No 4 (2016)

Articles
To the epistemological foundation of the theory of meaning
Bochkarev A.E.
Abstract
All theories of meaning, whether they are based on ideas, concepts, prejudices, social conventions or mental representations, agree on the key point: knowledge is necessary pre-condition for understanding. In this context, epistemologically-oriented semantics should define which knowledge is chosen primarily for the interpretation and assess whether one can build a unified interpretative model based on the principles of “epistemic conservatism” (S. Auroux).
RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2016;(4):7-16
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Language sign as a category of philosophy, linguistics and theory of translation
Kataev A.O.
Abstract
The article is devoted to the analysis of language sign as a category of philosophy, linguistics and theory of translation. Two opposite approaches to the semiotic essence are analysed. They are the philosophic approach and the linguistic one. These concepts are considered to be basic for operating semiotic principles on the problem of translation quality assessment by means of categories of adequacy and equivalence.
RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2016;(4):17-25
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Systematic approach to the research of the associative-cultural background of onyms: from regional to nationwide level
Bubnova N.V.
Abstract
The article is related to the research of systematic semantics features of onyms by outcrop and description of their associative-cultural background within regional and nationwide background knowledge (e.g., onym Y.A. Gagarin ). The relevance of the work is conditioned by the research of a name as a “cultural sign”/ which is important due to globalization processes whose reverse side is enhancement of the ethnic identity and the national self-identification beginning of the XXI century. The novelty of the article is determined by systematic research of the features of the outcrop and description of the associative-cultural background of onyms: the broad experiment, conducted at first at the regional level (the Smolensk citizens) and then at the nationwide level (citizens of Moscow and St. Petersburg), became the main method of the research. As a result of the research was clarified that the name Y.A. Gagarin is organic to the background knowledge of the heritage of language personality of the beginning of the XXI century. And the informational reactions achieved by the experiment allows us explicate a huge amount of the historical and cultural information in the content of the researched name. The information can be reflected in the various anthropological dictionaries. The scientific value of the present work is determined by the approach to the outcrop and analysis of the associative-cultural background of the regional onyms transferred to the nationwide level can be employed in studies of other regions.
RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2016;(4):26-35
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“Language of innovation” everyday vocabulary: representation of the modernization potential of Russian cities
Volkova N.A.
Abstract
This paper discusses the level of acceptance of innovations by the citizens in everyday practices of regional urban centers. Additionally, this paper analyses the speed of decay of attention to the innovations because of the distance between the regional city centers and innovation centers considered as the source of the latest news. The list of stimulus-words which are associated with innovations and inventions of the new products and services is drawn up. The Russian social and linguistics research on innovating social practices are reviewed and the results of this review are used as materials for the nationwide opinion poll on new everyday urban practices. Then the frequency of the search queries for the stimulus words from the list is analyzed for all Russian regional urban centers. As a result, the conditions, which support the continuous interest to the innovations and their acceptance, are identified. The paper points out that this conditions may contribute to the development of human potential in the Russian regional center.
RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2016;(4):36-48
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Linguistic and cultural peculiarities of British Columbia (Canada) toponymy
Ilyina A.Y., Kupriyanova M.E.
Abstract
The subject of the article is linguistic and cultural features of place names of one of the Canadian provinces - British Columbia. The aim of the work is to do lexico-semantic comparison of toponymic lexis and to identify its origin and motivation using the methods of classification and structural analysis. The distinguishing feature of the province is anglization of indigenous names and euphemization of some English toponyms. As a result of the research it was found out that English place names prevail in the province with a big share of indigenous names in their original form. According to motivation characteristics toponyms with the names of prominent people dominate. This conclusion contributes to the formation of the idea of English Canadian toponymy in general and its linguistic and cultural peculiarities. The results of the work can be used in making up practical and theoretical courses on English lexicology, language and culture under study, cross-culture communication and translation science.
RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2016;(4):49-55
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Toponyms, demonyms and toponymic nicknames in Brazil: morphological and cultural aspects
Radović M.
Abstract
The present article analyses the complex system of toponyms, demonyms and toponymic nicknames in Brazilian Portuguese. The author presents the etymological description of toponyms and classifies demonyms according to their usage and morphological structure. Moreover, special attention is paid to the formation of demonyms via suffixation. The results have shown that the suffix - ense can be considered the most productive one in Brazil. The article also analyzes toponymic nicknames in Brazilian humour discourse from the linguistic and cultural points of view.
RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2016;(4):56-64
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French winged units in the international block of slogans of modern Europe and Russia
Shulezkova S.G., Makarova A.S.
Abstract
French winged units which are in the international block of the slogans of modern Europe and Russia are in the center of the attention of the authors article. 90 % of the krylatology - discipline formed in 1990-2000 based on lexicography description of the words and phrases noticed by “authority mark” and development of phraseology as a science of overword language units are winged units. The language status of the winged units accomplishing predicative function in the speech stream is one of the most important problems of the krylatology. The analysis of the functional potential of the winged units and their transformative modifications in the communicative space of modern Europe and Russia promotes the solution of this problem. Gallicisms of the slogan character which are very widely used in the Old World’s publicism and in the Russian political discourse are beneficial material for such research. After stepping over the French border in transliterated and trace form these winged units keep traits of the French culture, “remind” of the events caused them to life. However varying with their structure, playing with different borders of their semantics they witness not only about their national language status as winged units but also about belonging to the international winged units-slogans.
RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2016;(4):65-73
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Lexical-and-semantic microfield «MERKEL»
Chigasheva M.A.
Abstract
This article analyzes deonims from the perspective of lexical-semantic field. Vocabulary is the most moving part of the system of any language. It responds most quickly to changes in the surrounding world and clearly reflects not only universal, but also national characteristics of perception of reality by native speakers. Proper names, especially anthroponyms, make up a significant part of the lexical system and belong to the sphere of the national-marked units. An anthroponym, designating a particular person, has not only the nominative function of a language. It can go beyond the borders of a common noun and thus receive an opportunity to participate in the signification. This process is motivated by extralinguistic factors, by the need to find new names and words associated with the filling of a new concept. This phenomenon is called deonimization. At the present stage of development of the German language, it is widespread in the political discourse of the media. The analysis showed that deonims formed from the names of politicians and statesmen of Germany have a pronounced negative connotation. Through the example of 19 deonims formed with the name Merkel, the author attempts to structure them in lexical-semantic microfield.
RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2016;(4):74-81
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Medicinal herb names in the Kazakh language from the origin viewpoint
Omasheva Z.M.
Abstract
The article is devoted to the study of medicinal herbal plant names in the Kazakh language. The aim of the article is to research medicinal herbal plant names in Kazakh from the origin viewpoint. At the beginning of the article there is a brief description of the works of the Kazakhstan scientists who investigated various aspects of phytonymic vocabulary and there are the researchers’ opinions regarding the Mongolian, Arab and Persian borrowings. The research material was only taken by selection way from the etymological, explanatory, bilingual and trilingual dictionaries. The etymological and comparative methods were used in the work. During the etymological analysis the author has revealed the origin of the Kazakh phytonyms and drawn parallels with the ancient Turkic, Arabian, Persian and Mongolian names of medicinal herbs considering the alternative points of view on their origin. The etymological characteristics of the Kazakh names of medicinal herbal plants show the cultural and historical ties of peoples since ancient times.
RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2016;(4):82-89
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Cognitive and anthropocentric approach to treating the category of comic (on the texts containing canine terms)
Fateeva I.M.
Abstract
This article treats the issue of understanding the category of the comic. in terms of cognitive-and-anthropocentric approach. The material used in the article analyzes specific features of canine vocabulary. The author shows that jokes containing canine vocabulary are relayed on archaic myths, which are still affected by zoomorphism. The author proves that anything comic being a phenomenon, breaks the typical stereotypes, creates a new interpretation. The article provides examples illustrating the cultural actable character. A large number of jokes presented, containing canine vocabulary, demonstrate the closeness of the natural world to the social society.
RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2016;(4):90-100
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Comparative means to characterize linguistic portrait of a literary personage (after the novel “The Geographer Drank His Globe away” by A. Ivanov)
Vasilyeva A.A.
Abstract
The article is devoted to the analysis of structural comparative units of the literary text of the novel «The geographer drank his globe away » by the modern Russian Alexey Ivanov The research is carried out using the concept of comparison worked out by I.V. Nazarova. As a result of the research presented a set of thematic groups involved in creating linguistic portrait of novel characters arefound out and described.
RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2016;(4):101-107
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Precedent textual components in social nets discoursive space
Preobrazhenskiy S.Y., Konovalova D.G.
Abstract
The article describes some precedent textual components functioning in discoursive space of social nets. Precedent textual components are semiotic units of this discoursive space. They based on precedent phenomena and contain linguistic Gestalt in their structure. Correlation is observed because of the revival of the experience gained by a single detail. The analysis of semantic structure shows the defining role of extensional meaning. We analyzed combinations of various precedent textual components and discovered ability to form meaningful configuration through different semantic transformation.
RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2016;(4):108-114
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The analysis of news messages of the RF Ministry of Foreign Affairs web-site by the sentiment-analysis (Article 2)
Belyakov M.V.
Abstract
Text sentiment-analysis represents one of the most actual and modern problems of the applied linguistics. The sentimant-analysis, being one of formal methods of the text analysis the, allows to estimate, on the one hand, emotional tone of the text, and on the other to draw substantial conclusions by results of revealed sentiment. In the era of the information wars this task is the task of vital importance. The article considers the variant of the sentiment-analysis by the example of some categories generated on materials of texts of a site the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation for one month. To carry out of the analysis 2 dictionaries - positively and negatively marked words have been received. Results of processing by the program of the sentiment-analysis have allowed to allocate the text and graphically present an estimation of texts tonality of the categories that has confirmed an opportunity of using this formalized method for public opinion estimation and formation.
RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2016;(4):115-124
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Linguistic and paralinguistic aspect of internet discourse (on the example of french users)
Bukina L.M.
Abstract
This paper attempts to study the identity of virtual communication on the modern stage, and stresses the multidimensionality and ambiguity of solutions of many problems associated with Internet communications such as: the definition of the Internet discourse, the difference of this type of discourse from others: electronic, virtual, computer ones; the genre classification of the Internet discourse. Illustrative material is derived empirically in the process of investigating such components of the French Internet discourse - blogs, chats, social networking, forums, e-mails. By the example of French users the author considers linguistic and paralinguistic features of the Internet discourse as a special type of speech, and offers the essential characteristics of its genres. The article also analyzes an emotive component of the Networking discourse and the basic ways of its linguistic expression
RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2016;(4):125-134
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Metaphorical nominations of agents of sports event in Russian sporting media
Gritsenko A.N., Moroslin P.V.
Abstract
Studying the metaphors is traditionally connected with studying of literature, but as D. Lakoff and M. Johnson stated in their work “Metaphors We Live By”, the use of metaphors isn’t confined only by literary and poetic language. They are used in different spheres of our life, for example in everyday speech and in journalism. It is known that comprehending of a sport competition as a war or a battle leads to such verbal transformation where rivals appear as enemies and enemies at war are called soldiers. Such transformation is regular and is treated as temporal. Different words from the group “enemy” are used to denominate a sporting rival some of which have already lost metaphorical character, for example the word “opponent” has become a regular denomination of an object. Having done the analysis of denominations of the word competitor we state that all metaphorical denominations can be divided into three groups: generalized denominations, collective denominations, isolated denominations.
RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2016;(4):135-140
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Chingiz Ajtmatov: “Farewell, Gulsari” and/or “Janibarim Gulsarim” (two titles - two semantico-stylistic contents)
Dzhusupov N.M.
Abstract
The article deals with the analysis of the title of Chingiz Aytmatov’s novel “Farewell Gulsari” in Russian and Kyrgyz (“Janibarim Gulsarim”) languages. The author reveals some semantico-stylistic differences of the titles of the same fiction in both languages: in Kyrgyz language the word «jani barim» means ‘spirit, soul, life, alive, power-might’; in Russian the title of the narrative means ‘farewell, a parting, uncertainty in future’. It is argued that different meanings are revealed in the titles of one narrative, which was written in two languages by one and the same writer. These meanings exert on the reader different informative and esthetic impact. Russian and Kyrgyz readers come to similar quantity of semantico-stylistic and esthetic concepts, feelings and empathy on having finished reading the narrative. Ch. Ajtmatov is a writer-bilingual and at once a bilingual writer, who wrote his works in two languages. This is a reason of different semantico-stylistic meanings of the titles in two languages, which he didn’t translate, but he wrote it anew in another language by taking into consideration the speech act rules, linguocultural and other features of both languages.
RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2016;(4):141-150
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Anton Chekhov in the Spanish language: a comparative study of two translations of the short story “THE BET”
Monforte Dupret R.V., Chesnokova O.S.
Abstract
The article focuses on the different aspects of translating into Spanish a short story “The Bet” (1889) by A. Chekhov within the paradigmatic frame of equivalence. For the purposes of the comparative analysis of two literary translations (by Heino Zernask’s translation into a non-native language, and Víctor Gallego Ballestero’s into a native language), the stylistic analysis of the original is given as well as its peculiarities in Chekhov’s idiolect. Through the methodic use of reverse translation and its subsequent philological analysis, the conveyance of the original’s polyphony, the individual traits of the characters’ speech, and the translation and use of lexical and semantic tools are discussed, at the same time that inaccuracies in the translation are examined. The analysis shows that both versions are close to conveying through the mechanisms of the Spanish language, Chekhov’s idiolect (the polyphony, the lexical and semantic tools, the rhetoric). The conclusions reveal a shift of the narrative tone in both translations, showing a prevalence in the use of colloquial language in Heirno Zernask’s version. Víctor Gallego Ballestero’s text, on the other hand, lifts the tone of the narrative at the expense of the lexical and semantic tools from the original. Heino Zernask’s translation follows the original very close, but suffers from Russian interference, which gave way to translation mistakes. The article is useful for teaching the theory and practice of Russian translation into Spanish and vice versa, and also for theory courses on translation.
RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2016;(4):151-162
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Grotesques and arabesques figurative language in the French decorative art of XVII-XVIII centuries
Tkach D.G.
Abstract
The article analyzes the imagery of grotesque and arabesque, which were an important primary source of ornamental language of French decorative arts in the XVII-XVIII centuries. Grotesque reproduced murals (fresco) of ancient buildings (caves) discovered in course of XV century excavations in Rome. Renaissance artists found similarities between grotesque and Arabic ornaments. Presumably, in this regard, the term “arabesque” was used as often as the term “grotesque” since the end of the XVI century. During the XVII-XVIII centuries, French artists Jean Bérain and Antoine Watteau renovated and deeply transformed the style and content of the Arabesque decoration. Figurative language of arabesques, the use of antiquity and the Renaissance noble values corresponded to the spirit of the Enlightenment man, satisfied its cultural needs. Nowadays arabesques remain the relevant part of the ornamental vocabulary of European designers and decorators.
RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2016;(4):163-172
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Arts synthesis in texts of French decadents and symbolists
Baudorre P., Kuntsevich D.V.
Abstract
Mutual enrichment of arts and cultures should be considered as a fundamental rule of existence of history. Opponents or supporters of “décadisme”, with some minor exceptions, do not connect this movement with a concept of the civilization decline. Decadents considered modern language to be poor and insufficient for expressing the feelings they were experiencing. Therefore, poetic resources were consciously updated to express the new attitude. They created such original words as stagnance (from stagnant ), sombreur (from sombre ), etc. J. Plowert even composed “Small glossary to understand decadent and symbolist authors” (1888) to make decadent poetry comprehensible to readers. Decadents’ style has caused a resonance in public consciousness at all levels of art. In this article we will try to prove that the era of the late 19th century can be characterized as the time of spiritual renewal and cultural rise not only in poetry, but also in music and theater.
RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2016;(4):173-180
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From postromantisism to symbolist aesthetics: Ch. Baudelaire’s «LES FLEURS DU MAL»
Shervashidze V.V.
Abstract
Ch. Baudelaire created new poetry - the poetry of sentiment, secret premonitions, impressionistic colors and associations. «Symbolist out of symbolism» in the theory of correspondences as is revealed through the secret language of symbols the esoteric essence of the world through the language of art becomes the body - then becomes visible, audible, intelligible.
RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2016;(4):181-185
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The concept of the OTHER in J. Rouaud’s trilogy (“Les champs d’honneur”, “Des hommes illustres”, “Le monde à peu près”)
Kosova Y.A.
Abstract
This paper analyses the search for identity in J. Rouaud’s trilogy “Les champs d’honneur”, “Des hommes illustres”, “Le monde à peu près”. The issue of the subject’s structure is scrutinized on the basis of E. Levinas’s ethics, interpreting subjectification as a result of encounting between the subject and the Other. Indeed, such key concepts of E. Levinas as the Other, the epiphany of the face, the non-indifference towards each other, the responsibility of the responsibility of the Other, are to be found in J. Rouaud’s trilogy. Two other concepts of E. Levinas - Death and the absolutely Other - determine each novel’s shaping and the whole trilogy. The quest for identity can be read through a series of metaphors and concepts: darkness and fog, clarity and light, myopia, lameness, smile, climbing . The intertextual dialogue with the Bible, as well as with the pictorial and literary works, plays an important role. The analysis also deals with J. Rouaud’s thanatological approach to a lifestory, starting from a character’s death which launches a dynamic of mourning at the beginning of each novel, and growing as an upward spiral expressed at all levels: structural, conceptual, lexical, rhythmic.
RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2016;(4):186-194
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Inflexion verbal paradigm in the Russian language grammar dictionary
Tikhonova E.N.
Abstract
The paper is dedicated to the representation of grammatical information about the headword in the dictionary E.N. Tikhonova. “Russian language. Unique vocabulary. All grammatical forms” (M.: AST, 2014). Particular attention is paid to verbal inflexion paradigms, which is particularly difficult to study Russian as a foreign (second) language.
RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2016;(4):195-202
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Morphemic structure of syllables in different word classes and different types of texts
Popova E.N., Tomashevich S.B.
Abstract
The article demonstrates the analysis of morphemic structure of syllable in different word classes in conversational, scientific and literary texts. Considering morphemic structure of syllable scientific text differs from conversational and literary ones, nouns and adjectives oppose verbs. The morphemic structure of syllable shows the main grammar tendencies which determine the type of the language.
RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2016;(4):203-210
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Phonetic interference in Mari students’ French pronunciation
Ivanova I.G., Egoshina R.A.
Abstract
This article presents results of a comparative analysis of interfering vowel phonemes systems in the Mari and French languages. The authors examine deviations from normative characteristics. Comparative and contrasting analysis of the two sound systems in contact allows to foresee possible distortions in the secondary sound system. The data help reveal and clarify the reasons of certain phonemic distortions in the French language when in contact with the Mari language.
RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2016;(4):211-217
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The specifics of creating puns in languages of different structure
Aleksandrova E.M.
Abstract
In the article an attempt is made to identify the influence of phonetic and prosodic features of structurally different languages on the specifics of creating puns in Russian, English and French traditions. The results of the research contribute to establish the regularities in relationships of three languages; also they might be useful for comparative and typological stylistics. The research is made on the basis of Russian, English, and French jokes, selected from printed and electronic joke collections. In course of research of pun creating specifics, it was identified that polysemy, paronymy and homonymy were the most popular mechanisms of creating puns. The specifics of creating puns in Russian, English and French joke traditions is influenced by the features of the language system as well as the language group, which identify such characteristics of languages as the average length of words, the specifics of word stress and phrase stress, presence or absence of unstressed vowels reduction, unpronounceable consonants, similarly pronounced inflections.
RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2016;(4):218-223
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Some clarifications of definition of the concept of “abbreviation process”
Alamaireh E.Y.
Abstract
This paper presents the main feature of abbreviation - the presence of the equivalent-word-combination at the current stage of development of the language. The author notes that it is the possibility of expending of the abbreviation construction of abbreviation that distinguishes it from an affixoid. It is also noted that not just shortening of a word to the abbreviation construction of the abridged word, but also expending of the secondary naming unit on its basis is possible in the language. As a result, family of equivalence appears round the abbreviation.
RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2016;(4):224-231
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Abstract
RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2016;(4):232-234
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