Vol 8, No 1 (2017)

Articles
Ol'ga Alekseevna Krylova: In memoriam
- -.
Abstract
RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2017;8(1):7-8
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E.D. Polivanov and mathematics: application-oriented vs. fundamental sciences
Kakzanova E.M.
Abstract
The purpose of the present article is to consider the issue whether there is common ground between mathematics and linguistics. The idea of article was prompted by the relation to mathematics of the famous Russian linguist E.D. Polivanov. Methodologically we gave the floor to a large number of mathematicians and philosophers and came to a conclusion that many scientists recognize division of sciences into application-oriented ones and fundamental. This division concerns, generally mathematics; similar ambitiousness is not typical of linguists. The mathematics oversteps now the limits of separate sciences including humanitarian ones covering the whole amount of ideas concerning the world and it’s transformation with it’s own concepts and methods. The conclusion drawn in the article concerns complementarity of sciences: no matter whether any discoveries and achievements are fundamental or application-oriented. What really matters, the science shouldn’t stand still and it’s achievements are used for the benefit of the mankind.
RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2017;8(1):9-16
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Communicative space as an important category of modern linguistics and linguocultural studies
Maslova V.A.
Abstract
The article demonstrates an attempt to show that a modern widespread term “communicative space” can be considered as a category of modern linguistics and cultural linguistic studies. In contrast to the grammatical categories that form a closed system, the category of communicative space is open and unlimited, although it has a regular means of expression.
RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2017;8(1):17-23
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Cross-cultural interaction in polylingual space of the region
Tameryan T.Y.
Abstract
Proceeding from the analysis of 236 texts of anecdotes in Russian and Osetian languages collected from different sources Inteernet sites, scripts, periodicles, etc., the aricle treats stereotypical features of text characters representing various subethnic groups, reveals the interethnic interaction of bearers of different dialects of the Osetian language, describes heterostereotypes, exicting in the North Osetian linguoculture. The set of anecdote texts inder analysis is circulating in both republics North Osetia - Alania and South Osetia., and the objects of irony and fun are bearers of dogors’ and irons’ dialects, and species of those dialects - kudars’ and ksns’ ones.
RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2017;8(1):24-32
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Term as a phenomenon of language and of culture (history of words and concepts)
Saprykina O.A.
Abstract
The article deals with the term as an object of the linguistic analysis. The author analyses the problem of the polysemy in the term including social and cultural connotations. The term is analyzed in the area of the formation of the scientific knowledge. The importance of the term in the elaboration of the academic discourse is revealed. The term as an object of linguistic analysis is correlated with the philosophical concept of the “term” that passed along the specific way of the development, especially in the Middle Ages, when the concept was in the heart of polemics between nominalism and realism.
RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2017;8(1):33-39
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Terminological and formal aspects of Eurolatinization
Lunkova L.N., Bukina L.M.
Abstract
The article is devoted to the current and broadening process widely discussed and more willingly named eurolatinising by Russian researchers. The growing number of neoclassical wordforming elements in European languages makes a strong and steady tendency, though popularly and mistakenly treated as an Anglo-Saxon expansion. The work suggests a discussion on the morphological status of such elements in general, and the particular facts of eurolatinising are selected in the French, English and Russian languages. Individual evaluation of the phenomenon is given as the point for further research.
RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2017;8(1):40-48
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Athropocentricity and ethnocentricity of languages and cultures within the frames of current science
Jioeva A.A.
Abstract
The article illustrates the anthropocentric phenomenon dealt within the frames of languages and cultures. The broadest understanding of this fact as a fixation and analysis of universal characteristics of both, settling upon the four basic principles of current science with the fundamental, integral, pragmatic and humanistic nature of the latter, allows the author to submit personal understanding of anthropocentrism - ethnocentrism dichotomy components f which are seen not such as opposing units, but as a creation of complementary and interrelated unit. The English language and culture phenomenon of PRIVACY and related issues (Nominality, Doublespeak, Understatement, Hedges, language and culture distancization view of the world) reveal the signs of Anglo-Saxon ethnocentrism. Yet, this phenomenon is seen by the author as an attribute of anthropocentric nature and an indication of the power and potentials of languages and cultures as such.
RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2017;8(1):49-56
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Translingualism and revitalization of culture
Bakhtikireeva U.M., Valikova O.A.
Abstract
The main task of the article is an attempt to understand the relationship between such processes as literary transligualism and cultural revitalization. The authors conclude that the national imagined needs adequate ways of representation by the tools of the dominant language. As the result this language is not only transforming, but also promoting the renewal of culture, “speaking” through it.
RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2017;8(1):57-63
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Varieties of wedding (festivities and celebrations) in the Kazakh and Russian cultures
Dzhusupov M.
Abstract
The article deals with the problem of the cultural identity based on the analysis and description of the notions toi in the Kazakh language and Russian wedding. The content of the dictionary entries of these notions are investigated on the material of explanatory and bilingual dictionaries; differences of their content and structure are revealed. The Kazakh toi is totality of festive, banquets, celebrities which are celebrated owing to a change of social status of human. The toi owing to marriage is one of the varieties of the Kazakh toi, which is equivalent to the notion Russian wedding. Other varieties of the Kazakh toi (16 from 19) are not found in the Russian language and culture. However, the word toi is given as the equivalent of the word wedding in the bilingual dictionaries. The inherent content of the Kazakh toi in comparison with Russian wedding differs with its varieties, customs and rites. The Kazakh toi owing to marriage consists of two wedding ceremonies - in bridegroom’s house and in bride’s house. The cultural identity of the Kazakh toi and Russian wedding have common features, and at the same time they are substantially different, i.e. there is difference in similarity. These differences are demonstrated in monolingual and bilingual researches and are the causes of linguocultural interferences.
RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2017;8(1):64-77
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Communikemes with «evaluative» meaning: etymological aspect (based on the English language material)
Melikyan V.Y., Melikyan A.V.
Abstract
The paper is dedicated to the description of principles, mechanisms and models of communikemes construction with «evaluative» meaning. The research is fulfilled on the basis of the English language. The results correlate with those that were obtained while studying this type of units on the basis of the Russian language. At that, the integral and differential characteristics are identified, which makes the research results significant not only in the aspect of special (Germanic) linguistics but the general linguistics as well. Communikemes are the separate class of syntactic phraseological units. They function in many languages including English. Communikemes are extremely active in the oral-colloquial communication form due to their anthropocentricity, expressivity and economy. The majority of communikemes are derivative. Many of their specific features are determined by the peculiarities of the productive base. That is why the communikemes research in the etymological aspect provides insight into the essence of their linguistic nature and the rules of speech realization. In the sphere of evaluative communikemes two basic models of their construction are established: the first one is based on the actual division of the sentence (it prevails), and the second one is logical-semantic one. In whole, the amount of evaluative communikemes in the English language is more than the communikemes with the positive/negative meaning. The evaluative communikemes in both languages are more «indifferent» to the character of the grammatical meaning of their productive base (in comparison with other semantic groups units). The evaluative communikemes study in the cognitive and psycholinguistic aspects (as well as other groups) is rather perspective.
RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2017;8(1):78-88
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Dictionary entry of the «Russian language evaluation dictionary» as a functional-semantic evaluation field in miniature
Markelova T.V., Tikhonova M.A.
Abstract
The article considers the dictionary entry of «The Russian Language Evaluation Vocabulary Dictionary» (under design), which presents a complex of lexicographical parameters, representing the specifics of evaluation semantics of different types of lexical means of expressing evaluation. The structure of dictionary entry and it’s linguistic content correlated with a functional-semantic evaluation field and confirm division of evaluation vocabulary by three types of evaluation signs.
RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2017;8(1):89-96
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Speech acts of praise and approval in the pedagogical discourse
Temirgazina Z.K., Bachurka M.S.
Abstract
Positively evaluative speech acts: praise and approval, the most common in the Russian-speaking pedagogical discourse, are investigated in this article. Similarities and differences of praise and approval are viewed here from a pragmatic, propositional points of view; approval contains in its propositional structure such a component as an argument of evaluation that does not exist in the structure of statements of praise. These two speech acts differ according to the parameters of intensity/non-intensity, emotionality/lack of emotionality, objectivity/subjectivity. Statements of praise and approval, homogeneous and heterogeneous, in sense of intention, are revealed, heterogeneous speech acts of praise are complicated by additional intentions of recommendations, advice, edification, criticism. The main features of the language representation of the analyzed speech acts are identified in this work. Direct speech acts of praise and approval are expressed by predicate of general and specific evaluation of intellectual and ethical character. Praise and approval may have a performative expression using verbs praise and approve. The statements of praise, approval may also have a short and full form.
RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2017;8(1):97-105
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Compliment as intentional state and a manipulative device
Kartashkova F.I., Maltseva N.B., Knyazeva A.A.
Abstract
The article discusses the communicative situation of complimentary utterances from the angle of the speech acts theory. Cognitive aspects of such utterances are being discussed. The analogy between intentional states and speech acts is shown. Special attention is given to the cognitive grounds of the phenomenon under discussion and to its display in communicative acts. It is also shown how communicators can manipulate with the help of compliments.
RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2017;8(1):106-114
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Literary space axiology: Geopoetic aspect
Novikova M.L.
Abstract
This article is the result of literary text structure research development. The special functions of the poetic language, its “separation” from all the usual communication types made it a very important object of analysis, attracting constant attention. The cross-discipline intersection of humanities, active interaction of poetics with close linguistic and humanitarian domains such as semiotics, linguistic logic analysis, cognitive science, axiology, linguistic philosophy, etc., determine the expansion of its study. The interdisciplinary research becomes especially important since it features one of the modern research characteristics - multiple paradigms that allow to analyze the object from different perspectives, in different fields of knowledge. Forming geopoetic images in a national culture is the result of different geographic regions exploration and conceptualization of these images in terms of axiology, exploring and having different experiences, materializing them in fiction through a representation of valuable meanings.
RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2017;8(1):115-123
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The expansion of literary norms and its historical foundation
Ivanova M.V.
Abstract
The article investigates the possibility of renewal and expansion of literary norms, its relevance to real speech in respect to e-media as a fundamentally new media with its specific functions and objectives. As a reason for this process the article offers some historical examples when new literary and speech reality leads to changes in the literary language.
RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2017;8(1):124-129
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The writer' s metalinguistic commentary and its role in text perception (exemplified by Russian XIX century literature)
Lomakina O.V.
Abstract
The article concerns all types of metalinguistic commentary given by the authors of Russian literature of the XIX century. The metalinguistic commentary makes the text understanding easier. The aim of this article is to analyze the metalinguistic methods of entry the foreign language inclusion, ideologemes, which are important for understanding the authors position and view of the world. The research shows all types of metalinguistic commentary which were defined based on different factors, namely according with the language used for translating the lexical unit; the sphere of usage; the authors semantization as well as defining the lexical unit type and his attitude to it. The article demonstrates the perspective of research, which means the comparison of the texts of different style, regarding the metalinguistic commentary in usage of sociolects, the analyses of the type of foreign language in the bilingual writers.
RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2017;8(1):130-137
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Character’s train of thought (based on A.P. Chekhov’s story “My life”)
Chernova L.A., Dubova M.A.
Abstract
The article is dedicated to the train of thought of A.P. Chekov's short story “My Life” main character Misail Poloznev. It is analyzed as a component describing his personality, reflecting his world and reality perception and thus causing his decisions and behavior. The aim of the article is to prove that the main means to express the character's train of thought is his verbal lexicon which is analyzed by the authors from the point of view of semantic structure including integral and differential semes. The authors focus on the analysis of verbal language having semantic structure including integral and differential semes, which is the main vehicle for expressing train of thoughts. The article covers usage of 83 thought verbs which play the important role of sense making as part of the main character's individual consciousness implementation. The analysis performed allows conclude that through a diversity of implemented semes, the writer shows how maturely the character perceives reality, as well as power of his behavioral system.
RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2017;8(1):138-147
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Translating from a Lingua Franca in the Setting of EU Translation
Bednárová-Gibová K.
Abstract
This conceptual paper explores English as a lingua franca of the supranational translational EU culture by determining translational specificities of EU institutional-legal texts. Set against a specific linguistic and translational background, the problems of equivalence, terminological (in-)congruence, nature of the source text and institutionalization of translation are discussed in order to draw attention to the particularities of the EU’s translational practice. Using a synoptic-interpretative approach, different ways of understanding EU discourse and translation are suggested in the paper.
RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2017;8(1):148-157
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New versions of national Bibles: between the modernization and traditional text
Khukhuni G.T., Osipova A.A.
Abstract
The present paper deals with some aspects connected with the creation of the new versions of the so-called “national Bibles” ( Luther Bible , King James Bible ...). It is mentioned, that in the 20th century different reasons can be connected with the attempts of their revision ( New King James Version , Lutherbible 1984 ...). To some extent this tendency may be postulated also towards the Lutherbible 2017 , published in 2016 for the 500th anniversary of the Reformation. As opposed to their predecessors its creators underline their intention to recede from modernization and return to the original language of Luther. But such return inevitably is relative enough.
RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2017;8(1):158-165
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Dynamics of the form for literary discourse and translation
Novikova M.G.
Abstract
The notions of “text form” and “discourse form” are differentiated in the article. The category of identity, which allows using one and the same term for both concepts, is defined as well. The discourse form is represented as a dynamic phenomenon, embodying features of stereotyped activity of consciousness in the process of understanding a literary work. This activity is divided into two interrelated groups: an iterative understanding model and perception of patterns for semantic dynamics of the plot. It is also proved that the dynamics of the form for literary discourse is the basis of translingual and intralinguistic interpretation, thus it is the basis for the translation process.
RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2017;8(1):166-173
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New abbreviation tendencies (in Russian, English and German Languages)
Maksimenko O.I.
Abstract
The article is devoted to the analysis of the modern processes of word-formation - abbreviation. The purpose of the investigation is the analysis of modern initial abbreviations in Russian, English and German languages functioning in a city landscape environment, documentation and Internet-communication. As a result of the analysis tendencies, characteristic for sociocultural environments are revealed, efficiency of “a principle of the least amount of efforts” by G. Zipf is checked, new prominent features of formation and functioning initial abbreviations in each of examined languages on a material of the sample received by the author are revealed; the opportunity of identification and deployment of abbreviations in an source word-combination is checked.
RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2017;8(1):174-181
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Lexico-semantic parameters of economic discourse: News reports in English, Russian and French
Naydenova N.S., Muradyan A.A.
Abstract
The article discusses the main linguistic and stylistic features of economic discourse based on the material in three languages: English, French and Russian. The material for comparative analysis of the texts were the news reports from various information sources (printed and online), dealing with the current economic situation, and in particular, further stabilization or destabilization of the ruble after Brexit vote. Lexical and semantic parameters are identified that determine the economic discourse, and a comparative analysis of their functioning in three languages is held. The lexical content and syntactic organization of news reports in English, French and Russian is analyzed. Particular attention is paid to contrastive analysis of the use of expressive means of language and stylistic figures in the economic discourse. Language representation pecularities of Brexit concept is studied.
RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2017;8(1):182-187
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Insectophones in the English phonosemantic system
Oschepkova V.V., Razheva E.S.
Abstract
The article is devoted the types of iconic lexis, the term insectophone is introduced and its place in the English phonosemantic system is defined. Insectophones differ from onomatopoeic words, vocatives, interjections, sound imitation words and ideophones. Insectophones take a specific niche in the phonosemantic system and can be regarded as a separate group of iconic lexis with its properties and functions.
RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2017;8(1):188-194
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Intonation of accentuation in the agglutinative languages (in comparison with Russian)
Khromov S.S.
Abstract
The author continues to explore the intonation of different utterances in various world languages. The subject and the theme of the research is intonation of accented syntagms in a typical agglutinative language that Swahili is in comparison with Russian. The purpose of the paper submitted is 1) to describe the intonation of accented syntagms in Swahili 2) to compare the basic results with the same in Russian. The methods and methodology of the research were conducted on the basis of experimental phonetic analysis carried out in the PFUR Laboratory and the Laboratory of the Institute of Asian and African studies of the Lomonosov MSU. The results achieved in the course of the experiment. The opposition of neutral and accentuated syntagm in agglutinative languages (the example of Swahili) and Russian prove that the parameters of melody, duration and intensity as the formant characteristics play the role in differentiation. But the accented syntagm is manifested brighter and stronger than the neutral one. The perception of accented syntagm depends on 1) the communicative task 2) the type of syntactic structure 3) the language type 4) the role of prosodic parameters. The results can be applied in lecture and seminar courses in general, comparative and oriental linguistics. The intensity of melodic parameter is brighter in accented syntagm than in a neutral one (the accented nuclear syllable is pronounced on a higher level, with more interval and speed of frequency fall in Swahili as well in Russian.
RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2017;8(1):195-205
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Frame analysis of safety terminology in English and Russian languages
Vekovischeva S.N., Priorova E.M., Savchenko E.P., Romanov V.M.
Abstract
The paper is devoted to studying frame formation of the terminological system “Safety” from the standpoint of cognitive linguistics, its methods and tools as well as the frame simulations of the English terminology. We describe the concept of frame, the frame approach to researching terminology, a substantial invariant of the frame, main macrocategories, subframes and slots. We also present the frame scheme of English and Russian terminology of “Safety.”
RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2017;8(1):206-218
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Constructions with the borrowed preposition «à la» in the Russian language: variation of the logical structure of comparison
Petrov A.V.
Abstract
In this article the structures with the preposition «a-la» («а-ля») are investigated through the prism of the variation of the logical structure of the comparison. The main methods of the research are the distributional and contextual analysis. In the lexicographical sources xenisme «a-la» is interpreted by native prepositions with the meaning of comparison, assimilation. The borrowed preposition is stylistically marked: refers to the colloquial style and characterized by a reduced stylistic colouring - it brings tot he context the the shades of playfulness, familiarity, irony, satire. From the parts of speech point of view the distributors of the preposition are presented by nouns and adverbs. However, the bulk of distributors are the nouns and - «Nим и N». The distributors of the prepositions are the words, phrases, sentences, half-predicatives and combinations of words. Deploying of the logical structure of comparison in the constructions is determined by the syntactic position of preposition. In predicative position actualized the logical structure ACmB , in the substantive position - Amβ . The typical structures of the logical comparison in the word combinations can be refined by introducing components α, β and C .
RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2017;8(1):219-229
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Our authors
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Abstract
RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2017;8(1):230-232
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