 191-195. 29. O. V. Babourova, B. N. Frolov, E. A. Klimova, Plane Torsion Waves in Quadratic Gravitational Theories in Riemann-Cartan Space, Classical and Quantum Gravity 16 (1999) 1149-1162. 30. H. Yilmaz, New Approach to General Relativity, Physical Review 111 (1958) 1417- 1420. 31. N. Rosen, A Bi-Metric Theory of Gravitation, Annals of Physics (New York) 84 (1974) 455-473. 32. Y. Itin, A Class of Quasi-Linear Equations in Coframe Gravity, General Relativity and Gravitation 31 (1999) 1891-1911. 33. S. D. Majumdar, A Class of Exact Solutions of Einstein’s Field Equations, Physical Review 72(5) (1947) 390-398. 34. A. Papapetrou, Solution of the Equations of the Gravitational Field for an Arbitrary Charge-Distribution, Proceedings of Royal Irish Academy A 51 (1947) 191-204. 35. L. Iorio, Gravitational Anomalies in the Solar System?, International Journal of Modern Physics D 24(6) (2015) 1530015 (37 p.).