Vol 15, No 3 (2015)

Articles
Memory and History: Some considerations on antinomies and paradoxes
Šubrt J.
Abstract

Collective memory does not retain the memories of the past as historical events really happened, but as they are remembered in the present. Memory includes only elements of the past, not the past as a whole. Theoretical thinking about memory has been shaped by opinions often arising from very different starting points. This article outlines ten antinomies characterised by the following terms: individual and collective memory, spirit and matter, saving and deleting, irrevocable and revocable history, spontaneous and purposeful memory, myth and science, rationality and irrationality. The text explains that memory works in a selective way and the contents which are stored in it have no permanent form, but change over time according to the needs of the specific present. Human memory does not work as a rational machine, but rather is prone to distortions and errors. An important role in shaping collective memory is played by ideological influence and deep-rooted historical myths.

RUDN Journal of Sociology. 2015;15(3):7-18
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Basic theoretical approaches to the sociological definition of cultural codes
Yakovenko Y.I., Bagaeva T.L., Tashchenko A.Y.
Abstract

The article is devoted to the definitions of cultural codes introduced by the classics of sociology within their key theoretical concepts. The authors believe that automatic deduction of ‘cultural code’ interpretation from the concept ‘culture’ within any theoretical approach is not relevant to the rules of sociological knowledge, thus, they identify differences in the contexts that generate similar definitions of cultural codes. The authors analyze definitions of cultural codes in structural functionalism, neo-functionalism, structuralism, post-structuralism, post-marxism, structuralist constructivism and symbolic interactionism to show that the explanations of social reality and its relationships with culture through the notion of cultural codes imply fundamentally different descriptions of the system of social relations even within the same theoretical approach. The authors consider key works and positions of a number of classics of sociology and conclude that representatives of all major theoretical approaches tried to identify the concept ‘cultural codes’. However, while recognizing its significant potential, most theoretical approaches simply considered two or three elements of culture to be components of the cultural code without any reasoned explanation why all other elements of culture were excluded. Moreover, there are no uniform interpretations of cultural codes even within each of the above mentioned theoretical approaches.

RUDN Journal of Sociology. 2015;15(3):19-33
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The new ‘life-world’ in visual culture
Volchina A.E.
Abstract

The article is devoted to the analysis of visual research methodology using phenomenological concept ‘life-world’. The author considers basic socio-cultural principles of visual culture in the postmodern era, the theoretical grounds of ‘visual turn’, the manifestation of the simulacra nature through visuality and the design of items-images. The importance of the study is determined by the growth of visual content and the planet coverage by visual media. Currently visual studies focus mainly on such visual content as photography, billboards, and cinema; however, there is a new field for the development of visual methods - the Internet. The variety of designs and interfaces suggests the formation of a special virtual Internet culture that indirectly depends on socio-cultural characteristics of the creators of the project or the majority of users. The author conducted comparative analysis of two search systems - Google and Yandex - using visual methods to test the hypothesis that Russian users preference of the search system Yandex can be explained by a number of graphical and navigational features of the system suitable to Russian users. The results of the research seem to confirm this hypothesis revealing a number of elements of design and interface, which correlate with the cultural preferences of the inhabitants of the post-Soviet countries.

RUDN Journal of Sociology. 2015;15(3):34-44
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Marriage priorities and patterns of the Russian youth (on the example of mixed marriages)
Trotsuk I.V., Paramonova A.D.
Abstract

The sociological study of value priorities of young people in the sphere of marriage and family relations requires understanding of the ongoing demographic processes and their perception by different generations, which is often expressed in the commonplace formula ‘stereotypes and realities’. Unfortunately, problems and perspectives of interethnic marriages, as a rule, fall out of the sociological focus for they require a detailed approach and often simply do not fit into complex questionnaires designed to assess the dominant worldview of various generations. The authors aim to understand whether the mixed marriage issues should be included in the thematically (not) focused questionnaires, and are sure that interethnic marriages and families today reflect most of the ethnic, social and demographic processes in a concentrated form. Thus, the study of this type of marriage practices and relationships can help us understand these processes and uncover their key features and consequences. The article considers mixed marriages, despite all their specific features, the same family unit as monoethnic marriages, so sociological analysis of mixed marriages is unlikely to be radically different from the study of ‘traditional’ marriages, although should take into account sensitivity of ethnic issues. The authors summarize interpretations of the concept ‘family’ in interdisciplinary perspective and sociological tradition; based on actually very few studies of interethnic marriages and the results of their own survey, the authors identify key reasons and problems of mixed marriages, their types and perceptions in contemporary Russia.

RUDN Journal of Sociology. 2015;15(3):45-62
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Ethnic identity in a globalizing world (on the example of the Republic of Chad youth)
Bronzino L.Y., Adama Abdul -.
Abstract

The identity questions have become one of the leading topics in the contemporary social science due to the emergence of a number of problems that complicate self-identification processes in the (post) modern society. The new status of the modernity - ‘fluid’ - has led to the fact that identity as a result of membership in a social group lost its static nature: everyday every individual has to take responsibility to choose his life direction and, respectively, to change his identification as a member of a specific community. Globalization has also changed the process of ethnic identity formation, which, on the one hand, turns into a protest aiming at preserving one’s uniqueness in a globalizing world; on the other hand, ethnic identity is a result of the already accomplished globalization revealing all its transformations. Thus, aggravation of interethnic conflicts related to the identity issues is most common in multiethnic societies. The article presents the results of the empirical research of the ethnic identity of young people in Chad. The interviews conducted by the author revealed the leading type of ethnic identity among young people in Chad and its specific features in new life conditions.

RUDN Journal of Sociology. 2015;15(3):63-69
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Sociological aspects of medicine and population unbalanced relationships in contemporary Russia
Semina T.V.
Abstract

The article considers sociological aspects of one of the most complex and urgent problems of the contemporary Russian society - the growing imbalance of social relationships between patients and doctors. Undoubtedly, in medicine each group - doctors and patients - is an element of poorly structured social network and an integral part of all types of interaction in the prevention and treatment of various diseases. This system of relationships is institutionalized and complex in itself, but social and economic processes can complicate or facilitate its functioning. Unfortunately, the growth of social differentiation in the Russian society in the last decades had a negative impact on all spheres of life including healthcare. Under given conditions and social stratification trends each group - doctors and patients - has developed specific value orientations as a kind of professional and personal quintessence of the current fundamental values. In particular, dissatisfaction with the financial situation in the light of work efforts and high level of education explains why doctors consider their social status inadequate and are forced to satisfy their material needs with the help of illegal means. The author proposes some measures to reduce the imbalance of medicine and society relationships in the contemporary Russian society, which suggest changing traditional models of healthcare and conflict management through the purposeful influence on the subject and object of the unbalanced relationships.

RUDN Journal of Sociology. 2015;15(3):70-79
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Social media as an instrument for organizing mass riots in the United Kingdom in August 2011
Katkina A.N.
Abstract

Social networks such as Facebook and Twitter have recently become very popular and turned to be an effective instrument for achieving political goals. However, the social networks’ impact is rather ambivalent: on the one hand, social media form specific political actors and support self-organization and civil movements; on the other hand, social media reinforce destructive and aggressive manifestations with the pronounced criminal purposes, e.g. social media ability to disseminate information among large groups is used to organize mass riots. The article analyzes one of the recent and significant events largely provoked by the social networks - mass riots in the United Kingdom in August 2011 that were originally a reaction to the murder of M. Diggan by a police officer who tried to arrest him as a suspect in drug trafficking and possession of weapons. The way events developed into mass riots was the result of discussions in social media and use of social networks to coordinate joint actions of mass riots participants. The article provides a detailed description of the events and authorities’ actions to overcome the crisis and prevent such riots in the future, thus making some conclusions about the nature of social media impact on the politics.

RUDN Journal of Sociology. 2015;15(3):80-90
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Motives to choose ‘manager’ profession (the results of the survey in PFUR)
Puzanova Z.V., Semenova I.V.
Abstract

The article analyzes David McClelland’s theory of social needs and the perspectives of its application for identifying students’ motivation for choosing management professions. According to the theory of McClelland, in the motivational structure of personality there is always a dominant motive triggering actions. McClelland considers three basic motives to be such: motive of obtaining power, motive of achieving success and motive of affiliation. These motives reflect inner needs and aspirations of every person. The article analyzes three motives as factors affecting work activities and reflecting individual primary aims and goals in the professional sphere. The authors describe characteristic features of people with pronounced motivation; discuss the results of various studies based on the theory of social needs and other concepts aiming to identify the dominant motives of different groups of workers. The article presents the results of the study of the students’ basic motives to choose the profession ‘state and municipal management’ conducted in December 2014 at the Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia. The results of the survey were interpreted in the context of McClelland’s theory of social needs.

RUDN Journal of Sociology. 2015;15(3):91-104
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The influence of team members’ personal characteristics on the effectiveness of group management and social stability of organization
Chernykh A.B., Zaigraeva M.A.
Abstract

The authors consider issues of organizational management in terms of improving its economic efficiency and interpret personnel risks as potential losses or threats to the economic activities of enterprise. The article focuses on a special group of risks associated with individual characteristics and interpersonal interaction, i. e. social activities of team members within the group. As a rule, organizations use methods of socio-psychological diagnostics at the first step of candidates’ selection to create such an organizational structure that takes into account professional and personal characteristics and competencies of candidates as well as their predisposition to a certain type of activities. The authors consider the problem of candidates’ acceptance or rejection of a certain type of corporate culture prevailing in the enterprise, and at the same time team’s acceptance or rejection of candidates with certain cultural preferences. The second application for social-psychological research techniques, important for management practices, is keeping up the team active state and increasing its effectiveness through its human potential realization. The article presents the results of the study of groups with low social status focusing on their members’ individual characteristics. The authors propose methods to work with team members and groups as a whole that can stabilize social systems and develop techniques for managing personnel risks.

RUDN Journal of Sociology. 2015;15(3):105-114
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Specific features of the social innovations implementation in contemporary Russian organizations
Dudnik A.S.
Abstract

The scientific literature defines innovation as a novelty created with the latest scientific achievements and introduced to the market or implemented in practical activities, embodied in new goods (works, services) or processes. Despite a variety of literature on innovation, unfortunately, there is no unambiguous definition of the term, and this generates different problems such as determining the scope of innovative activities or the focus of business processes while implementing innovations, etc. This fact leads to a decrease in the efficiency of innovations and to mismatches of various stakeholders’ actions. The author believes that one of the reasons is the difference in approaches to the implementation of innovations in the theory and practice of social management and legal regulation. Therefore, to increase the efficiency of social innovations implementation in Russian organizations we have to choose a relevant approach from both theoretical and practical points of view acceptable for all stakeholders. The article identifies theoretical aspects of innovations based not only on managerial interpretation of innovations, but also on legal regulations, and provides some practical recommendations for implementing innovations in Russian organizations.

RUDN Journal of Sociology. 2015;15(3):115-128
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Social and cultural prerequisites for the development of managerial freedom in Russia and Europe: Comparative analysis
Zaytseva O.A.
Abstract

The sphere of management activities in contemporary organizations is undergoing through serious transformations; in particular, robotic production is becoming more common. In this situation, the importance of studying managers’ work at all organizational levels grows, especially at the middle level for its managers form the core of organization as having deep knowledge and experience, as well as regulating all daily operations. Managerial freedom in the work of middle level managers is a new response to the demands for innovative activities and competitiveness every organization faces. At the same time, globalization leads to the partnership between Russian and European companies, however, effectiveness of such relations depends largely on understanding social and cultural foundations of management. The article considers social and cultural prerequisites of managerial freedom in Russia and Europe focusing on the differences of Russian and European history of entrepreneurship, its backgrounds, key actors and functions of managers in former times. The author shows specific features of social institutions that formed the basis for the development of the business world and determined the very essence of managerial freedom.

RUDN Journal of Sociology. 2015;15(3):129-139
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Book review: I vanov V.N. Sociology in USSR. Notes of the Institute Director. - M.: IPO «U Nikitskih vorot», 2014. - 288 p.
Narbut N.P.
Abstract
RUDN Journal of Sociology. 2015;15(3):140-142
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Political correctness, postmodernism and neotribalism: A sociological perspective on ideology, instruments and consequences of ‘the revolt of the minorities’: Book Review: Ionin L.G. The Revolt of the Minorities. - M.; SPb.: Universitetskaya Kniga, 2013. - 237 p.
Trotsuk I.V., Sokhadze K.G.
Abstract
RUDN Journal of Sociology. 2015;15(3):143-151
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In memory of the colleague
- -.
Abstract
RUDN Journal of Sociology. 2015;15(3):152-153
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Authors
- -.
Abstract
RUDN Journal of Sociology. 2015;15(3):154-155
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