Vol 21, No 2 (2021)

Contemporary society: the urgent issues and prospects for development
Russian students about learning under the covid-19 pandemic: Resources, opportunities and assessment of the distance learning
Aleshkovski I.A., Gasparishvili A.T., Krukhmaleva O.V., Narbut N.P., Savina N.E.
Abstract

The covid-19 pandemic has made the whole world face specific challenges that required urgent decisions on how to organize the work of social institutions, including education, in this new reality. Since March 2020, national education systems all over the world have been adapting their activities to the quarantine measures and have been switching to distance learning. In varying degrees, these changes affected all levels of education - from preschool to higher and postgraduate education. However, the tasks to be solved differed by the level of education. The article presents the results of the comparative analysis of the activities of the Russian higher-educational institutions based on their students estimates - during the forced distance learning in the spring of 2020 and during the planned switch to such a format in the fall of 2020. The article is based on the surveys of the Russian students conducted in June 2020 (N=31423) and February 2021 (N=32358). The study was conducted to test the hypotheses that negative estimates of distance learning and rejection of such a format by many students in the spring of 2020 changed in the fall of 2020. The results of two surveys show that Russian universities have passed through the stage of digital transformation which affected both the resources for organizing the educational process and the competences of the teaching staff. The experience of work in the difficult and unpredictable conditions of the pandemic changed the public opinion from the negative perception of distance learning to understanding and accepting its positive features for the education system and its actors. The introduction of digital technologies is an objective and inevitable process in the development of the educational sphere and the country.

RUDN Journal of Sociology. 2021;21(2):211-224
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Student assessments of the higher education (on the example of the monitoring survey of the MPEI graduates)
Ivleva M.L., Kurilov S.N., Dagtcmaa B.
Abstract

The authors make an attempt of solving the task of providing the students with a possibility to assess the quality of the organization and content of the higher education. The authors consider the Russian and Western practices of engaging students in such assessing activities as one of their main actors. The article identifies the most common forms of student participation in ensuring the quality of education, some of its problem areas and unused resources. Thus, the basic form of student participation in evaluation and control activities in the university is to fill out various questionnaires in order to express their assessments and opinions about the courses taken during the training period. The authors considered some relevant practices of foreign and Russian universities, in particular, the experience of the RUDN University, North-Eastern Federal University, Institute of Quality Student Commissioners of the Kemerovo branch of the RSTEU, and the Center for Applied Sociological Research of the MPEI. The article presents the results of the sociological study of opinions and assessments of the MPEI graduates in technical and social-humanitarian areas, which was conducted in 2017-2019 on the issues of basic and professional training. The monitoring study revealed a number of factors that affect the quality of practical training at the university, which allowed the authors to identify the key problems of marketing educational services by the contemporary university and to show the need to study the issues of self-realization of graduates, their demand in the labor market, and to search for new criteria for assessing the quality of higher education. The authors believe that we need a new ideology of quality management in the higher education, and propose some conditions and measures that would ensure the high quality of the higher education in Russia.

RUDN Journal of Sociology. 2021;21(2):225-238
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Schoolchildren about STEM professions: General and gender-specific representations
Kolesnikova E.M., Kudenko I.A.
Abstract

The persistent gender imbalance in the labor market - both in Russia and globally - is largely formed during the school years as the period of the development of professional preferences and human capital. The article presents the views of schoolchildren on various aspects of the STEM school subjects, including their common interests, attitudes to the STEM teaching, their role in choosing a career related to STEM, and the ideas of schoolchildren about jobs related to STEM. The authors refer to the Soviet experience of overcoming gender inequality in the labor market, in particular, by helping women to get the industrial and specialized technical education. The results of the search study show that for the majority of girls, especially those not engaged in special education projects focused on STEM, school profile lessons do not contribute to changing gender representations of professions. The authors argue that to change these gender representations we need classes focused not on the academic achievements but on the practical features of professions that are in demand in the labor market. Such an experience is necessary for it is impossible to choose the most promising career if you do not know about it or if you are convinced that you would not cope with a particular job. At the same time, the schoolchildren should understand that some of today’s professions have very short future, for instance, due to the inevitable consequences of automation. The schoolchildren’s positioning of all professions as gender-neutral can be used for a positive study of career-related challenges and for designing career-guidance activities as taking into account those aspects that are essential for girls and boys, even if at the moment they are perceived negatively.

RUDN Journal of Sociology. 2021;21(2):239-252
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Corruption: institutional features, social determinants and consequences
Egoryshev S.V., Egorysheva E.A.
Abstract

The article considers the nature, causes, determinants and consequences of corruption. As a form of social deviation of a delinquent nature and as a type of crime, corruption has a destructive effect on all spheres of social life, primarily on their management - by redistributing their resources and by replacing social values and goals with group and personal ones. Corruption affects not only states but also international affairs; therefore, we need active opposition to corruption from the world community: International Anti-Corruption Day was included in the calendars of 187 countries including Russia. According to the World Bank, the annual global amount of bribes is 1 trillion US dollars. For many countries, corruption has become a threat to national security, which makes them seek and use effective and often radical measures to counter corruption, and to conduct comprehensive studies of corruption as an objective and widespread social phenomenon. The authors consider corruption on the basis of an interdisciplinary methodology with an emphasis on institutional and structural-functional approaches, which allowed to identify institutional features of corruption, its structure, functions and social consequences, and to assess the efficiency of anti-corruption measures. The article is based on the statistical data on the dynamics of corruption in Russia and the Republic of Bashkortostan in 2012-2020, and on the results of the sociological survey conducted by the Institute for Strategic Studies of the Republic of Bashkortostan in 2020 according to the methodology for assessing corruption described in the Decree of the Government of the Russian Federation. The survey focused on the problems in the interaction of citizens and employees of state and municipal authorities (‘everyday’ corruption), and in the interaction of authorities and business (‘business’ corruption) (the corresponding samples were 814 and 300 people). The study of ‘everyday’ corruption was conducted by individual formalized interviews, of ‘business’ corruption - by the online survey on the Google Forms.

RUDN Journal of Sociology. 2021;21(2):253-264
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Dynamics of labor migration in the Republic of Bashkortostan
Akhmetova G.F.
Abstract

The article considers some indicators of the widespread social phenomenon in Russia - labor migration, which, according to the data for 2019, involves about 2.9 million Russians, or 4% of the employed population. These are internal labor migrants who temporarily work outside their regions. This type of labor migration of Russians has common features with temporary employment in the United States, Canada, and Australia (long distance commuting - LDC), fly-in/fly-out - FIFO). The empirical basis of the article consists of the statistical data (results of the labor force survey by the Federal State Statistics Service for 2011-2019) and the results of sociological research conducted in the region with a high level of shift employment - the Republic of Bashkortostan - in 2015-2019. The statistical data prove regional differences in the Russian shift employment: the majority (72%) of internal labor migrants live in a third of the regions with high and medium levels of temporary labor migration; in some regions, the level of temporary labor migration decreases. The sociological data show different involvement in shift employment depending on place of residence, gender and age, marital status and level of education. The same social-territorial and social-demographic features are evident at the national level. At the federal level, internal labor migration, as a tool for social-economic development, helps to solve the problem of labor shortage in certain areas and sectors of economy; therefore, such labor migration is supported by legal acts. At the regional level, it decreases the labor and demographic potential of the regions that ‘provide’ labor migrants. To preserve the economic and demographic potential and to strengthen the competitiveness of such regions, we need to develop regional labor markets and labor mobility within regions.

RUDN Journal of Sociology. 2021;21(2):265-278
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Rural-urban migration on the Crimean Peninsula
Gusakov T.Y.
Abstract

Despite the wide popularity of the Crimean region, its scientific descriptions are full of gaps. In the Soviet period, the research was limited by the unspoken prohibitions on the study of social processes and by the absence of a strong scientific school. After the collapse of the USSR, the Crimean region was considered only in the works on social aspects of migration and on artificial transformations of the ethnic-confessional composition of the population. The change in the status of the Crimean Peninsula in 2014 made this region interesting for the Russian science: there are many recent articles on the features of the social-economic development of the peninsula, but a number of issues in the life of Crimea are still poorly understood. One of them is the migration on the peninsula: the historical ethnic migrations are sufficiently described but not the contemporary population movements. Historically, migration processes have played an important role in the social-economic development of Crimea. However, until recently, external migrations were the driver of this development, while since the beginning of the 21st century, migration movements within the peninsula have played this role, and their features should be taken into account in planning and financing the rural development. Rural areas of Crimea remain agrarian-overpopulated; therefore, it is necessary to identify areas promising for capital investment and areas that soon will be depopulated due to the lack of opportunities for human and social capital. The author considers the population exchange between urban and rural areas as an important factor for the demographic situation, and focuses on the reasons and features of the spatial mobility and migration of the Crimean population based on the analysis of statistical data and transport links between the city and the countryside.

RUDN Journal of Sociology. 2021;21(2):279-295
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New villagers: motives and factors for moving from urban to rural areas
Ovchintseva L.A.
Abstract

In developed countries, along with urbanization, the opposite process - ruralization or deurbanization - is becoming increasingly noticeable. Ruralization is not only the movement of townspeople to the countryside, but also the development of villages and the increasing importance of rural areas as a place to live and work. Townspeople make the decision to move by comparing the advantages and disadvantages of living in urban and rural areas, and non-economic motives (the desire to get closer to nature, to find one’s roots, to live in silence, without haste, to eat natural products, etc.) play an important role in this decision. Among economic motives, the difference in the cost of urban and rural real estate and of life in general is the most important motive, i.e., families, especially young and large, can improve their living conditions by moving to the countryside. The study, the results of which are presented in the article, aimed at identifying those groups of townspeople that tend to resettlement, their motives, and factors pushing people to leave cities and facilitating/hindering resettlement to rural areas. The research is based on the study of special literature on the topic and on the data of the survey of resettled townspeople and experts in ruralization. Unlike most publications on ruralization, the author focuses on the positive aspects of the resettlement of townspeople to the countryside and insists on the removal of administrative barriers that prevent ruralization, because the resettlement of townspeople to the countryside does not have a negative impact on the city and is compensated by the influx of people from the countryside, who want to get education or a new profession.

RUDN Journal of Sociology. 2021;21(2):296-310
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Domestic sexual child abuse: Social and social-cultural aspects
Puzanova Z.V., Filippov V.M., Simonova M.A., Larina T.I.
Abstract

The ratification of the Lanzarote Convention by Russia in 2013 entails several issues that cannot be resolved without the help of social-humanitarian sciences. Information from sociology, psychology, and jurisprudence has been used to create a concept for the empirical study of the domestic violence against children - to improve the implementation of the Convention in Russia. The concept considers two aspects of the problem - social and social-cultural. The article presents the Russian experience of how the provisions of the Council of Europe Convention on the Protection of Children against Sexual Exploitation and Sexual Abuse are implemented. The authors analyze statistical data on the number of families in which a sexually abused child is brought up; the number of abortions and childbirths by minors; the number of minors in educational colonies; the work of the children’s helpline; the number of mediation services; the number of social service organizations for families and children; the number of professionals working with children in programs aimed at preventing and protecting children from sexual exploitation and abuse; the number of organizations providing psychological-pedagogical and medical-social assistance; the number of specialized multifunctional centers providing assistance to families and child victims of sexual abuse; the number of specialized ‘green’ rooms for investigating crimes related to minors; the number of specialists accompanying minors who have come into conflict with the law at all stages of the investigation and court proceedings; the number of professionals trained under the Child Sexual Violence Protection Program and now assisting families and child victims of violence. The article will be useful for readers who study the implementation of the Lanzarote Convention and the issues of child sexual abuse and domestic violence.

RUDN Journal of Sociology. 2021;21(2):311-321
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Social-psychological reasons for the spread of the“AUE” subculture (hidden factors of the problem)
Khagurov T.A., Chepeleva L.M.
Abstract

The article identifies the deep causes of the new wave of minors’ criminalization in the Russian society. The authors considered the expert opinions on this issue and found them inconsistent; described the main forms of behavior associated with the adoption of criminal values - primary, game, and re-criminalization which usually have different social localization; summarized the historical aspects of adolescent criminalization in the Russian society and its social-cultural factors. Based on the analysis of the official statistics and the results of the empirical studies conducted in 2019-2020 within the project “Deep causes of teenage (neo)criminalization in contemporary Russia” supported by the RFBR, the authors assess the scale of real and virtual criminalization, features of legal outlook, social-psychological well-being, and worldview of criminalized and ‘ordinary’ teenagers. In addition to the traditionally identified causes of criminalization (social-economic and cultural-educational inequality, deprivation, territorial-geographical specificity, etc.), the authors consider social-cultural factors: first, violations in socialization and child-parental relations - as leading to the deprivation of the need for love and recognition of minors by their parents and to the attempts to compensate this deprivation destructively, with criminal practices; second, the types of minors’ heroes, which determine the normative and gender inversion and the spread of the criminal subculture - as a source of the surrogate pseudo-masculine discourse. The authors make a conclusion that the prevention of minors’ criminalization should be based on psychological-pedagogical and social-cultural technologies, the main actors of which are the family, school and state information policy, while the normative-legal technologies of social control, the actors of which are administrative and law enforcement agencies, should focus on the crime-deterrent function.

RUDN Journal of Sociology. 2021;21(2):322-339
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Sociological lectures
Moral education of students in the contemporary society
Tsvyk V.A., Tsvyk I.V.
Abstract

With the advancement of the contemporary society to the stage of global digitalization, the issues of personality education, its means and methods are becoming increasingly important. The strategy of Russia’s scientific-technological development presupposes, among other things, the formation of certain ideological and axiological priorities, in accordance with which the value characteristics of the information society change and reproduce. Moral education is a purposeful development of the personal moral culture: moral activity, system of values, moral feelings and behavior that corresponds to the ideals and principles of humanistic morality. Moral activity as an important personal quality in the information society presupposes an internal need for continuous moral improvement, a desire to creatively set and solve new, increasingly complex tasks of the technological development. The development of such moral activity of the student also means his ability to choose actions on the basis of the contemporary trends of the dynamic social development, and to choose actions that are the most appropriate for a specific situation. The organization of moral education at the university consists of two main interrelated directions: moral education and teaching students the skills of moral behavior. Complex activities of the university serve not only as a means of moral education but also as its condition, which requires their inclusion in the educational process and purposeful organization. The efficiency of moral education at the university depends on the system of influence on students, and its main components are as follows: ethical education and teaching ethical disciplines; development of sustainable traditions of corporate culture (mission of the university, system of life values, ethical codes of students and teachers, etc.); ethical orientation of general-theoretical and professional disciplines; moral-educational components in the organization of the educational process; non-learning activities with students, labor education, volunteer activities, etc.

RUDN Journal of Sociology. 2021;21(2):340-353
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On the origins of the methodology of social knowledge in Russia: A.S. Lappo-Danilevsky and contemporary discussions
Vladimirov P.A., Lebedeva A.V.
Abstract

The article considers those aspects of the development of sociological knowledge in Russia that were determined by the scientific and organizational activities of A.S. Lappo-Danilevsky (1863-1919). His contribution to the development of the Russian social and humanitarian thought is associated mainly with the development of the foundations of history, historiography and source studies, which is widely admitted in scientific works. However, Lappo-Danilevsky’s contribution to the development of sociology, to the identification of the specifics of its subject and to the creation of a model of systemic courses on the historical reconstruction of sociological knowledge are still widely discussed. The authors consider the creative component of Lappo-Danilevsky’s legacy and the strategy he developed for creating an interdisciplinary methodology for social sciences. The article aims at describing his contribution to the institutionalization of Russian sociology, which allows not only to clarify the origins of social knowledge in Russia, but also to actualize Lappo-Danilevsky’s legacy. The authors pose new questions and problematize the research potential of the works of Russian scientists at the turn of the 20th century, which has prospects for supplementing the history and methodology of sociology. The description of the activities of Lappo-Danilevsky - from the development of the institutional foundations of Russian sociology to the clarification of the methodological principles of social knowledge - raises the question of the influence of positivism and neo-Kantianism on the scientific community. On the other hand, the study of the scientific and organizational activities of Lappo-Danilevsky allow to expand the field of history and methodology of sociology by supplementing it with a description of the institutionalization of sociology in Russia. The study of the foundations of sociological knowledge emphasizes three points: creation of methodology, separation from related disciplines, and acceptance of the historical component in the development of academic sociology. The article also mentions contemporary discussions which consider the sociological legacy of Lappo-Danilevsky not only as a historical reconstruction of the development of social knowledge, but also in the interdisciplinary perspective of contemporary sociology.

RUDN Journal of Sociology. 2021;21(2):354-364
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Complex concepts with varying connotations: In search for conceptual definitions
Trotsuk I.V.
Abstract

One of the fundamental challenges for sociology is the interpretation of its key terms, which is determined by the fact that many words of everyday language and scientific discourse are the same despite implying a much higher level of generalization as sociological categories. Certainly, such challenges are more typical for the empirical research - when sociologists turn their theoretical concepts into sets of empirical indicators which have to be clear enough for the respondent to understand and answer the questionnaire and for the sociologist to interpret these answers correctly. Nevertheless, the lack of generally recognized conceptual definitions is no less important, because the general picture of social reality is necessarily made of them (the society is described as either fair, consisting of trustworthy institutions that provide opportunities for being happy, or in the opposite statements). The article presents a possible reconstruction of the strategy that sociologists use in the search for conceptual definitions for such complex concepts with varying connotations as love, happiness, trust and justice. This strategy consists of two steps: focus on the macro-sociological dimension of the phenomena under study as determining its various manifestations and everyday interpretations (the key step in the study of love and happiness); and identification of objective and subjective indicators of the phenomenon under study (the key step in the study of trust and justice). For instance, in the study of love and happiness, there is the obvious micro-sociological perspective that implies personal responsibility for being happy and loved, and the hidden macro-sociological perspective that implies social standards for identifying and achieving love and happiness; trust is defined as a source of social order, cooperation, institutional, organizational and everyday interactions, which reduces the level of uncertainty; in the searches for the conceptual definition of justice, there are two main approaches - the first approach considers justice as one of many grounds for developing some theoretical model; the second approach reconstructs justice either as an ‘ideal’ political-philosophical model of social order or as a ‘means’ of the comparative analysis of its practical implementations.

RUDN Journal of Sociology. 2021;21(2):365-376
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Artificial sociality in the human-machine interaction
Komarova V., Lonska J., Tumalavičius V., Krasko A.
Abstract

The article aims at clarifying the concept ‘artificial sociality’ in the human-machine interaction by answering the question whether artificial sociality is a prerequisite or a result of this interaction. The authors conducted a logical analysis of the definitions of sociality and artificial sociality as presented in the scientific literature, and conducted an empirical study of artificial sociality in the human-machine interaction with three methods - comparison of means, correlation analysis and discriminant analysis. All three methods were used in the analysis of the same data: indicators of the potential of the human-machine interaction and G. Hofstede’s six cultural dimensions. With these measurements of culture, the authors interpreted empirically the degree of its ‘artificiality’ (based on the methodological assumption about the combination of ‘natural’ and ‘artificial’ in culture) which determines the development of artificial sociality. Based on the results of the application of three methods of statistical analysis, the authors conclude that in the contemporary world, there are both conditionally ‘artificial’ cultures that are the most favourable for the development of artificial (algorithmic) sociality and conditionally ‘natural’ cultures that hinder the development of artificial sociality. This type of sociality emerged under the development of writing and various methods of processing and storing information (catalogues, archives, etc.), i.e., long before the creation of machines. Artificial sociality is determined by the relative ‘artificiality’ of culture, and is a prerequisite rather than a result of the human-machine interaction.

RUDN Journal of Sociology. 2021;21(2):377-390
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Online communities in the study of political communication
Platonov K.A., Legostaeva N.I.
Abstract

Online communities in the study of political communication are a relatively new research field. Within its framework, independent thematic sections are developing, which in many respects remain fragmented due to the insufficient systematization. The article presents the results of the analysis and description of the research field of online communities in the context of political communication based on 60 English-language sources. This sample included publications on a wide range of issues: from the activity of official accounts and websites of politicians, parties, organizations to the user behavior and political discussions in virtual communities. The authors identified five large thematic groups that consider online communities in different research perspectives: classification of communities, study of their structure and elements, analysis of their strategies and tactics, functions and effects, and ‘life cycles’. The article describes the main features and internal structure of the identified thematic groups, considers approaches and methods for solving specific tasks in the study of actors, channels, practices and models of political communication. The authors also consider the technical factors of the formation of communities, differences in methods and units of analysis, types of political communicants. The authors make a conclusion about the sufficient ‘maturity’ of the research field and its thematic sections, which is combined with the differing popularity of research topics. Online communities represent a special public space which allows researchers to answer questions about the success of political leaders, movements and organizations, the effects of the viral spread of online protests and flash mobs, and the audience’s response to significant politicized issues. The authors identify two trends in the development of the corresponding methodology: strengthening practical orientation and increasingly complex techniques based on the machine algorithms for data analysis.

RUDN Journal of Sociology. 2021;21(2):391-402
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Project employee as a new type of personality
Barkov S.A., Romantseva E.E.
Abstract

Changes in the ways and forms of joint activity are usually evolutionarily: society changes and begins to ‘produce’ people capable of reproducing it. First of all, these are changes in the social role of the worker, which is performed today in a completely different coordinate system, under uncertainty and constantly changing ‘rules of the game’. There are the following new trends in the labor market: the disappearance of mass employment and development of precarious employment, the replacement of traditional labor relations with contractual ones, an increase in the worker’s autonomy, and the transformation of preferences in the field of career building. At the same time, the role and demand for project activities in almost all areas of society are increasing for such activities can satisfy the needs of the contemporary person, including his interaction with other people. The project is not just a mechanism for achieving a specific goal, but a universal way of organizing the life world, which contributes to the emergence of special types of social interaction and individual self-realization. The ‘project way of life’, project thinking, and project perception of reality are developing. The project as a social phenomenon becomes an organizing principle not only in professional activity, but also in everyday life. The authors use the method of sociological typification which consists of identifying a type (ideal, social) that combines the most important characteristics of people belonging to a particular group. To explain the combination of these characteristics, the authors consider the social context of their development. The conducted analysis allows to identify a new social type - the project worker with a special combination of professional and personal qualities.

RUDN Journal of Sociology. 2021;21(2):403-414
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Anniversaries
Anniversaries
Sharkov F.I.
Abstract

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RUDN Journal of Sociology. 2021;21(2):415-416
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