China’s human rights concept and its international promotion

Cover Page

Abstract


In the contemporary inter-state relations, human rights are not only a subject of disputes but also a lever of influence or pressure, a set of material and non-material structures, institutions and processes that determine the course of international life. Thus, human rights have become a full-fledged factor of international relations. In recent decades, the problem of human rights in China has been one of the most controversial issues in the relations of China and the Western countries. It is the specific nature of China’s human rights concept that determines contradictions between China and the West. The authors argue that the concept of human rights in China is based on the national tradition of the primacy of the state over the interests of an individual. China’s human rights concept rethinks Confucianism and Marxism emphasizing the need to respect the collective rights of the people to the socio-economic development as well as to ensure stability and security of the state and preserve its sovereignty. At the same time, as the authors point out, in recent years China, which traditionally takes a defensive position on the human rights issue in its international agenda, has promoted its own concept of human rights at the international level. In this regard, in the authors opinion, it is necessary to analyse the factors, which have affected the formation of China’s human rights concept, as well as the position of China’s authorities on this issue, and the purposes and tools of China's so-called ‘human rights diplomacy’. At the conclusion the authors summarize the basic features of China’s human rights concept, which form the theoretical basis of ‘human rights diplomacy’ of the PRC.

About the authors

A V Tsvyk

RUDN University (Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia)

Email: tsvyk-av@rudn.ru
Miklukho-Maklaya St., 6, Moscow, Russia, 117198

G I Tsvyk

RUDN University (Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia)

Email: tsvyk-gi@rudn.ru
Miklukho-Maklaya St., 6, Moscow, Russia, 117198

References

  1. A brief history of the modern human rights discourse in China. 1995. https://www.carnegiecouncil.org/publications/archive/dialogue/1_03/articles/515.
  2. Angle S. Human rights and Chinese Thought. A Cross-Cultural Inquiry Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 2002.
  3. Cheng Chung-Ying. Human rights in Chinese history and Chinese philosophy. Comparative Civilizations Review. 1979: 1 (1).
  4. China promotes human rights ‘with Chinese characteristics’. https://thediplomat.com/2017/ 12/china-promotes-human-rights-with-chinese-characteristics.
  5. Christensen D. Breaking the deadlock: Toward a socialist-confucianist concept of human rights for China. Michigan Journal of International Law. 1992; 13 (2).
  6. Cohen R. People’s Republic of China: The human rights exception. Human Rights Quarterly. 1987: 9 (4).
  7. Constitution of the People’s Republic of China. 2004. http://www.npc.gov.cn/englishnpc/ Constitution/node_2825.htm.
  8. De Bary W.T., Tu Weiming (Eds.). Confucianism and Human Rights. New York: Columbia University Press; 1998.
  9. Degterev D.A., Li Yan, Trusova A.A. Rossijskaya i kitajskaya sistemy okazaniya mezhdunarodnoj pomoshchi: sravnitelny analiz [Russian and Chinese systems of development cooperation: A comparative analysis]. RUDN Journal of International Relations. 2017; 17 (4) (In Russ.).
  10. Deklerck S. Human rights in China: tradition, politics and change. Studia Diplomatica. 2003; 6.
  11. Duering D. Human rights and the case of China. 2013. http://web.isanet.org/Web/Conferences/ HR2016-NYC/Archive/96592905-1017-43f0-bd8c-44f140396186.pdf.
  12. Edwards R. Human rights in contemporary China. 1934. https://archive.org/details/human rightsincon00edwa.
  13. Fortman В. Human rights in the context of international relations. 2011. http://www.e-ir.info/ 2011/07/30/human-rights-in-the-context-of-international-relations-a-critical-appraisal.
  14. Heilmann S. China, der Westen und die Menschenrechte. CHINA Aktuell. 1994; 23.
  15. Kent A. China, the United Nations, and Human Rights: The Limits of Compliance. University of Pennsylvania Press; 1999.
  16. Liu Junhai, Li Zhong (Eds.) 中国当代现正与人权热点 [Topical Issues on Constitutionalism and Human Rights in Present-Day China]. 昆仑出版社 [Kunlun Press]; 2011 (In Chinese).
  17. Mueller S. Konzeptionen der Menschenrechte im China des 20 Jahrhunderts. Mitteilungen des Instituts für Asienkunde. 1997; 274.
  18. Na Jiang. China and International Human Rights: Harsh Punishments in the Context of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. Springer Science & Business Media; 2013.
  19. New Progress in the Legal Protection of Human Rights in China. 2017. http://www.scio.gov.cn/ zfbps/32832/Document/1613604/1613604.htm.
  20. Peerenboom R. Confucian Harmony and Freedom of Thought in Confucianism and Human Rights. New York: Columbia University Press; 1998.
  21. Perry E. Chinese conceptions of ‘rights’: From Mencius to Mao - and now. Perspectives on Politics. 2008: 6 (1).
  22. Potter P. Selective adaptation and institutional capacity: Perspectives on human rights. China International Journal. 2006: 61 (2).
  23. Progress of Human Rights in China. 1995. http://www.china.org.cn/e-white/phumanrights19/ index.htm.
  24. Rabet D. Human rights and globalization: The myth of corporate social responsibility. Journal of Alternative Perspectives in the Social Sciences. 2009: 1 (2).
  25. Sceats S., Breslin Sh. China and the International Human Rights System. London: Chatham House; 2012.
  26. Shao Kaiyu. EU, China, and the concept of human rights: From a cultural relativism perspective. http://lup.lub.lu.se/luur/download?func=downloadFile&recordOId=4001011&fileOId=4001012.
  27. Statement by Liu Huaqiu, head of the Chinese delegation, at the World Conference on Human Rights in Vienna, June 17, 1993. https://heinonline.org/HOL/LandingPage?handle=hein.journals/ chnint1&div=40&id=&page.
  28. Sun Pinhua. Chinese Discourse on Human Rights in Global Governance. The Chinese Journal of Global Governance. 2016:1(2):192-213.
  29. Svensson M. Debating Human Rights in China - a Conceptual and Political History. Lanham: Rowman and Littlefield Publishers; 2002.
  30. Tiwald J. Confucianism and human rights. T. Cushman (Ed.) Handbook of Human Rights. Routledge; 2011.
  31. Tsvyk A.V. ‘Greater Europe’ or ‘Greater Eurasia’? In search of new ideas for the Eurasian integration. RUDN Journal of Sociology. 2018; 18 (2).
  32. Tsvyk A. Problema prav cheloveka i germano-kitajskie otnosheniya [The human rights issue and German-Chinese relations]. Sovremennaya Evropa. 2017; 1 (73) (In Russ.).
  33. Tsvyk V.A., Tsvyk I.V. Individual professionalization in information society: Challenges and prospects. RUDN Journal of Sociology. 2018; 18 (3).
  34. Weatherley R. The Discourse of Human Rights in China: Historical and Ideological Perspectives. New York: St. Martin’s Press; 1999.
  35. Wenhui Zhong. China’s human rights development in the 1990s. Journal of Contemporary China. 1995; 4 (8).

Statistics

Views

Abstract - 695

PDF (English) - 570

Cited-By


PlumX

Dimensions


Copyright (c) 2019 Tsvyk A.V., Tsvyk G.I.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

This website uses cookies

You consent to our cookies if you continue to use our website.

About Cookies