No 2 (2016)

Articles
On the Interaction of Culture and Non-literate Language
Ikonnikova O.N., Kuzharova I.V.
Abstract
Ecological context of the language system determines the irregularity of the development of languages, archaic character of one language in comparison to others. The paper examines culture-dependent factors that contribute to the preservation of the unwritten language form. The authors come to the conclusion that the unwritten form of the language is determined by culture according to the following scheme: geographical isolation → mythological consciousness → unwritten form of the language. Linguistic material of the Salishan language Coueur’d Alene confirms the fact the local culture of the archaic unwritten language preserves the ancient language features that throw light on the cognitive mastering of the world at the stages of the language development that precede the appearance of the written language. In particular, a fair quantity of Coueur’d Alene predicates with lexical suffixes of somatic semantics attached to them indicates that body parts - is the initial semantic domain in the cognitive representation at the earliest stages of the language development.
RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2016;(2):9-15
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On Semantic “Quantization” on a Word Level (basing on A.S. Pushkin language usage)
Perevolochanskaya S.N.
Abstract
A word in A. Pushkin language can be characterized as multidimensional, endless in its manifestations - it is penetrated with mental associations. The novel nature of the analysis lies within the description of a semantic fragment of the classic poet's language aimed at settling semantic laws common to the breakdowns of semantic epochs. The academic value of the research based on language units with a strong semantic reference to a 'Poet', is seen in attempting to understand A. Pushkin's changing attitude to a language sign. To express the range of sense it needs new forms of semantic “quantization”. The specificity of a poetic word is intensity; compactness of its contents can be correlated with information compression. The investigating material helps us to conclude that a word in the language of a poet demonstrates its symbolic nature, the image is above the concept, and a word demonstrates its potential predication correlating with the whole text.
RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2016;(2):16-25
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Communicative Behaviour of a Person in Situations of Flirtation (gender and semiotic aspects)
Kartashkova F.I., Knyazeva A.A.
Abstract
The article deals with specific description of the communicative development of human behavior in the situations of flirtation. The main goal of it is to reveal peculiarities of non-verbal constituent of flirtation and its interaction with the verbal one at different stages of relations between the communicants. Communicative genre flirtation is treated as a part of communication between a man and a woman (initiators of flirtation), which demonstrates its own dynamics, and reveals three main stages of flirtation developments each of those possessing its typical verbal and non-verbal constituents of communicants’ behavior.
RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2016;(2):26-34
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City Semiotics: Kiev as a Culture Text
Burago E.G.
Abstract
The article deals with the semiotic aspects of city, in particular, the city of Kiev. Kiev is represented as a culture text, the text in its broad, semiotic meaning and even as a “hypertext”. To make a hypertext, a number of texts must have the following characteristics: a thematic and modal integrity, completeness, common general typological characteristics. Kiev itself is treated as the hypertext of the Russian and Ukrainian literature and culture. This understanding of the text of Kiev allows us to describe extensive period of XIX-XX centuries and variable text extracts, united by Kiev as a common object. Kiev as a hypertext is personified in the poetic works as “the mother of Russian cities”, a highly spiritual town, a holy place.
RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2016;(2):35-40
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Foregrounding Theory in Linguistics: Foundations, Trends, Interpretations
Dzhusupov N.M.
Abstract
The article considers general and specific issues of foregrounding theory from the perspective of its study by Anglophone and Russophone researchers. The article focuses on the disputable issues related to the interpretation of foregrounding, its terminological nomination and the basics of implementing this notion into academic practice. In addition, a particular attention is given to describing the distinctive features of foregrounding. Generally, foregrounding theory presupposes that there exists a definite set of regulations which serves as a background for highlighting the stylistic properties based on the violations of both the norms of the standard language and the norms typical of different types of text. The specificity of foregrounding theory as a methodological tool in contemporary stylistics is determined by authorial characteristics of linguistic deviation and communicative-pragmatic potential of foregrounding devices, as well as their importance in textual construction and contextual knowledge (explicit and explicit) representation.
RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2016;(2):41-50
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The Irony Implicity in the Semantic Space of Literary Text
Zavrumov Z.A.
Abstract
The article considers the irony implicitly in the art text from positions of asymmetric dualism of a language sign, a connotation (konnotativnost), estimation and the emotive component (emotivnost), and also as a result of specific attitude of a text producer. The author specifies that the substantial unity of the art text becomes result of integration of meanings - explicit and implicit among which the last become defining in the organization of irony semantic space.
RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2016;(2):51-55
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Compositional-Topical Modules of Content of Scientific-Popular Genre, Characterizing Subject Area “GEOGRAPHY” (on the material of “National Geographic”)
Semenova S.N.
Abstract
In the given article an attempt is made to ground a process of model forming of scientific-popular genre, characterizing subject area “ Geography ”. In the research work compositional-topical modules of content of scientific-popular article’s genre, presenting Geography are examined. In this connection text corpus, in which the description of each module is presented, is being studied. The structure of scientific-popular article, describing Geography is formed up by pragmatically informative factors in the combination of subordinate discourse and classification features. The main elements such as: people’s activity, monitoring of environment, natural calamities, fauna and flora (with detailed description of each problems), characterizing them as descriptive, are defined here.
RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2016;(2):56-61
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Aphoristic Reflection of the Concepts of POWER and POLITICIAN in the Regional Media (on the material of the Tatar and Mari languages)
Khabibullina F.Y., Ivanova I.G.
Abstract
The article is devoted to the study of the concepts of POWER and POLITICIAN in the regional media aphoristic sphere of languages of different structure - Tatar and Mari. Special attention is paid to the functioning of language (mass) and speech (individual) aphorisms. There is undertaken a comparative description of proverbs and sayings, phrase-clichés, phrase-symbols, mottos and quotes. In the political discourse of regional mass-media of the Tatarstan and Mari El republics, the most representative are the aphorisms relating to the following lexico-semantic fields: external/internal politics, state/country, government agencies/services, institutions, parties and political movements, the government system monitoring .
RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2016;(2):62-70
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Colour in Power Dressing as a Manipulative Influence Tool of Political Discourse
Slivchikova Y.V.
Abstract
The article considers the role of the colour description in the political discourse. The author focuses on colours in power dressing as a manipulative tool. The study sets out to find out and explain the structure of the vestimentary descriptions, the essence of the basic elements of the meaning and their influence on the reader’s perception of the reality.
RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2016;(2):71-76
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The Role of Phraseological Units in Publicistic Texts
Makarova A.S.
Abstract
The article concerns the analyses of the winged phrases functions in modern French and Russian mass media. The functional aspect of studying the winged phrases to find the publication style usage and characteristic features of their use as the author's choice is very topical and important for both theoretical and applied the linguistics. The results of studying of the winged phrases corpus from French and Russian print media show the wide usage of them in such media. They are used namely in pragmatic function. The pragmatic effect results from the occasional transformations.
RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2016;(2):77-83
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Reflections of Phraseological and Proverbial Semantic Innovations (on the base of Leo Tolstoy’s language studies)
Lomakina O.V.
Abstract
Currently, one of the topical issues of contemporary phraseology is studying of phraseological semantics. The article considers phraseological and proverbial semantic innovations in the texts of different styles and genres written by one author. Examples of some phraseological configurations are provided and semantization ways and means of phraseological units and proverbs in the text are analyzed in the article. The novelty of the study consists in the fact that the ways of the author’s “self-definition” and its role in the shaping phraseological semantic understanding are described. Particular attention is paid to the semantic transformations of phraseological units in the text, by which phraseological units receive an additional semantic nuance, a new meaning or connotation’s changing. The language of L. Tolstoy is used as illustrative material in the study.
RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2016;(2):84-93
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Reflection of Correct and Incorrect Behaviour in the Russian Paremiological World View
Lying Yuan -.
Abstract
We share the point of view stated and proved by the writer and philosopher Nikolay Kryshchuk: “In any society there are unwritten laws. (...). The oral, traditional arrangement on the main ideas is their cornerstone. It is known, what is good and what is bad, what is a crime or a feat, what is love and how a decent person behaves. Thus people know, how to react to the some phenomena and acts”. We’ll try to answer a question, what kind of behavior or acts, according to paremias, are considered to be standard and what are beyond good breeding, decencies, the rules accepted and, therefore, are noted as unacceptable by the Russian language consciousness.
RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2016;(2):94-100
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On GOOD and EVIL Expression in English and Russian Proverbs as a Reflection of English and Russian Mentality
Orlova T.G., Nikulina E.F.
Abstract
The article is devoted to the structural and semantic analysis of English and Russian proverbs reflecting the attitude of Englishmen and Russians towards good and evil. Scientific novelty of the research consist in the fact that the proverbs of above mentioned group in the aspect of comparative structural and semantic analysis are considered for the first time. The research of the proverbs is very actual from the viewpoint of revealing the moral and ethical system of values which characterize both nations. The analysis of the phraseological meaning, their structural and semantic components, expressive and emotive connotations revealed the similarities of their meaning and structure based on the universality of the human mind which is confirmed at the language level. The differences of the proverbs are connected with national types of mentality of the English and Russian nations which is confirmed at the language level as well.
RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2016;(2):101-106
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On Translation: Text Structuring
Semenov A.L., Ershov V.I.
Abstract
A sentence is just a particular case of the utterance and may not always be a translation unit. The utterance closest to the translation unit may have translation versions arising from the understanding of the speech information content. Logical-and-semantic analysis of the utterance components and its translation is characterized by the distinct asymmetry.
RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2016;(2):107-112
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Traslation Strategies of Modern English Filmonyms into Russian and Spanish (the example of films released in 2008-2014)
Aleksandrova O.I., Nikolayeva U.A.
Abstract
The article discusses strategies of translating titles of American films into Russian and Spanish considering their semantic and pragmatic aspects. Though different translation strategies might be applied (direct or literally translation, transformation or replacement, etc.), titles translated should comply with the story, idea, philosophy and style of a film so that they be attractive for the target audience. Disregarding one of those conditions may cause infelicity or translation failures. The article studies some examples of successful and unsuccessful translation into Russian and Spanish.
RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2016;(2):113-122
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Structural-and-Semantic Analysis of Oronyms of Chile
Bobylyova E.S.
Abstract
Timeliness of the article refers to the lack of scientific studies of oronyms of Chile. The investigation of oronyms is conducted at the intersection of disciplines: history, geography, linguistics. The names of mountains provide useful linguistic, geographical, ethnic, historic information. The article provides structural-semantic analysis of oronyms of Chile. The author gives the classification of oronims, their semantic peculiarities. They can be divided into several semantic groups: the coour of rocks; height; size; characteristics; form; oronyms named after saints; oronyms derived from anthroponyms ; commemporative oronyms; oronyms that represent flora and fauna of the area; oronyms that indicate rocks, soils, minerals; the locations of oronyms. A whole range of oronyms has Indian backgrounds. Some mountains reveal the absence of hill names.
RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2016;(2):123-127
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The Translation of Socially Variable Lexis (on the basis of the novel ‘Black Swan Green’ by D. Mitchell)
Fomenko T.A.
Abstract
The paper covers the problems of translation, which we face as soon as we meet slang words used by teenagers in the fiction. On the one hand, slang words are socially marked, i.e. they are vulgar, rude, obscene - social markers, on the other hand, they are stylistic units. In the process of text analysis we observe the constant language variability. While translating a piece of fiction we should either neutralize, omit this lexical unit or find a word equal in its pragmatic and connotative meaning, we should judge to what degree we can change the original text (the source invariant)creating a construct invariant done by a professional translator. The issue is if the translators can interfere with the original text, changing it due to their own outlook, background, upbringing, that doesn’t allow them to use impolite, rude lexis, but in such a case we can lose the communicative effect of the novel. We declare that the communicative effect is either strengthened or neutralized. It depends on the personality of the translator. Thus, the translated text is a new one, the usage of words depends on the social status of the translator.
RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2016;(2):128-135
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Intonation of Predicative and Nominative Syntagmas in Swahili
Khromov S.S.
Abstract
The author continues to explore the intonation of predicative and nominative syntagmas in various world languages. The paper submitted offers a systematic and purposeful approach to describt the predicative and nominative syntagmas in one of the typically agglutinative languages - Swahili - on the basis of experimental phonetic analysis carried out in the PFUR Laboratory and the Laboratory of the Institute of Asian and African studies of the Lomonosov MSU. The author proves that the leading melody parameter in Swahili is the direction of movement of the frequency which is used as a differential feature in opposing the intonation of predicative and nominative syntagmas. A predicative syntagma is characterized by the rise-and-fall and a nominative - by the even fall movement of the frequency. The duration and the intensity play a subordinate role in respect to the melody in the opposition studied.
RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2016;(2):136-144
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Some Lexical Groups of Speech Etiquette in Swahili Language and Their Characteristics
Semenkova L.A., Fyodorova N.G.
Abstract
The article deals with Swahili language speech etiquette lexical groups which are the most typical for every day communication. The main focus is put on the basic words and word combinations of each group and their grammatical forms. Particular attention is also drawn to the meaning of some interjections for speech communication.
RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2016;(2):145-151
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Usage of Verb Forms under Agrammatic Aphasia (the example of Uzbek language)
Azimova I.A.
Abstract
This article analyzes verb usage in Uzbek agrammatic spontaneous speech. The current problem is explored in the sample of Uzbek for the first time. The work is based on the experiment, in which two groups of participants were included: brain-damaged individuals who have aphasia, and non-brain-damaged individuals without aphasia. The analysis showed that there is no noun-verb dissociation in Uzbek agrammatic aphasia. But verb impairment is reflected in poor modal verb production and poor non-finite verb production. In the spontaneous speech of brain-damaged individuals, modal verbs are not used at all, and the number of non-finite verb forms is significantly lower than those of non-brain-damaged participants. The impairment explained by complexity of neurocognitive mechanism of their usage.
RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2016;(2):152-157
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Sentence Types and Predicate Functions in the Korean Language
Kim N.D.
Abstract
The types of sentences and functions of a predicate in contemporary Korean are analyzed in this article. There are also examples, in which the predicate is highlighted as the main part forming a sentence into a communicative unit. Other grammatical forms of a predicate are also possible. Besides, a predicate takes place at the end of a sentence, which defines it as a basis for ending affixes. Ending affixes, in their turn, are grammatical indicators, realizing different styles of language and taking part in transference the emotional meaning of a sentence.
RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2016;(2):158-164
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Basic Criteria for Terminology Selection in Compiling Lexicographic Model of Sociological Terminology in English
Maikova T.A.
Abstract
The article describes the process of terminology selection for sociological terminology dictionary and attempts to justify the selection criteria on the basis of fundamental terminology characteristics and requirements. The terms were selected from sociologic dictionaries, encyclopedias, monographs, scientific articles. The selection revealed particular signs of uncertainty within English sociological terminology such as cases of synonymy and polysemy, variability of spelling as well as the lack of common vision among the specialists. All these can be seen as tokens of immature terminology. At the same time, there are also traits inherent to older terminologies such as the existence of the so-called terminological core, consisting mostly of single-word and two-word terms.
RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2016;(2):165-174
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Nonce Words and New Composites in the Russian Language Dictionary of Compound Words
Merkuryeva N.M.
Abstract
The article presents the problem of nonce words and neologisms in their lexicographic presentation in special and multidimensional dictionaries. Due to the fact that the nonce words, as a rule, not recorded in dictionaries of the Russian language, the problem of lexicographically these categories of words are particularly relevant. The article analyzes the set of distinctive features of occasional words-composites, describes the criteria for delimitation of composites-of nonce words from language usage vocabulary and neologisms. The article justifies the necessity to include nonce words in the composites dictionary composites which is being developed at present.
RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2016;(2):175-181
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IV International scientific-and-methodical conference “ Teaching Russian as a Foreign Language in higher school institutions: traditions, innovations, prospects”. Moscow, MGIMO (U) RF Foreign Ministry. February, 25-26th, 2016
Afanasyeva N.D., Belyakov M.V., Vasilyeva A.A.
Abstract
RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2016;(2):182-184
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Our authors
- -.
Abstract
RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2016;(2):185-188
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