Vol 12, No 3 (2021): Linguistic dominants of grammar and lexics

FROM THE EDITORIAL BOARD
Linguistic Dominants of Grammar and Lexis
Novospasskaya N.V., Lazareva O.V.
Abstract

The editorial describes the principles of selection of the issue’s material and its continuity with already published research. The articles of the issue are devoted to new trends in the study of lexis and grammar in modern languages. Such tendencies of synchronic linguistics as comparative studies of the linguistic picture of the world, the axiological aspect in linguistics of word, text and discourse, as well as contrastive lexicography, translation studies, corpus linguistics, discourse practices and text studies are noted.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2021;12(3):537-546
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FUNCTIONAL SEMANTICS AND LINGUISTIC SEMIOTICS
Variation in Diachronic Translation of Bible
Khukhuni G.T., Valuitseva I.I., Osipova A.A.
Abstract

Variation is one of the most commonly used concepts in translatology. To one degree or another, it becomes obvious in an interlingual transfer of texts of various genres; however, first of all, one has to deal with it when translating pieces of fiction (broadly speaking). This becomes especially evident in cases when one and the same source text has several versions in another language (or in other languages). First of all, this applies to the Bible, which surpasses other literary masterpieces in the number of existing translations into different languages and also has the longest tradition of interlingual transfers. Such fact determines the relevance of the subject of this article. Despite a large number of studies on various aspects of the Holy Writ translations, a number of issues related to their variation cannot be considered fully investigated, which makes it possible to speak of the scientific novelty of this article. A few fragments of the versions created in different languages were used as the material for this research, and the method of comparative analysis was applied for their study. The research results lead to the following conclusions: a) the variation in different translations of the selected fragments may be caused by both objective and subjective factors; b) the availability of the so-called “unclarities” in the source text, which allow for different interpretations, leads to significant differences in their representation in the target language; c) the aiming for pragmatic adaptation of the content for a foreign cultural audience in a number of cases entails the replacement of realities, sometimes distorting the actualness shown in the original text; d) modern translations may reflect issues related to political correctness, “an inclusive language”, etc., which do not always correspond to the ideology of the source text.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2021;12(3):547-558
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Valuation Сomponent of Metaphor UP vs. DOWN in German Political Cartoon
Denisova G.L.
Abstract

In German political cartoon the metaphor UP vs. DOWN introduces oppositions GOOD vs. BAD, MORE vs. LESS, UNREALIZABLE vs. PRACTICABLE. The paper describes their valuation components accenting the positive or negative sign of oppositions and its base in lexicon of the German language personality. Complex nature of cartoons, which are polycode texts, and their appeal to the language personality allow application of cognitive linguistics and methods of traditional linguistics. The paper demonstrates that political cartoons different realizations of this metaphor are visualized by levels: earth surface, above it, and below it. Certain valuation signs are fixed in realizations that gravitate towards the metaphor GOOD IS UP - BAD IS DOWN based on the human idea of levels structure of the world, which is a specific cognitive model reflected in German phraseology, inner form of words, traditional word combinations. Deviation from this model takes place by realization of the opposition UNREALIZABLE IS UP - PRACTICABLE IS DOWN, which is based on everyday pragmatism fixed in German phraseology. In this case the cartoonist creates special supports for the addressee to achieve correct understanding of his message. Distribution of signs in the opposition MORE IS UP - LESS IS DOWN is determined by the employed valuation grade, used by the cartoonist in his play with valuation signs to influence addressee’s opinion. Forming valuation signs of oppositions, the cartoonist bases on ideas reflected in the lexicon of the German language personality. This feature characterizes all realizations of metaphor UP vs. DOWN in political cartoons.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2021;12(3):559-575
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Spanish South American and Brazilian Demonyms: Morphosyntactic Structure and Axiological Values
Chesnokova O.S., Radović M., Kotenyatkina I.B.
Abstract

This article contributes to the study of the grammar, semantics, expressive values of a very special onymic category, inhabitants’ names, or demonyms. The authors examine and compare demonyms in two varieties of Romanic languages - South American Spanish and Brazilian Portuguese from both a multi-modal point of view and empirical evidence (synchronic and diachronic data) and systemize them by concentrating on their morphosyntactic distinctive features and semiotic content. The perspective revealed in this paper aims to study, define and analyze the main tendencies in the creation of denominative adjectives functioning as demonyms, to establish the parameters of discrepancies and convergences regarding demonyms of the region in question. The authors based on analyzing the motivation sources, grammar formulae, suffix combinations, socio-cultural varieties and the occurrence of homonymy, as well as their significance, axiological values in forming a group identity and the stereotypes they might lead to. The methodology has included semiotic, cognitive, historic and comparative analysis - a synchronic conceptual transdisciplinary analysis. The results of the study confirm the premise that the demonym suffixes randomly alternate in derivation processes, but also demonstrate the existence of other morphological and pragmatic trends while outlining the role of demonyms in migration processes, formation of a linguistic landscape and axiological values.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2021;12(3):576-596
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Automatic Detection of Sound Repetitions in Verse: Realising the Syllabocentric Approach in the Phonotext Program
Vekshin G.V., Gertzev M.N., Loskot Y.E.
Abstract

The article presents approaches to the automatic detection of sound repetitions and the measurement of sound coherence in Russian poetic text basing on the syllabocentric concept of the sound texture of the verse, which distinguishes the phonosyllabeme as its main operational unit and determines the main types of relations between the elements of repetition - equiphony and metaphony - and also allows describe the text in its unity of sound-segmental and rhythmic structure. The paper considers the linguistic prerequisites, main algorithms and methods, which form the basis of the PHONOTEXT computer program (web application), which automatically analyzes and visually forms the picture of the sound composition of the text presenting its quantitative characteristics. The basic operations of the program are described in detail, as well as the mathematical formulas used to identify the structure and carry out mathematical measurement of sound repetitions in Russian poetic speech. The article discusses the results of the program’s use for the comparative study of poetry and prose, individual works and individual styles of Russian poets. In particular, the data obtained using the Phonotext program allows us to speak of a tendency towards syntagmatic consolidation of the phonosyllabeme and intensive granulation of the sound texture of the text in the individual style of Osip Mandelstam as the evidence of his striving for poetic morphologization of the elements of sound repetition, it also shows a tendency towards the use of the dominant sound theme as a means for cohesion of a complex syntactic and compositional whole, in contrast to Vladimir Nabokov’s idiostyle, which is characterized by its orientation towards splitting up the elements of repetition, with a relatively chaotic interaction and spreading of consonances over the text and their low activity as a means of syntagmatic segmentation and consolidation of the text. The prospects for the development of the Phonotext program are described for identifying the relations of segment-sound and prosodic parallelism in speech (relations of equirhythmy and equiphony, including rhyme), which will provide an automatic presentation of a complete picture of the sound composition, the interaction of its main forms in the text and its further functional description.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2021;12(3):597-618
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Differentiated Analysis of the «Insult» Speech Genrebased on Messages from a Social Network Internet Sites
Komalova L.R., Goloshchapova T.I.
Abstract

The study of Internet mediated speech communication seems relevant due to the dynamic development of the Internet language, the lack of its codification and legal regulation, duplication of social practices and processes in the virtual environment. The present research is focused on one of the conflicting speech genres (speech acts), which is frequent within Internet communication. Speech actions in the genre of insult in some cases acquire illegal actions and are considered from the standpoint of law enforcement in the practice of forensic linguistics. The novelty of this study lies in the differentiated approach to insults as applied not only to the binary division of its interpretation within the ordinary logic and legal grounds, but also to the study of the distinctive characteristics of this phenomenon in refraction to various legal interpretations (in the criminal, civil, administrative codes). We analyzed written messages of Russian-speaking users of the social network site “VKontakte”, which were considered through the prism of the provisions of Article 5.61 “Insult” of the Administrative Code of the Russian Federation. In the course of the study, it was revealed that even within a specialized dataset of messages, perceived by the recipients as insulting messages, the share of messages corresponding to the criterion basis of insult (Article 5.61) is negligible.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2021;12(3):619-631
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Morphological Peculiarities of Lexical Units of English Origin in Contemporary Russian Slang: Dictionary and Corpus Analyses
Lacková M.
Abstract

The paper deals with lexical units of English origin that have penetrated into contemporary Russian slang with the emphasis on their morphological features. The spread of these words in the Russian language provides a scientist with a linguistically challenging material since the English and Russian languages represent typologically diverse language systems. To begin with, the research focuses on the ratio of individual word classes within the studied material together with the representation of individual grammatical genders throughout. As nouns represent the most numerous group of the adapted lexemes, the main emphasis is put on their morphological adaptation into the Russian language, and at the same time, their most common morphological features are listed. The following traits belong to the marginal ones from the point of view of word classes: an Anglicism may be a component of several word classes and the here-studied Anglicisms only exceptionally do not keep their original categorial meanings. Additionally, they display differences in onomasiological categories across the studied field. Morphological features of Anglicisms in Russian slang are the combination of Russian and English morphological aspects of individual word classes. Furthermore, words borrowed from English acquire grammatical categories typical of their corresponding counterparts in the Russian language. As a final point, most Anglicisms in the Russian slang undergo conjugation and declination processes (98,5% of instances). The possible utilization of the research is noticeable in the areas of comparative and corpus linguistics and translatology when searching for equivalents of words in typologically different languages. What is more, its results are applicable in the methodology of teaching foreign languages. The whole linguistic material is investigated in the framework of the online dictionary of slang and the text corpus Russian Web 2011 (ruTenTen11) with the help of the search tool Sketch Engine. To reveal the complex sociolinguistic and psycholinguistic functioning of the Anglicisms in contemporary Russian slang, further research needs to be conducted.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2021;12(3):632-651
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Motivation of Word Formation in Russian and Arabic Languages and its Role in Achieving Translation Equivalence
Al-Foadi R.A., Zarytovskaya V.N., Al-Roznamachi R.H.
Abstract

The article is devoted to the issue of word-formation motivation, which does not lose its relevance and plays a role not only in disclosing formal-semantic relations between words of one language and has not only theoretical, but also applied significance. The authors consider word-formation motivation consistently in its varieties in a comparative way on the materials of so different languages as Russian and Arabic and approach the mechanism of achieving semantic equivalence of translation. To the greatest extent, word-formation activity today, due to objective reasons, affects some special branch (technical, medical, etc.) vocabulary, which is increasing from year to year in national dictionaries. This extensive material, selected by the authors, not only illustrates the current trends in word formation in modern languages, but also provides an answer to the question about the degree of equivalence of this subgroup of words in Russian and Arabic. The goal to compare word-formation motivation according to a number of criteria in different-structured languages made possible not only to obtain theoretical information about what features each of the languages has in word formation and what derivational potential it has, but also to reveal an algorithm for translating derived words from one language to another. For this, the authors complete a number of such particular tasks as highlighting significant elements in the neologisms of the Russian and Arabic languages, establishing standards for the formation of scientific and terminological vocabulary in Arabic, searching for tools (transformation operations, specific word-formation formants) that will contribute to the achievement of translation equivalence from Russian to Arabic, etc. Also the analysis of differences in the mechanisms of the formation of new vocabulary in the Russian and Arabic languages provided an opportunity to supplement the relatively young and rapidly developing private methodology of Russian-Arabic translation.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2021;12(3):652-668
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English Career Terms Synonymy
Filyasova Y.A.
Abstract

Synonymy is a linguistic phenomenon which reflects the complexity of reality representation in a linguistic worldview. Terminological synonymy poses certain difficulties for specialists who perform practical tasks in application areas such as translation and education. Career development, career advancement, career growth, career progression, career progress, career enhancement are among the most frequently used terms with similar semantics which indicates a certain degree of indefiniteness in the terminology in the correspondent professional field. The aim of this paper is to conduct comparative linguistic analysis of these terms. The material is presented by research article titles from eight scientific databases. Methods include quantitative and qualitative study of frequency, semantic fields by semantically related concepts, keywords, syntagmatic collocability and componential analysis. The results show that career development can be currently considered a hyperonym as it is the most frequent and time-proved term with the widest semantic coverage and indication to professional spheres in the dictionaries. Despite its obvious prevalence, career advancement , career progression, career growth and career progress are gaining momentum as alternative terms highlighting a lack of important semantic nuances in career development. Though the general number of career advancement and career progression across research papers is considerably lower, their presence in article titles is almost the same as that of career development. Title is arguably the most demonstrative part of a research paper; therefore, it can be presumed that the career terms might acquire lexical meanings which will clearly differentiate vertical career growth from horizontal organizational movement.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2021;12(3):669-683
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Loan Words from English in Youth Slang 2020-2021: Evidence of Description and Analysis
Tsibizova O.V., Galankina I.I.
Abstract

Abstraсt. The study is devoted to the identification of English loan words in the youth slang inherent in the generation of “millennials” - young people between the age of 14 and 35 who were born on the turn of the millennium. There are many scientific works studying the phenomenon of youth slang, defining its boundaries, functions, and describing criteria. The most topical ones focus on the youth slang of the 2010s. There are studies of the issue of the English borrowing and English influence in modern Russian. However, the impact of English on the slang of modern youth is still understudied. We presume that the rapid increase in borrowings in this area requires close attention and scientific analysis. Millennial slang is represented in numerous humorous Internet publications, but unlike the slang of the previous generation, it is not properly described. The purpose of our paper is to identify new English borrowings, to highlight their lexical and grammatical characteristics as compared to those of previous years. The relevance of this work is due to the attention to the slang of today’s youth in the aspect of globalization processes. The study used methods of reviewing the works of linguists, the analysis of Internet publications and dictionary data, interviewing of informants, and diachronic comparison. As a result of the analysis of the collected material, an increase in the number of Anglicisms was shown in comparison with the 2010s, and some features of the formation of lexical meanings and grammaticalization of new lexical units were revealed. Youth slang is a reflection of modern social phenomena, and its study is of interest not only for linguists but also for culturologists, sociologists, and psychologists.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2021;12(3):684-698
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Russia’s Future Metaphorical Images in the Context of Constitutional Reform of 2020 as Exemplified in French Media
Zaripov R.I.
Abstract

The Russia’s image perception in the world always provokes professional interest in different fields of humanities. One of topical and efficient linguistic research directions of Russia’s image in different linguistic sections of discourse of mass-media is a metaphorical modelling method based on cognitive (cognitive and discursive) experience of referents structuring. The analysis of Russian linguists’ studies of the beginning of XXI century on metaphorical image of Russia in Western media outlets shows that metaphorical models being formed are usually stereotyped, standard and copy each other. However, the Russia’s future image remains unstudied and becomes topical for scientists of our country and general public in the context of a geopolitical confrontation and a constant informational warfare. Important internal political process in the beginning of 2020 in the Russian Federation and, in particular, the renewal of its Constitution, carrying socialized and patriotic amendments, provoked an active reaction of French media, that interpreted these events preconceived and misrepresented. Thus, the Russia’s future image reconstruction, represented by numerous metaphorical usages in French discourse of mass-media allows determining main conceptual aims as to our country, being broadcast persuasively and suggestively to the audience. To determine cognitive (cognitive and discursive) regularities of the Russia’s future image representation in French discourse of mass-media. The research methodology is formed on the metaphorical modelling theory and based on achievements of discourse analysis and some representatives of the cultural and cognitive linguistics. Methods of modelling, contextual, cognitive and discursive analysis as well as elements of componential analysis are used. The research is based on more than 100 texts of French leading media outlets (Le Monde, L’Express, Le Point, RFI, Libération, Le Nouvel Observateur etc.). The research revealed elements of the number of the Russia’s future metaphorical models such as: THE RUSSIA’S FUTURE IS THE PAST / USSR / SENILITY / DECLINE; THE RUSSIA’S FUTURE IS THE ABSOLUTE MONARCHY / RESTRICTED SPACE / FORTIFIED DEFENSE FACILITY. In the context of the Russia’s Constitution renewal its image of future is formed on exclusively negative metaphorical expressions. The analysis of metaphorical expressions in French discourse of mass-media related to spheres “Russia” and “Russia’s future” shows, that western political elite forms pejorative images of Russia as non-democratic state without future and doomed to extinction.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2021;12(3):699-713
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Numeral Systems in Various Fula Lects
Kosogorova M.A.
Abstract

The paper presents the analysis of Fula numeral system. Fula is an Atlantic language, dispersed throughout a vast territory in Sub-Saharan Africa. It has over 20 differently-sized lects subdivided into three zones - Western, Central and Eastern. The research included collecting the language data on six major lects, two from each zone. Then this data was analyzed from the point of view of internal and external syntax of ordinal, cardinal, distributive and fraction numerals. The comparative analysis of Fula numeral system on inter-lect scale has never been reflected in earlier Fula studies. Apart from a unique collection of numeral data from all language zones of Fula, the paper presents comparative analysis of such data, including, but not limited to, phonetic and contact-induced variabilities. The sources of structural and lexical loans in the system are listed wherever possible, because the disperse nature of Fula lects means that the contact languages and the ensuing changes can be different for each lect. Special attention is paid to the numeral bases, which can be somatic, commercial of a combination of the two. The Fula numeral system has never been analyzed from this point of view, and the contact changes to it are of great linguistic interest. Also cardinal numerals in Fula can change their form depending on the personality parameter of head noun. This system is unique for Fula and, more specifically, to its numeral system, and is properly described for the first time. Some parts of the Fula numeral system, like distributive and fraction numerals for some lects, have been found underrepresented and poorly described, which leaves room for further research, both field one and typological.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2021;12(3):714-734
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Representation of Socio-Political Transformation in the Contemporary Vocabulary of Japanese
Naumova E.A., Ananchenkova P.I.
Abstract

The article is devoted to the study of some social aspects of the socio-political changes impact in Japan in 2010-2020 and their contribution to the emergence of neologisms in the Japanese language. The active invasion of the English language into the vocabulary of the Japanese language is associated with social processes in Japan caused by its defeat in World War II, the period of American occupation, as well as the aggressive international policy of the 45th President of the United States Donald Trump. The aim of the work is to show the connection between the social processes in Japan and their international reflection under the pressure of US policy, and the appearance of neologisms of foreign origin in the Japanese language. Materials and methods of research: a method of structural-semantic modeling based on a detailed comparison of Japanese vocabulary. We also used a comparative method of studying socio-political processes. A sociological method was used to select the most common neologisms of foreign origin. Results of the work: we studied the neologisms of foreign origin that appeared in the last decade and have become quite densely included in the vocabulary of the Japanese language under the pressure of the country’s socio-political discourse against the background of US international policy, and, in particular, the aggressive political course of the 45th President of the United States Donald Trump in relation to Japan. In total, about 100 such neologisms were selected. We identified the most common neologisms of foreign origin through a sociological survey and studied in detail the history of the emergence of ten of them. These are lexical units that can be characterized not only as neologisms of exclusively foreign origin, but also as words of a mixed type, which are a combination of kango, words formed from roots of Chinese origin, and borrowings, as well as abbreviations of both types of new words. The work reflects the relationship between social processes in the country against the background of the international Japanese-American confrontation and the emergence of neologisms that entered the Japanese language.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2021;12(3):735-742
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DISCOURSIVE PRACTICES AND TEXT ANALYSIS
“Ethical Evaluation” as a Tactics of Delegitimization Strategy in the Pre-Election Discourse
Kameneva V.A., Rabkina N.V.
Abstract

The present study is based on such relevant areas of modern linguistics as Political linguistics and Linguistic personology. It included//includes samples of 30 speeches given by US President Joe Biden during his 2020 election campaign. A review of related scientific publications showed almost no detailed works on linguistic means connected with tactics that brings about delegitimization strategy; nor is there any unified term for a strategy of creating a negative image of a political rival in the election discourse. The authors believe that, in the election discourse, the abovementioned strategy aims at destroying the credibility of the political opponent and the solutions they have to offer beyond questioning their legality. Therefore, the tactics of ethical evaluation can be an effective means to destroy the credibility of a political oppo nent by using words of evaluative connotation. The tactics makes it possible to explicate a direct or contextual negative attitude to an opponent. Joe Biden’s ethical evaluation of Donald Trump appeared to have three axiological aspects. The research used the theoretical and methodological apparatus of Political linguistics and Linguistic personology, e.g. such methods as content analysis, lexical-semantic analysis, and intent analysis. The paper introduces an analysis of lexemes that verbalize the tactics of ethical evaluation, which showed predominance of words and idioms of an unambiguous negative evaluative connotation. The authors also detected the absence of any abusive language that could be interpreted as a direct insult or accusation. The results can be used for a critical analysis of the political discourse of individual politicians.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2021;12(3):743-757
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Lexical-Grammatical Means of Expressing Oppositivity in an English Literary Text
Lunkova L.N., Frolova J.I.
Abstract

The article considers the notional nature and peculiarities of genus-species relations between the phenomena of opposition and oppositivity ; it also deals with the lexical-and-grammatica ways of expressing the latter in an English literary text. The study establishes that, besides the logical component, an opposition also expresses a subjective one, manifesting a communicant’s unique view on the communicative situation and thus displaying semantics of oppositivity. Unlike spatial, logical and grammatical oppositions, generally characterized by a symmetrical structure, the subjective (oppositive) opposition is asymmetrical. It is revealed that due to the structural asymmetry this kind of opposition is marked by greater semantic potential compared to logical and grammatical oppositions. It is proved that the complication of subjective oppositions with antonymous pairs, lexical and syntactical repetitions, antithetic units, oxymorons etc. extends the scope of meanings implied by them; and the use of subjective (oppositive) oppositions in a literary text themselves becomes an effective tool of contrast-building both on the lexical-grammatical and textual levels.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2021;12(3):758-773
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Hashtag as a Linguocognitive Unit of Spanish Political Discourse
Larionova M.V., Demkina A.V.
Abstract

The article presents an analysis of the discursive features of the hashtags functioning in the current Spanish political discourse which are retrieved from Spanish government, ministries and bodies web publications dedicated to combating coronavirus infection. The purpose of the research is to understand and treat hashtags as a discursive unit in terms of theoretical linguistics, discourse theory, cognitive science and pragmalinguistics. The paper reveals significant linguo-cognitive parameters of the hashtags functioning in Spanish political communication and determines the impact of their verbal and pragmatic influence as a tool for structuring the political agenda in the interests of the sender and manipulative means influencing the consciousness and behavior of the addressee. The interdisciplinary approach is applied together with a set of systemic linguistic research methods - cognitive, pragmalinguistic, comparative, semantic, contextual and discourse analysis. The article clarifies the status of hashtags as an independent category of discourse, in other words, a unit of meaningful information that seamlessly conveys the designed content in the Internet communication, which includes political discourse. In accordance with the functional criterion, the following taxonomic classification of hashtags is substantiated: hashtags-prototypes of a situation or event, hashtags-concepts, hashtags-metaphors, hashtags-imperatives and hashtags-performatives. Key cognitive-pragmatic and linguistic characteristics of hashtags include: metatext structure, semiotic polycode, hypertextuality, interactive essence, intentionality, manipulative potential, simplified syntax, frequent use of performative and imperative verbs to intensify a call to action, emotionality, empathy, use of a language game mechanism to facilitate memorization of a key message, repetitions, rhythm.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2021;12(3):774-788
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Tools of Creating Emotional Climate in Knowledge-Based Television Space
Gladko M.A.
Abstract

The relevance of the article is due to the need to comprehend and identify the specifics of the formation of emotional mood in modern knowledge-based TV texts of an advisory nature. It will make possible to better understand the specifics of educational genres. The purpose of the work is to establish and describe the repertoire of tools for the formation of emotional mood and linguistic means of their representation in a knowledge-based television discourse. The research material was TV broadcasts of thematic groups as follows: leisure, health and healthy lifestyle, home improvement, food, driving, beauty and fashion. The corpus of the texts under analysis is represented by advisory-instructive and informative-demonstrative genres. The novelty of the research lies in the fact that in the texts that broadcast everyday, practical knowledge, tools are recorded and described that simulate the emotional mood of the viewer in the process of learning process. The research reveals that the textual representatives of the advisory and instructive genres of relaxation and hedonistic themes construct an impressions and pleasure zone. At the same time, the accents of texts describing ways of behavior in danger-associated situations (for example, health topics) are focused on regulating the mood and emotions of the media audience. Such texts are constructed based on an emotionally sensual modality that swings the viewer's emotions from negative to positive. The formation of such a diverse emotional tone is aimed at creating a positive attitude towards specific health improvement actions, as well as encouraging adherence to the rules of a healthy lifestyle in society. The article describes the triggers that produce positive and negative emotions, as well as tools for their activation in the text (the image of the author and the image of the addressee; genres of everyday communication, designed in a friendly-informal register; linguistic means). The research reveals functions of impression producing (attracting attention, positive emotional modeling, formation of a positive attitude to the object of expression and persuasive influence) and regulation of emotional mood (socially stabilizing, regulation of behavior, persuasive influence).

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2021;12(3):789-805
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“Russian Bear” in the Spanish-Language Media Discourse
Kleshchenko L.L.
Abstract

The article examines the role of the bear metaphor in the Spanish-language political discourse. The relevance of the study is due, firstly, to the intensification of cooperation between Russia and Latin American countries, the effectiveness of which can be influenced by stereotypes and political symbols. Secondly, the growing popularity of the use of zoomorphic metaphors by the mass media. One of the unofficial symbols of Russia, which is often addressed by both traditional media and social media, is the bear. The “Russian Bear” metaphor is now widely used in both Russian and foreign periodicals and cartoons. The purpose of this research is to identify the specifics of the representation of the image of Russia as a bear in the Ibero-American political mass-media discourse. The source for the analysis is a Spanish-language media discourse (cases: the 2014 Ukrainian crisis, the Venezuelan crisis, Russia’s military operation in Syria, Russia’s interference in the elections in Mexico). The scientific novelty of the study is that for the first time in the Russian-language scientific literature, the features of the use of the bear metaphor by Latin American media and social media are examined. The author concludes that the metaphor “Russian Bear” is used both in the internal political symbolic struggle and in the foreign policy discourse. The specifics of the use of the bear metaphor in Latin America are mainly determined by political orientations: for example, the left traditionally considers Russia as an ally, appealing to such meanings of the bear metaphor as strength, justice, and the ability to become a defender against aggressors. In turn, their opponents use a bear metaphor to label left-wing politicians as traitors to the national interest. In this context, the image of a Bear serves as a symbolic border guard. The bear metaphor can be used to create an image of an ally and defender, as well as an enemy. The Ibero-American media turn to the bear metaphor mainly in the headlines and subheadings of materials devoted to Russian foreign policy, which allows them to draw readers’ attention to the topic under consideration.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2021;12(3):806-822
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THEORY, METHODOLOGY AND HISTORY OF LINGUISTICS. SEMIOTICS AND LINGUOCULTUROLOGY
Through the Synergetic Union of Linguistics and Other Sciences - to New Challenges and Directions
Maslova V.A.
Abstract

In recent decades linguistics is less interested in the structure of language and the systemic relationships between its units, which are generally well described. At the turn of the century, we observe sharply increased interest in the problems of the relationship between language, consciousness, culture, mentality, national character and behavior. The language itself is understood as a “mirror” (though a crooked one) of reality, of a person, of his external and internal world. Such a broad approach supposes the impossibility of solving emerging problems as part of linguistics only; it needs the help of a whole range of related sciences about man - from psychology, anthropology, sociology, cultural studies to biology, neurosciences and quantum mechanics. Thus, we can see the interest in the integration of sciences. The purpose of this article is to conceptualize theoretically this new phenomenon and to show that modern linguistics must meet the requirements of the time and therefore it should be interdisciplinary and integrative; we tried to establish the relationship between tradition and new ideas in linguistics of the third millennium and showed that the problems arising in the language can be solved by the joint efforts of representatives of a number of sciences. The results obtained in this article allow us to put forward the issues that demand, in our view, immediate attention and show the importance of combining an objective linguistic analysis and the results of their research in semiotics, theology, psychology. These are such phenomena as 1) deep semantic processes; 2) language is a means of expressing Divine Truth; 3) language and national character. The obtained integrative knowledge can reveal non-causal relationships in the world, discover deeper laws of being, for example, the fact that consciousness is not rigidly connected with language, therefore it can hardly be researched by an associative experiment, although psycholinguists have long hoped for this. Physicist John Wheeler, taking into account experiments in quantum physics, proved that even if we just look at an object, it is changing under the influence of the gaze. How much stronger is the influence of a word? This is to be inquired in the near future as the part of an integrative approach.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2021;12(3):823-847
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«Health - disease» Conceptual Sphere: Cultural Code
Markelova T.V., Novikova M.L.
Abstract

The research is focused on the conceptual, figurative and value features of « health - disease » concepts due to their permanently growing importance, reflected in the language mindset. These processes are caused by various trends leading to the increasing danger to human health: epidemics, human-induced disasters, environment pollution. Due to the relevance of the issues, the authors aim to analyse the « health - disease » conceptual sphere as a strategy to changehuman mentality and the attitude to health as a norm and a value as well as to disease as a deviation from normal life, which implies observation of values and image characteristics of concepts, revealing and describing the cultural semantics of signs. The research is designed according to the original perceptive image that every concept is based on. This image represents a vector basis in a configuration of meanings inherent in the whole conceptual sphere. The analysis of the conceptual sphere using the corpus analysis tools allowed the authors comes to the conclusion that they vary and differ within cultural functionality determined by the conceptual characteristics. Actualization of a negative or positive attitude to health and disease caused by internal and external factors reveals the dominance of the signs motivated by the external events, such as the formation of the new human health-oriented mentality and the creation of a specified conceptual sphere. The description of ambivalent concepts provided in the axiological perspective provides an opportunity to learn more about complicated conceptual spheres and explore linguistic experience objectivation, experienced knowledge quantum as well as social and group specifics in the « health - disease» conceptual sphere.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2021;12(3):848-874
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The History of Semiotic Ideas: Victoria Lady Welby’s Significs
Skripnik K.D.
Abstract

The purpose of this article is to characterize the basic ideas of the conception of significs, the original science of sign and meaning that emerged at the turn of the 19th-20th centuries in the works of Victoria Lady Welby (1837-1912). The article explains the features of significs, which considers the meaning of verbal and non-verbal signs as a complex hierarchical structure, the levels of which are sense, meaning, and significance. Significance includes the preceding levels and takes into account their relations with axiological characteristics. The author points out that the content of the structure of “sense-meaning-significance” can be represented in different ways, depending on metaphorical, terminological, social and communicative factors. The conception of significs thus becomes universal and fundamental. The article emphasizes that significs highlights the dynamic nature of meaning, considering changes, that take place on each of its levels. The author sees in this fact the connection of significs with the evolutionary ideas contained in linguistics and natural science, and traces the process of formation of significs, arguing that its foundations lie in the description of various examples of the use of language, undertaken by V. Welby at the early stages of her research. The article is based on the study and comparative analysis of both the works of V. Welby herself and the commentary literature. In conclusion the author specifizes the value of the conception of significs as an integral dynamic theory of sign, meaning, and significance, which incorporates the various aspects of sign issues - from the logical and linguistic to the axiological and pragmatic ones, and indicates the ways of explication the impact of significs on the subsequent development of semiotic, philosophical, and linguistic researches.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2021;12(3):875-887
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J. Baudouin de Courtenay, A. Schleicher and “Beiträge zur vergleichenden Sprachforschung auf dem Gebiete der arischen, celtischen und slawischen Sprachen”
Lukin O.V.
Abstract

The article is devoted to two outstanding linguists - Jan Niecisław Ignacy Baudouin de Courtenay (13.03.1845-3.11.1929) and A. Schleicher (19.02.1821-6.12.1868) - and their cooperative work in “Beiträge zur vergleichenden Sprachforschung auf dem Gebiete der arischen, celtischen und slawischen Sprachen”, the journal established by A. Schleicher and A. Kuhn. The article contains some understudied facts about the relations between the two great scientists and a description of the scientific paradigm in which their interaction developed. This article provides a full list of Baudouin’s works published in the “Beiträge zur vergleichenden Sprachforschung auf dem Gebiete der arischen, celtischen und slawischen Sprachen” journal and the articles by Schleicher published in its first volume. It also gives the names of scientists who supported the journal and influenced academic development of both linguists. “Beiträge zur vergleichenden Sprachforschung auf dem Gebiete der arishen, celtischen und slawischen Sprachen”, one of the most authoritative bodies of Indo-European studies of the XIX century, has become a recognized tribune of world-class researchers in the field of comparative historical linguistics since its foundation in 1858. In addition to A. Kuhn, A. Schleicher and his students (A. Leskin and J. Schmidt), such outstanding linguists as T. Aufrecht, A.F. Weber, F. Miklosich, M. Müller, A.F. Pott, H. Steinthal, W.D. Whitney, H.W. Ebel and many others published their scientific works there. J. Baudouin de Courtenay’s collaboration with this scientific publication was fruitful for his development as a scientist and allowed him to introduce his revolutionary views to the general linguistic community.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2021;12(3):888-904
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The Structure of the Dictionary Entry of the Educational Linguoculturological Dictionary of Russian Paremias Against the Backdrop of Chinese Language Equivalents: Description Problems
Yakimenko N.Y., Qiu X.
Abstract

The article is devoted to the description of structure and content peculiarities of the dictionary entry of the educational linguoculturological dictionary. The originality of the research concerns the development of the structure and semantics of the dictionary entry of the educational linguoculturological dictionary of paremias representing the concept of BUSINESS in the Russian language. The description takes into account semantic gaps of the culture that the dictionary is focused on. In this article attention is paid to cultural mental attitudes, which are expressed by Russian and Chinese language paremias. Which is why cultural settings were the subject of a linguoculturological description and were offered as one of the main parameters of the educational dictionary. It is the mental attitudes of culture that have become the subject of linguoculturological description and we offer them as one of the main elements of the educational dictionary. The object of the study is the paremias of the two languages that characterize the concepts of business, work, labor, and craft. The aim of the study is to identify and describe the general and national-specific mental attitudes of culture and their representation in the educational linguoculturological dictionary. Russian and Chinese dictionaries of paremias (e.g. the “Big Dictionary of Russian Proverbs”, V.M. Mokienko, T.G. Nikitina, E.K. Nikolaeva, collection of proverbs by A.I. Dal, “Big Dictionary of Chinese Proverbs” by Wen Duanzheng) served as the sources of the material. The analysis of bilingual linguoculturological dictionaries is carried out, which helps to identify the basic principles of constructing a dictionary article, and a model of a dictionary article of a linguoculturological educational dictionary aimed at native speakers of the Chinese language is proposed. The creation of the educational linguoculturological dictionaries will help improve the process of intercultural communication.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2021;12(3):905-917
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Topical Trends of Modern Linguistics with the Positions of the Systemic Approach. Some Thoughts on the Results of a Scientific Internship at RUDN University “General and Specialized Methodology of Philological Science”, 2019
Valentinova O.I., Denisenko V.N., Rybakov M.A.
Abstract

The article describes disputes about current issues of the modern scientific paradigm from the standpoint of systemic linguistics, whose powerful explanatory potential remains beyond the scope of the mass trends of linguistic science, and the formulation of new scientific issues as a result of a fruitful extrapolation of the systemic approach to the fields of philology that are not considered by the founders of systemic linguistics. In the first part of the article we considered differences in understanding the object, subject and method in Russian and foreign cognitive linguistics, leading to the loss of the international nature of linguistics, discussion of extremely painful issues for the Russian “cognitive science” about the cognitive futility of the term “concept” and the application of the “cognitive” approach in the study of discourse and text, violation of the continuity between the highest achievements of Russian and foreign scientific thought and the popular modern areas of linguistic research. Further in the article, the standpoint of a systemic typology is applied to the active processes of modern Russian speech. In the light of the approach taken, the facts that seem disparate from the standpoint of the culture of speech, from the standpoint of the systemic typology of languages, appear interconnected and determined by a general tendency - the deformation of the morphological type of the Russian language in the direction of the destruction of inflectivity. The result of the observed typological changes is the reduction in the possibility transfer highly intellectual meanings. An explanation of the principles of the organization of poetic speech in relation to the systemic typology of languages is an example how successfully S.Yu. Preobrazhensky applied the theory of the founder of modern systemic linguistics in the field which is far from interests of G.P. Melnikov. If the coincidence of the boundaries of the verse with the boundaries of the phrase within the sentence means the prevalence of the natural, that is, characteristic of the type of natural language in which the poem is written, principle of division, then the mismatch of boundaries speaks of a poetic technique that seeks to emphasize that the poetic statement is called upon to perform special communicative tasks leading to reconfiguring poetic syntax to other types of languages. The prospects of updating the systemic approach in modern semantic studies of grammar and vocabulary are discussed in the fourth and final part. The obtained results, which are set out in the article become the evidence base of the high potential for using the achievements of systemic linguistics in modern research practices.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2021;12(3):918-933
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