Vol 12, No 3 (2020)

Ideas and politics in history
Concentration camps of Nazi Germany as a phenomenon. Opportunities and the problem of understanding
Yakemenko B.G.
Abstract

This article deals with the Nazi concentration camps as a phenomenon of social life and social thought in Europe in the mid-second half of the twentieth century. Today, when the world is experiencing a crisis of political and social institutions, there is less and less hope that this realization will happen. It describes the prerequisites for the formation of the system of concentration camps in Nazi Germany, the forms of their functioning, and provides comparative data on the statistics of the number of camps. It is also pointed out the importance of understanding the processes of psychological destruction of a person in the camp.

RUDN Journal of World History. 2020;12(3):211-221
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Role of education in the concept of the “New Society” of the authoritarian regime of Ferdinand Marcos in the Philippines (1972-1982)
Prakapovich N.V.
Abstract
Russian historiography pays considerable attention to the economic and political modernization of the life of the Philippine archipelago, starting from the time of Spaniards, then, American colonization and ending with the era of independence. However, the educational policy on which, on the one hand, the successes of the political and socio-economic modernization of the Philippines have been based throughout the country’s history, and on the other, which by the beginning of the 21st century has become a serious obstacle to economic independence and the establishment of national self-identity, are undeservedly ignored by domestic researchers. The author of this article in previous works has already made attempts to identify the features of the educational policy of Spaniards and Americans in the Philippines, as well as of the independent Philippine governments in the first decades after the end of World War II. But no less interesting is the era of the authoritarian regime of the President of the Philippines, Ferdinand Marcos (1972-1982). Analyzing a wide range of foreign literature and relying on presidential decrees and testimonies of contemporaries as sources, the author comes to the conclusion that the educational policy of the Marcos era is ambiguous: on the one hand, it has become an effective tool to combat country’s main social - economic problems in the 1970s - the problem of unemployment. On the other hand, in the early 1980s it led to its aggravation and marked the beginning of the mass labor migration of Filipinos, which continues to this day. Political decisions made on issues such as the language of instruction, the introduction of a national entrance exam in colleges and universities, and the publication of new textbooks have become critical levers in the deployment of education in support of the labor export strategy in the Marcos era.
RUDN Journal of World History. 2020;12(3):222-235
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Oriental Studies
The Features of Political and Religious Development of Oirats in the middle of the XIV - the middle of the XV centuries
Kitinov B.U.
Abstract

The period starting from the second half of the XIV century. and up to the middle of the 15th century, had held under the sign of the fall of the Mongol Yuan Dynasty in China, and it was the most important one in the history of the Eastern Mongols and Oirats. Until then, the rule that only representatives of the Golden Family (that is, the descendants of Genghis Khan) were able to receive power to govern over Mongols, was, in fact, not questioned, but later the various interpretations began to appear. For example, Oirats, as non-Genghisids, had to assert their power, possessing only second roles (Taishi - the first minister). Despite the internal turmoil and the struggle with the descendants of the Yuan rulers, the Oirats did to try to create the united Mongol state headed by Taishis from the Choros Oirat clan. After a long struggle with the Eastern Mongols (who sometimes had also been led by Oirats, for example Ugechi Khashig and his son Esehu) of such Oirat leaders as Batula, Batubolo, Taiping and Toghon, the son of the latter, Esen, managed to not only to unite the Oirats in a short time, but also to create the united Mongolian state. In addition, he revived the religious and political role of the sangha, most likely the teachings of black-caped hat Karma Kagyu. This act was especially important because, besides the ideological counterweight to the right of Genghisids, one should have responded to the growth of Islamic activity in the region.

RUDN Journal of World History. 2020;12(3):236-249
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Abbasid and Samanid military institutions as historical background for the Ghaznawids
Minjia Y.
Abstract

Brilliant military achievements and fierce struggle between the sovereigns and his troops were characteristic of the Ghaznawid kingdom, the first Turkic dynasty in the history of Iran, while explanation of such paradox demands analysis of historical background for the Turkic rule. In view that one of the most important reasons for the decline of the Abbasids and the Samanids was the Turkic slaves’ arbitrary interference in the politics, the Abbasid and Samanid military institutions are researched in parallel. Scrutinize of narrative historical texts shows that the organization of armed forces under the two dynasties not only set an example for the Ghaznawids, but also prepared conditions for the Turkic ghulams’ rise to power, since originally the rulers of the two dynasties were forced to recruit them as reliance for the reign, while they were deprived of sovereignty with the strengthening of Turkic soldiers’ influence. Therefore, the Ghaznawids, maintaining the priority of the Turkiс component in the army, took precautions against the Turkic soldiers and generals.

RUDN Journal of World History. 2020;12(3):250-260
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Modern World
An assessment of Ethio-China Political Economic Relations Since 1991
Antigegn G.K.
Abstract
This piece of paper analyzes post-1991 Ethio-China political and economic relations by raising the following questions: What is the nature of the bilateral political and economic relations? What are the factors which enhanced the bilateral political and economic relations between Ethiopia and China? What are the arguments raised by different scholars about Ethiopia and China relations? There are a number of factors that contributed to the growth of bilateral relations. Ethiopia needs China for economic assistance; as an alternative source to the west and China’s development is generally considered as a role model for Ethiopia to follow. China also supports Ethiopia on different international issues. On the part of China, there are also several factors egging China to look towards Ethiopia especially in terms of Ethiopia’s strategic importance and market potential. Ethiopia could be a commercial launch pad for Chinese companies and China is also getting diplomatic support from Ethiopia for its policy on Taiwan among others. There are also common factors both from Ethiopia and China’s side which enhanced the bilateral relations. However, there are many arguments raised following Chinese deep engagement to Ethiopia. Among others on the economic front the bilateral relations are imbalanced; dumping of low price export; underbidding local companies and ideological differences among others.Generally, the paper agues the ethio-Chinese relations motivated by political and economic factors.
RUDN Journal of World History. 2020;12(3):261-273
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The Ethnic Minority Policy of Turkey
Dashyan M.A., Kudelin A.A.
Abstract
This article is an overview of the state stance and attitude towards minorities throughout history of the republic of Turkey. It represents the official approach of the republic towards ethnic and religious groups. Though due to actions of the Ottoman Empire, the number of non-Turks in the republic of Turkey already was incomparably small, however their existence could not be ignored. Still Turkey recognizes only three minorities (Greeks, Armenians, and Jews) and for decades adopted the strategy of regarding all minority persons other than Greeks, Armenians, and Jews as Turks. Ethnic variety was considered a threat to territorial integrity of Turkey. Every action was directed to create a unitary nation-state suppressing ethnic identities of non-Turks. In this article state policy towards ethnic groups in the republic of Turkey is examined from the perspective of the Lausanne Treaty provisions and legislative regulations regarding the status and rights of minorities showing to what extent authorities have followed them and rising the controversial points minority representatives face in exercising their rights.
RUDN Journal of World History. 2020;12(3):274-285
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Retrospective of using the US universities and the Foreign Policy Association as elements of public diplomacy in the United States
Danilov A.V.
Abstract

The article covers the period of implemetation of the leading US universities and the Foreign Policy Association as elements of US public diplomacy wchich their impact in economic, political and cultural influence all over the world. The author methodically and consistently cites analytical, historical facts proving an indirect and direct impact on the foreign policy of countries. The relevance of the article is due to the high significance and influence of non-state actors on world politics nowdays. The author points out that the political course of the leadership of the United States from the second half of the 20th century was focused on more active inclusion of the country in international politics and the rejection of isolationism, which was primarily reflected in the departure from the postulates of the Monroe Doctrine and the entry of the United States into the First World War. This, in turn, had a great influence on the development of public diplomacy in the United States as a tool to promote the interests of the country, the creation of the necessary information support for foreign policy actions of the state, as well as a favorable image of the United States in other countries. Thus it required the active involvement of the leading US universities in US public diplomacy, as well as the creation of new non-state institutions.

RUDN Journal of World History. 2020;12(3):286-291
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Latin American Studies
Organizational structure of the Tupamaros National Liberation Movement in Uruguay (1965-1972)
Zizeva E.V.
Abstract

The article represents the first in Russian historiography attempt to consider in detail the structure of the revolutionary organization Tupamaros National Liberation Movement that acted in Uruguay in the 1960s and early 1970s. Due to the fact, that the Movement was clandestine, the data on the structure, strength, members could be reconstructed from both official documents and memoirs of members and leaders of the Movement. There are a lot of eminent persons of the contemporary history of Uruguay among them - ex President José Mujica, Vice President Lucía Topolansky, former Minister of Defense Eleuterio Fernández Huidobro and other important public figures. The study reveals the structural framework of the Tupamaros Movement and shows how were applied in practice two conflicting principles of the democratic centralism and internal autonomy of structural units of the organization.

RUDN Journal of World History. 2020;12(3):292-301
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Reviews
A future without a script. Reflections on the publication of S. Ivanov
Voronin S.A.
Abstract
RUDN Journal of World History. 2020;12(3):302-305
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