No 4 (2014)

Articles
John Foran’s sociology of revolution: From historical sociology to the sociological imagination
Karasyev D.Y.
Abstract
The article considers J. Foran’s sociology of revolution through the stages of evolution of his theoretical and methodological views and the works representing them. The trajectory of Foran’s sociology of revolution reflects in many respects the development of the contemporary comparative and historical sociology of revolution: from the fundamental historical research of a few classical cases to the quantitative study of an extremely wide range of examples and after that to the prediction of the ‘revolution-like’ events’ in future. According to Foran, there are three ways to consider the future of revolutions: 1) the analysis of the revolutions of the past, 2) the look into the future in terms of the existing theories, 3) the sources of sociological imagination. These three methods correspond to three stages in Foran’s sociology of revolution: after conducting the historical study of the situation and revolutions in Iran, the comparative analysis of 39 revolution events in the Third World countries and then an attempt to imagine patterns of future revolutions on the example of Zapatistas’ revolution in Mexico in 1994 and the struggle for global justice at the beginning of the XXI century. Despite the evolution of the subject and methodology of the theory, the concept ‘political culture of opposition’ remained the central category of Foran’s model. This complex notion describes such social process when under the influence of material and discursive elements the revolutionaries found out some common discourse that prescribed them to participate in collective actions to change their societies. Thus, Foran states that revolutions are the product of both structural conditions and human agency and the latter is due to both political-economic and cultural reasons. The cultural-structural character of Foran’s approach makes it relevant for the study of contemporary revolutionary events.
RUDN Journal of Sociology. 2014;(4):5-17
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An attempt to define contemporary religious representations and practices: Danièle Hervieu-Léger
Yatsutsenko Y.V.
Abstract
The contemporary social reality is marked by a considerable change of religious views and practices: the religion itself becomes a worldview option; the religious individuals are more autonomous from the religious institutions; individuals get an opportunity to construct and approve different beliefs; the religious identity transmission mechanisms weaken; the privatized religious ethics is legitimized outside the religious institutions. Danièle Hervieu-Léger’s theory presents one of the ways for the sociological conceptualization of the problems mentioned. The concept ‘bricolage’ is used by Hervieu-Léger as a technical explanation of the religious life deinstitutionalization. We define the bricolage as an individual practice that overcomes system-imposed modes and means of production, as an activity based on a random set of available elements. Hervieu-Léger notes that the main feature of the contemporary religiosity is the bricolage freedom, i.e. the freedom to construct an individual religious ethics. However, such a mode of social control does not necessarily lead to religious negligence or radical individualism. French sociologist believes that the generational transfers of religious identity are weakening and the in-out decisions in religious communities are becoming easier. According to Hervieu-Léger, such a movement itself becomes the main behavioral motif for contemporary religious agents for it is responsible not only for the individual religious pursuit, but for the collective construction and exchange of the religious experience.
RUDN Journal of Sociology. 2014;(4):18-32
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‘Protodesign’: The genesis of design, or a few things that changed the world
Bronzino L.Y., Sviridov R.A.
Abstract
The concept ‘design’ that has recently become popular in everyday discourse and among social scientists has not received an unambiguous interpretation. The ambiguity of the concept is due primarily to the complexity of the interpretation of very diverse social practices, the history of which can be traced to the earliest cultural practices of the humankind. This gives the design a universal character and exceptional significance: through the prism of this concept, we can trace the evolution of human culture as a whole. Thus, the study of the concept ‘design’ in the article is based on this theoretical background and emphasizes its basic feature - projectivity genetically related to the project thinking as an essential attribute of human activity. The logic of the article corresponds to the sequence of the main historical stages of the project thinking formation marked by specific inventions. Such an approach allows us to trace the evolution of the design revealing its genesis in the connection with the key moments of the industrial development and scientific and technological revolution as well as the most important social events that contributed to the development of the modern society urban environment and predetermined its social structure.
RUDN Journal of Sociology. 2014;(4):33-43
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Congratulations on the anniversary
- -.
Abstract
RUDN Journal of Sociology. 2014;(4):44
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Stability in the country as a key condition for the progressive improvement of the quality of life in the new independent states
Rotman D.G.
Abstract
Based on the sociological data the article determines the causes of emergence of social tensions in the country and society, estimates the reliance of such situations on the population’s satisfaction with the living conditions, and argues the importance of maintaining the sustainable stability for the sustainable development of the state. The author aims to build a comprehensive rating of ‘social concern’ of the post-Soviet states’ citizens as a sum of the following empirical indicators: economic problems of individuals and their families; chances to ensure decent living conditions (health care, access to education, security, etc.); environmental problems; political problems. The article also reconstructs an ideal-typical model of social transformation of post-communist societies consisting of three main stages: searching, stabilization, sustainable development. Based on the analysis of empirical data, the author states that some transitional societies at the turn of the third millennium (for instance, Russia, Belarus, and Kazakhstan) have reached the stabilization phase. The author proposes to assess the level of social stability with the indicator of social tension obtained through the ‘many-stage data grouping’. The empirical data presented in the article are the results of the projects of the Center for Sociological and Political Studies of the Belarusian State University.
RUDN Journal of Sociology. 2014;(4):45-57
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Social activity of the youth: Approaches to the assessment of forms, motives and factors in the contemporary Russian society
Trotsuk I.V., Sokhadze K.G.
Abstract
Despite the fact that the social activity of young people has become actual and popular topic of the official and scientific discourses, the methodological aspects of its sociological study still do not attract the necessary research attention. The authors note the popularization of the subject in the sociologically relevant way in the mid-1960s and in the first part of the article summarize the conceptual and categorical apparatus for its study, in particular, the diversity of approaches to the definition of the ‘social activity’, its motives (socially significant needs primarily), subjective ‘dimension’, structural levels, types of goals (substantive, procedural, pragmatic and altruistic, collective or personal, etc.) as well as its actual forms (personal, group, institutional, and others) and internal and external factors of its development. The authors focus on the practical theory of reframing proposed by C. Clement and consider through it the results of national surveys conducted in Russia in recent years to assess the interpretations and the scope of the social activity of Russians in general and the youth in particular. Thus, the data show the minor involvement of citizens in social activities and its mainly declarative nature. The most important form of the youth social activity nowadays is the participation in the non-profit organizations, especially public unions, that is why the authors conclude the overview of the features and manifestations of the social activity of young people in the contemporary Russian society with the description of the types and functions of public associations, the basic analytical approaches to their study and the assessment of the true extent of their current activity.
RUDN Journal of Sociology. 2014;(4):58-74
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The study of SMM as a virus strategy in the media space
Mouzykant V.L.
Abstract
The article describes the phenomenon of social marketing in the Internet that has changed the idea of the relationships between the addresser and the addressee in the social networks. The author analyzes the typology, genesis and consequences of the virus marketing in social networks from the perspective of the sociological analysis of media. The article considers the influence of the Internet on the behavior of the Russians, the methods of measuring the impact of the emerging new media. The author identifies different strategies in the SMM-market, such as creative content, digital-projects, media planning, simple content, government, close-to-government and educational projects. ROMIR within the GemuisAudience project conducted a research among 20 thousand Russian respondents to monitor their behavior in the sphere with the help of special sensors that identify Internet preferences of the Russians. The first results of the project revealed a trend - the more interesting the content the more likely the user is to share the app with his friends.
RUDN Journal of Sociology. 2014;(4):75-85
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Cultural institutions’ re-branding strategies: Social factors and creative trends
Antonova V.N., Kirsanova J.A.
Abstract
This article considers new practices of cultural institutions re-branding. The authors are interested in these new practices from two points of view - as a way of creating and changing the image of a brand and as a technology of creative development of public institutions that supposes their adaptation to the modern life and its contemporary trends. The requirements to the infrastructure of the modern creative city are tightening and the culture houses of the Soviet type are losing their relevance among nowadays interactive platforms and entertainment centers. Thus, the article examines the role of the creative platforms in the socio-cultural urban space of Moscow focusing on the transformations of the culture houses that are taking place according to the cultural policy of the city management that uses technologies and methods of new creative industries. The authors state that the main problem today is that it is hard for the society to accept the new cultural centers as an alternative to the familiar leisure sites for they are strongly identified with the state, outdated and uninteresting places. Such new cultural centers and brands require a special approach focusing on the social factors - the authors show the way of its empirical application on the example of the re-branding of the cultural center ‘ZIL’.
RUDN Journal of Sociology. 2014;(4):86-95
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The social dimension of the Russian students’ life in the context of the European integration of the educational space: Methodological aspects of the research (on the example of PFUR)
Narbut N.P., Puzanova Z.V., Larina T.I.
Abstract
The set of mechanisms for the implementation of the idea of the single European space of higher education including the access to higher education, advice and guidance for the students, their material support, providing equal opportunities and social equality allows the majority of young people to achieve a high level of education and facilitates their personal self-realization. The social dimension as one of the areas of the Bologna process implementations was first announced in the context of mobility support and the strategy of lifelong learning, in the present time it is a complex system of social support for students including accommodation, medical care, nutrition and other social services. All these aspects of the social dimension of the students’ life have become the subject of the European research project Eurostudent taking place in 25 European countries. Russia for the first time took part in this project as an associate member: in the spring of 2014, we conducted a survey with the methodology of the international research project. The methodological issues of the project techniques are considered in the article as well as some conclusions based on the results of the survey conducted at the People’s Friendship University of Russia.
RUDN Journal of Sociology. 2014;(4):96-107
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Key features of the public associations and civil activists’ cooperation
Sokolov A.V.
Abstract
The article presents the results of the study of the public associations and civil society activists’ cooperation for solving social problems. The results of the expert survey in 12 regions of the Russian Federation show that the cooperation/coalition/partnership of public organizations, NGOs and civil society activists is an effective tool for solving social problems. The author identifies two main factors promoting interaction of public associations and civil activists: the interconnectedness of issues relevant for different organizations and activist groups as well as presence of strong leaders who can unite social organizations, NGOs and civil society activists. The research showed the main obstacles for the development of interaction in social activities: low level of initiative, limited resources, lack of a common goal, and the governing bodies’ opposition to the citizens’ activities. The article analyzes general features of coalitions of public organizations, NGOs and civil society activists (such as number of leaders and partners, principles of organization, etc.) as well as the factors responsible for the collapse of coalitions (low level of initiative and activity of citizens, solution of the problem that gave rise to the coalition, limited resources, conflicts inside the coalition, etc.).
RUDN Journal of Sociology. 2014;(4):108-121
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The essence of the concept ‘reputation of the power’ (the results of the sociological research)
Rozanova N.N.
Abstract
The new stage of the Russian statehood development in the direction of the stable democracy dictates the need for transition from the virtual political space to the real. The key element of this transition seems to be the formation not only of the positive image but also the reputation of the Russian power. There is a variety of approaches to the study of the image and reputation features of various political subjects in the scientific literature due to the multifaceted and complex character of these phenomena - an object of different sciences. However, the scientific research dictates the need for a precise and accurate interpretation of the notions of reputation and power with reference to the social reality. The author proposes a way to reveal key differences between the concepts ‘image’ and ‘reputation’ based on the analysis of a number of research approaches and the results of the sociological research of the regional power reputation in the Smolensk region. The articles systematizes the basic approaches to studying the image and reputation (in particular, of the power), specifies the empirical indicators of these concepts, indicates the author’s interpretation of these concepts and their regional dimension (‘reputation of the regional power’) through the eyes of the main subject of its assessment - the population of the Smolensk region.
RUDN Journal of Sociology. 2014;(4):122-134
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Healthy lifestyle: Perceptions and attitudes of students (the results of a focus group research)
Puzanova Z.V., Chekhovskiy I.V.
Abstract
The article presents the results of the research conducted in December 2013 at the Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia with the method of focus groups. The study aimed at identification not only the differences in understanding healthy lifestyles among students and their attitudes to a healthy lifestyle, but also its components, obstacles for the realization and opportunities to overcome them. The focus group research was just another stage of the project aimed at studying health and healthy lifestyles as values and the characteristics of the formation and manifestation of a health-preserving behavior. Despite many opportunities to motivate a health-preserving behavior among students, we still see obstacles for its formation due to both social and cultural characteristics. The study revealed that the value of health at this stage of life is rather declarative: only a small percentage of respondents are fully aware of the necessity of a health-preserving behavior and do really adopt a healthy lifestyle. The basic factors influencing the formation of the healthy lifestyle among the youth are the family, social environment and mass media. The respondents, in particular, confirm the significant impact of their social circle on the commitment to the bad habits as well as to healthy hobbies. The main factors hindering the healthy lifestyles among students include lack of free time, welfare, Internet addiction, lack of sufficient motivation and self-organization.
RUDN Journal of Sociology. 2014;(4):135-150
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Social aspects of the innovation management in organization
Neverov A.V., Dudnik A.S.
Abstract
The unstable economics as well as difficulties associated with lack and scarcity of human, financial and investment resources cause the tightening of requirements to the organizational management. The market economy demands a systematic approach to the management based on the strategic planning combined with an opportunity to make situational decisions. Such management models are difficult to use for they require a lot of resources the lack of which is usually a marker of a crisis situation. That is why at the moments of the so called ‘market turbulence’ and socio-economic reduction indicators, organizations have to reduce the costs of management and social development that helps in a short-term perspective, but in the future can destabilize the organization and make it more vulnerable to the new ‘wave of crisis’. One of possible ways to preserve organizational stability is to apply innovative methods of management. Currently, the problems of innovation management are widely reported in the scientific and business literature focusing on the creation and implementation of the management innovations technologies that promise the greatest dividends, while the authors rarely consider the impact of the innovative management on employees’ social well-being, social development and social capital focusing on the staff resistance to innovations despite the fact that any innovation produces profound changes in the system of social management. Thus, the article aims at the theoretical study of innovation management factors’ impact on the social aspects of organizational life and states that the implementation of innovations into the organization management without taking into consideration their possible consequences for the social state of the organization in the long run is totally unacceptable.
RUDN Journal of Sociology. 2014;(4):151-160
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Methodology for studying social advertising: A sociological aspect
Kalmykov S.B.
Abstract
The article describes the author’s dynamic processual methodology for the sociological study of social advertising that combines the multiversion paradigmatic approach, legitimization procedures, methodological principles of interconnection, multilevel analysis and the principles of sociological data formalization developed by P. Lazarsfeld. The author explains the multi-stage strategy of the methodology and the research procedures that provide new sociological knowledge about the processes of social advertising. The first stage involves analysis of the social advertising as a number of institutional, communicative, socio-cultural and socio-technological processes. The second stage consists of the development of the substantive aspects of social advertising dynamics and its dependence on the features of different socio-demographic groups. The third stage of the methodology includes a comparative analysis of the social advertising theoretical and empirical aspects and the subsequent assessment of its fundamental and applied capabilities. The author identifies two types of research practices: the first one consists of three levels of complexity - the first one is to design the social advertising categories and concepts; the second one requires a higher level of generalization; the third one supposes justification of the universal categorization and the social advertising conceptualization for different social areas as well as a comparative analysis of the theory of the social advertising impact developed by O.O. Savel’eva with the research results for the aims of the promotion of the sociology of advertising. The article concludes with the demonstration of the proposed methodology universality for different spheres of social reality.
RUDN Journal of Sociology. 2014;(4):161-170
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A brief course of sociology by a criminologist: Christie N. The Density of Society / Transl. from Norwegian by E. Rachinskaya; ed. by Ya.I. Gilinskiy. - St. Petersburg: Aletheia, 2014
Trotsuk I.V.
Abstract
RUDN Journal of Sociology. 2014;(4):171-181
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Authors
- -.
Abstract
RUDN Journal of Sociology. 2014;(4):182-183
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