Reference list preparation guidelines

The editorial team asks authors to use rules of APA Style® , detailed in the  Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, offer sound guidance for writing with simplicity, power, and concision. APA Style has been adapted by many disciplines and is used by writers around the world.  

This handout is based on the 6th edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (APA), but is not a comprehensive guide. For all rules and requirements of APA citations, please consult the 6th edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association. Also, you can use APA style in your bibliography manager (EndNote / Mendeley / Zotero / Colwiz / RefMan), but please, add a DOI to all the listing references when it is available.

APA requires that information be cited in 2 different ways — within the text and in a reference list at the end of the paper.
See also:

  • Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th ed. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, 2010.
  • Concise Rules of APA Style, 6th ed. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, 2010.
  • APA Citation Style Examples.


APA uses the author-date method of citation. The last name of the author and the date of publication are inserted in the text in the appropriate place. 
When referencing or summarizing a source, provide the author and year. When quoting or summarizing a particular passage, include the specific page or paragraph number, as well.

When quoting in your paper, if a direct quote is less than 40 words, incorporate it into your text and use quotation marks. If a direct quote is more than 40 words, make the quotation a free-standing indented block of text and DO NOT use quotation marks.

One work by one author:

  • In one developmental study [Smith 1990], children learned...

In the case where several works of one author (the first) correspond to one statement, references to them are cited sequentially, in the historical order of publication:

  • The author [Abdiull 2011, 2015] found that ...;

When a resource has no named author, cite the first few words of the reference entry (usually the title):

  • The brochure argues for homeschooling [Education Reform 2007].

Citations of two or more works in the same parentheses should be listed in the order they appear in the reference list (i.e., alphabetically, then chronologically):

  • Several studies [Jones & Powell 1993; Peterson 1995, 1998; Smith 1990] suggest that...

In the case where several works of the same author of the same year are mentioned in the text, the Latin letter should be added to the year:

  • The author [Abdiull 2011a, 2011b] found that…


In general, references should contain the author name, publication date, title, and publication information. Include the issue number if the journal is paginated by issue.

For information obtained electronically or online include the DOI:

DOI - a unique alphanumeric string assigned to identify content and provide a persistent link to its location on the internet. The DOI is typically located on the first page of the electronic journal article near the copyright notice. When a DOI is used in your citation, no other retrieval information is needed. Use this format for the DOI in references: doi: xx.xxxxx/хххххххххххх

If no DOI has been assigned to the content, provide the home page URL of the journal or of the book or report publisher. Do not insert a hyphen if you need to break a URL across lines; do not add a period after a URL, to prevent the impression that the period is part of the URL.

In general, it is not necessary to include database information. Do not include retrieval dates unless the source material has changed over time.

Reference examples

Journal article:

Borzova, A. Y., & Kuzmina, A. V. (2015). Brazil and International Conflict Resolution. Vestnik RUDN. International Relations, 15(4), 56-65.

Journal article with DOI:

Quirk, J. & Vigneswaran, D. (2005). The Construction of Edifice. The Story of a First great debate. Review of International Studies, 31(5), 89–107. DOI: 10.1017/s0260210505006315

Journal has only issue number


Deich, T.L. (2009). The conflict in Darfur and China's position. Azija i Afrika segodnja, 12, 19-24. (in Russ).

Forthcoming articles


Larionova, M.V. (in press). G20: Engaging with International Organizations to Generate Growth. International Organisations Research Journal (IORJ), 12 (2).

Article posted on Internet

Lebedeva, M.M. (2016). System of Political Organization Of The World: ‘Perfect Storm’. Vestnik of MGIMO–University, 2, 125–133. URL: (in Russ). (accessed: 17.06.2015).

Book has one or more author

Galenovich, Ju.M. (2011). Mandate of Jiang Zemin: principles of foreign and defense policy of contemporary China. Moscow: Muravej. (in Russ).

 Bull, H. (2002). The Anarchical Society: A Study of Order In World Politics. New York: Columbia University Press.

Putnam, R. & Bayne, N. (1987). Hanging Together. Cooperation and Conflict in the Seven-Power Summits. London: Sage Publications.

Book has one or more editor

Tsygankov, P.A. (Eds.). (2002). Anthology Of IR Theory.  Moscow: Gardariki. (In Russ.)

Book posted on Internet

Kora, N.A. (2012). Genesis of the Human Security Problem Research. URL: (In Russ). (accessed: 24.10.2016).

Book Chapter

Mauriello, R. & Marandi, S.M. (2016). Oppressors and Oppressed Reconsidered: A Shiʻitologic Perspective on the Islamic Republic of Iran and Hezbollah’s Outlook on International Relations. In: Islam and International Relations. Contributions to Theory and Practice. Ed. by D. Abdelkader, N. Manabilang Adiong and R. Mauriello. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, p. 50 – 71.

Analitical Report

Maloney, S. (2001). America and Iran: from containment to coexistence. The Brookings Institution Policy Brief, 87, 1—8.

Conference materials:

Petrovich-Belkin O.K. Historical background and reasons for the appearance of non-military activities of NATO after the end of the "cold war." In: Dialogue of Civilizations: East-West. Globalization and Multiculturalism: Russia in the modern world. Materials of the XI scientific conference of young scientists; 2011 15-17 April; Moscow: PFUR. (in Russ).


Zhang, Yu. (2007). China's foreign policy in the context of the transformation of system of international relations [dissertation]. Moscow. (in Russ).


Media reports

Ushakov spoke about Russia's reaction to the expulsion of diplomats from the United States. RIA Novosti. URL: (in Russ). (accessed: 13.05.2017).

Regulatory documents

The Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran. URL: (in Russ). (accessed: 27.12.2016).

Office documents

Code of Business Conduct of OJSC “LUKOIL”. Web-site of LUKOIL. URL: (In Russ). (accessed 15.06.2015).

Publicistic documents

Statement of the President of the Russian Federation of December 30, 2016 // The official website of the President of the Russian Federation. URL: (in Russ). (accessed:13.05.2017).

Statistical materials

On the current situation in the economy of the Russian Federation in January-February 2017 in the terms of foreign economic activity. Web-site for Foreign Economic Information. URL: (in Russ). (accessed: 16.02.2016).


AidData. URL: (accessed: 13.04.2015).

Archive documents

AVPRI – Arkhiv Vneshney Politiki Rossiyskoy Imperii [Archive of Foreign Policy of the Russian Empire]. Fund: Snosheniya Rossii s Ispaniyey [Russia's Relations with Spain]. Inventory 58. File 358. Sheet 44. (in Russian).

Do not include retrieval dates unless the source material may change over time. If no DOI has been assigned to the content, provide the homepage URL.

Reprint from Another Source:
Citation in the text: (Newton, 1998/1999).
Reference List Citation:

  • Newton, W. (1999). Return to Mars. In C. Mari (Ed.), Space Exploration (pp. 32-41). New York, NY: H.W. Wilson. (Reprinted from National Geographic, pp. 2-26, August 1998).

In this example of a reprinted book review, the author of the book is named first, followed by the editor of the reprinting source, then the reviewer. In your parenthetical citation, it is necessary to name the author of the book, while the reviewer is named to distinguish from other reviews of this book.

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