Vol 10, No 3 (2019): Functional Semantics Paradigms of the 21st century

FROM THE EDITORIAL BOARD
Functional Semantics and Linguosemiotics
Denisenko V.N., Perfilieva N.V.
Abstract
RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2019;10(3):553-566
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METHODOLOGY AND METHODS OF FUNCTIONAL SEMANTICS AND LINGUOSEMIOTICS
Philosophical Issues of Semantics Raised by L.A. Novikov as a Key to Creating the Terminology Apparatus of Legal Linguistics (Category of Intentiuon)
Maslova V.A., Lavitski A.A.
Abstract

In the late 20th century, in linguistics, inevitable changes were felt which were connected with the necessity in the transition of the science about language onto an absolutely new stage of its development. L.A. Novikov was one of the first among those who understood it. In the 80-s of the previous century he presented a new idea of semantics with deep philosophic understanding of its problem field, with the aspiration to seek solutions through the language interdisciplinary links. For the contemporary linguistics L.A. Novikov’s approaches are evident; however, they are not deprived of urgency and can become a clue to the solution of many problems especially in the field of terminology studies. In the present paper, on the basis of L.A. Novikov’s theory, an attempt is made to give the definition for the category of intentionality from the point of view of legal linguistics since the application of the available in the theory of law ideas for the new integrated direction is already insufficient. Legal linguistics has entered the development phase when there is an urgent necessity in shaping its own terminological vocabulary. This process can’t be “closed” and be limited by the approaches of the theory of law and theory of language: the shaping of the notion apparatus must be based on the ideas available in philosophy, psychology, physiology, education etc. This understanding of the problem finds its reflection in the present paper which makes it possible to define intentionality as a form of the implementation of the deliberateness of the act which is determined by the motive.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2019;10(3):567-580
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Sign-Pragmem as a Semiotic Dominant of the Axiological Field
Markelova T.V.
Abstract

The study tested the semiotic approach to the system of evaluation marks allocated on the basis of pragmatic function. Traditional triad - semantics, syntactics, pragmatics - is accompanied by sigmatech as a branch of semiotics, determining the relationship between sign and object, which has not been properly studied yet. The system of evaluation of signs - function, connotation, pragmem, their functional and semantic differences are described through the prism of the semantic structure of the word influenced by the pragmatic function. Non-standard character of pragmatic mark is denotative-significative, expressing the nature convoluted judgment is focused on the subject of speech and its axiological intentions. The article demonstrates semantic, syntactic and pragmatic nature of Prameny sign evaluation with special feaches of its semiotic nature. Three types of evaluation signs - functions, connotations, pragmem -are compared and the role of pragmem in the system is defined. The leading role of pragmem in the axiological fragment of the linguistic picture of the world is determined.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2019;10(3):581-592
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Semiotic Dominants of the Information Presentation in Digital Diplomacy
Belyakov M.V.
Abstract

The diplomatic communications represents complex system consisting of various components. The article deals with the examples of elements presentation in this system on a site of diplomatic services of Russia subject to communicative tactics, a level of polycode and multimodality in information wars. Characteristic semiotics features of the information presentation are highlighted.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2019;10(3):593-601
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Hermeneutic Aspects of Bilingualism: the Role of Interlingual Interference
Sverdlova N.A.
Abstract

The article is devoted to the problem of studying bilingualism. The object of study is the mechanism of acquiring a non-native language, considered in the context of the hermeneutic approach. For a deeper analysis of the process of acquiring a non-native language, the role of mental and metapsychic categories on the way to bilingual understanding of new knowledge about the world is considered. The activity of a person in the conditions of personal choice is a complex one, where the central place is given to consciousness. Understanding, as a function of consciousness, becomes a key issue in the interpretation of the reality where the bilingual is. The interpretation of all components of the “new” (other) culture and the world goes through language. The native language of the bilingual is associated through a particular set of “presetting” and “pre-understanding”. Gaining new experience in the conditions of conscious choice leads to the emergence of a double format of perception of the world, which does not contradict human nature, is a condition of completeness of the world view. The tasks of the researcher included the representation of linguistic personality in terms and concepts of hermeneutics; the definition of the basic mental processes that are characteristic of the formation of bilingual linguistic personality; the study of interference as a natural process and the result of the interpretation of the phenomena of reality. The article attempts to explain the role of consciousness and understanding in bilingual speech activity and to define the essence of interlanguage interference in the light of the applied approach. In interaction of conceptual and linguistic spheres of the system, appears for the interference systems. Due to irreversible changes in the structure of linguistic consciousness, interlingual interference becomes a natural process that can disrupt decoding under certain communication conditions.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2019;10(3):602-609
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The Semiotic Method of Cognition of Reality: Limits of Applicability
Kuzmin P.А.
Abstract

This article discusses the degree and usefulness of the applicability of the semiotic method in science, philosophy and academic theology. The philosophy of the semiotic method and its relationship with Orthodox theology are considered. A specific case of application of the semiotic method in Russian science in the study of theological texts in the works of S.S. Averintsev is presented and studied. It is concluded that the extensional universality of the semiotic method in all spheres of knowledge and its limitations in the ability to adequately reflect reality.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2019;10(3):610-621
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LEXICO-SEMANTIC TRANSFORMATIONS: FROM WORD TO TEXT ↔ FROM TEXT TO WORD
Lexico-Semantic Transformations in Translation of Stories by V.M. Shukshin into English
Vekovishcheva S.N., Guseinova M.I., Priorova E.M., Savchenko E.P.
Abstract

This article is dedicated to the analysis of a lexico-semantic transformation in translation of fiction. The aim of the paper is to identify frequently and less frequently used translation transformations that we treat as cross-language transformations. These transformations are based on selection of the lexical units in target language closed in sematic meaning to those used in source language. V.M. Shukshin’s texts are used as the linguistic material for the conducted research. The translations are prepared by R. Daglish, L. Michael and J. Givens. The study shows that the most difficult units for translation are those having specific meaning due to cultural factors. Cultural associations in V.M. Shukshin’s texts are based on territorial and ethnographic information. Items actively participate in formation of the cultural code. They can be considered as a marker of cultural feature of a text. Translators’ functions include the pragmatic adaptation of texts and different comments. The phenomenon can be explained by the fact that the translator does not always possess enough background knowledge (as far as dialectal words are concerned) or in other words associative links between the object and the name it identifies. The results of the research explain the necessity of a new approach in professional practice.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2019;10(3):622-633
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Lexical Peculiarities of the Modern Spanish Language of Guatemala
Kotenyatkina I.B.
Abstract

Despite the fact that Russian linguists are actively exploring the peculiarities of the implementation of language means in Latin American countries, the Spanish language of Guatemala has not yet been the object of analysis in terms of the variation of lexical units. This article examines the lexical units used in the Guatemalan national variety of the Spanish language through the prism of modern lexical semantics, using the current common approaches and methods of the linguistics discipline. The peculiarities of the Guatemalan national variety of the Spanish language are demonstrated, such as: high-frequency common Spanish units that have undergone semantic changes; prevailing terms and idioms that are unusual for Spain; many innovations of both Guatemalan and Mexican origin are used; a large number of loanwords from indigenous languages; and diminutives are widely used. Finally, it is concluded that the revealed and studied peculiarities of the Spanish language of Guatemala determine the need to study it not only for developing philological knowledge but also, to a large extent, for meeting the practical needs of the modern society.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2019;10(3):634-643
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Possibility of Semantic Transformation of Proper Names in the German language
Chigasheva M.A.
Abstract

This article presents a brief overview of the language means of the German used in modern media discourse. Currently, the role of political communication, mediated by media discourse, is becoming increasingly important and attracting more and more attention of linguists. The language of the media is dynamic, imaginative, expressive, at the same time it is subject to the general principles of the functioning of the language system. A good example of this is the use in the texts of German-language online editions of the names of proper and derived lexical units. The focus is on deonyms, formed from the names of famous political figures of Germany and Austria. The results of the analysis show that proper names have an associative potential; in the process of use in speech, they can undergo semantic changes, lose touch with the designation of a specific person, and become a derivational basis for new lexical units. Thus, in the German language, thanks to the structure of anthroponyms and typical word-formation models, there appear deonyms-verbs, deonyms-participles, deonyms-adverbs, deonyms-adjectives, deonyms-nouns. They are designed to perform suggestive and manipulative functions in media discourse. This language phenomenon is of interest from the point of view of cognitive science, semantics, translation studies, comparative linguistics.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2019;10(3):644-652
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Authorial neologisms and occasionalisms. The phenomenon of the novel “The Little hero” by F.M. Dostoevsky
Osokina E.A.
Abstract

The purpose of the study is to identify neologisms and occasionalisms as special words and phrases that characterize the author’s idiostyle; to show their origin; to explain their difference and similarity; to clarify the terminology. The aim of the study is to show new words and combinations of words in the General fabric of the author’s text and explain their use and purpose; to trace the dependence of the number of neologisms and occasionalisms on the conditions of creation of the work and the initial idea of the author. The method of linguistic research is the use of electronic and corpus technology in the study of literary text. Standard spelling program allows you to see in the text of neologisms and occasional, which stand out as different from the norm of literary language. Then the linguistic analysis of innovations is carried out and their classification is made on the basis of similar signs on etymology, word formation and morphological, semantic and phraseological modification. Take into account the precedent of the creation of the neologism occasionalism or due to the Cabinet technology. Clarification of terms to describe the language of the writer and his creative manner leads to a unification of understanding neologisms and occasionalisms in context due to the usage of the author, allowing you to create a special vertext in understanding any text. This is expressed in the anticipation of the perception of the text and in a concise and capacious characterization. Quantitative picture of neologisms-occasionalisms in all the works of Dostoevsky and every in the long term makes it possible to compare how different works of the writer and of works of different authors in the synchrony and diachrony of the Russian language. The research initially is the text of the story “Little hero”, which was written during the imprisonment in the Peter and Paul fortress, that is special for a person and writer extreme conditions of stress, and then drawing the material of other works presenting meaningful, chronological and quantitative interest on the use of neologisms and occasionalisms. This fixation of the reader’s attention on the vanishing moment makes it necessary to create a new word or phrase in the event that the main character of the story becomes invisible, small, almost disappearing. Psychologically, this technique can be explained by the revival of the author’s self-consciousness after severe stress. The phenomenon of the “The Little hero” is in the vanishing hero, and therefore in the vanishing author.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2019;10(3):653-664
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Semantic volume of the word Conviction in the Words and Homilies of the Russian saints of the 20th century
Koreneva Y.V.
Abstract

For the first time the article analyzes the semantics of the word conviction in the words and teachings of Russian saints of the twentieth century. The material is extracted from symphonies in the works of saints and from collections of sayings of Russian elders of the twentieth century. The article analyzes the semantics of the use of this word in religious texts as the implementation of religious discourse in comparison with the codified meaning of modern dictionaries. It is shown that the lexeme conviction is included in the etymological-word formative nest of semantics of different words in the modern Russian language ( court, judge, condemn, reason, judgment, fate, judicial , etc.) of the Indo-European root *dhe- (: *-dh-o: *dh-i-) with the semantics of establishment, action, and in addition with the prefix su- , which means combining or mixing, has negative appraisal and is Church Slavism in the Russian language not only by phonetic and orthographic signs, but primarily by semantic signs. The semantic difference in the religious and non-religious use of this word in the Russian and Church Slavonic language element is in the significative side, since in the Orthodox concept-sphere and the Russian religious discourse, conviction is associated with a number of conceptual ideas about the inner life of a person. Conviction is semantized as a destructive state of a person, violating the integrity of his personality and alienating him from God (the article identifies at least three semantic-cognitive features). Such semantic content clearly differs from lexicographical data in modern language, therefore the meaning of a word in Church Slavonic text space is understood as basic, and modern usage is understood as a narrowing of the original semantics.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2019;10(3):665-672
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CONCEPTUAL SPHERE AND AESTHETIC FUNCTION OF DRAMA TEXT AND DISCOURSE
About the Originality of the Manifestation of the Aesthetic Function in Modern Dramatic Discourse
Zaitseva I.P.
Abstract

The article focuses on one - the key, in the author’s opinion - aspect of the analysis of the modern dramatic work, which allows to demonstrate the peculiarities of the aesthetic function in the works belonging to this literary genus: the consideration of the principles of the organization of the playwright of the compositional and speech zone of the characters. It is this part of the dramaturgic discourse, leading in the content-conceptual plan and prevailing in the spatial relation, that is seen as the most significant for the interpretation of the play as a fact of verbal art with the unconditional consideration of the syncretic character of dramaturgic form. The relevance of this topic is due to the fact that, despite the significant success of modern philology in the study of the specifics of artistic speech, dramatic speech is still the least studied of its sphere. The purpose of research - analysis of dialogical spheres of contemporary plays versus not artistic dialogue and partly as a dialogue in prose, allowing you to set the number of features forming the identity of contemporary dramatic dialogue speech. The material for the observations was the play of the modern author E. Cherlak «Mortgage and Vera, her mother» (2011). In the interpretation of the materials used methods: observation, compositional, contextual and semantic-stylistic analysis. In addition, the conducted observations suggest that the analysis of the manifestations of aesthetic function in the works of drama should be carried out taking into account the textual nature of this compositional and speech sphere, as well as paying special attention to the author’s principles of its system organization, since this approach helps to identify not only the distinctive characteristics of dramatic speech, but also the features of the individual author’s handwriting of the playwright.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2019;10(3):673-686
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Componential Analysis as a Fundamental Senses Microsystem in W.S. Maugham’s ‘THEATRE’
Kozlova L.Y.
Abstract

Identification of fundamental senses in the work “Theatre” by the outstanding British writer and playwright W.S. Maugham was an objective of this research. In the given work both the conceptual analysis and the componential analysis of the main character Julia Lambert`s sphere of concepts was used. The componential analysis of the revealed lexico-semantic group of the words representing a concept “theater” showed a microsystem of the meanings having two main ones at its core: LIE, belonging to the concept sphere of theater - TRUTH, concerning the concept sphere of reality.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2019;10(3):687-699
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The English Economic Term ‘Human Capital’ and Its Semantic Field in Scientific Discourse
Filyasova Y.A.
Abstract

Recently, human capital (HC) has acquired special relevance in response to digital economy development. A semantic study of HC is significant for its linguistic description and practical purposes of teaching business English to students, specializing in economics and management. The aims of the research were to analyze dictionary definitions, compare them with contextual interpretations, and identify syntagmatic relations and lexical collocability of the term HC in scientific discourse. 340 article titles and their abstracts from 18 journals on economics and management served as the material for the research. The methods included continuous sampling, analysis of contextual relations, semantic classification, and componential analysis. The results of definition analysis showed that HC has intangible components of meaning and partly overlaps with resources , in opposition to capital which has monetary nature. Contextual interpretations disclose more semantic aspects of HC. Monetary relations and production factors make it closer to capital . Considerable attention is paid to HC formation and measurement. Terms, related to HC, embrace a wide variety of phenomena from almost all functional areas of business, which indicate the importance of HC for sustainable development, increasing profit and competitiveness. Semantic classification of collocations shows that HC is considered at the personal, organizational and national levels. The most frequent syntagmatic sequences include HC+N , N+Prep.+HC , and Adj.+HC . Objective valency type: V+HC is more common than subjective: HC+V . The most frequent collocations are HC accumulation , HC investments , and the role of HC .

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2019;10(3):700-713
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What is the Colour of the Feeling (A Case Study of English Idioms with Colour Components)
Pasechnik T.B., Savelieva I.G.
Abstract

The present article explores English phraseological units with the meaning of emotion that have been fully or partially rethought and have a colour component. The emotive component of the idioms mentioned, is, thus, the object of the present study. In this paper we endeavor to show that the colour nominations which correlated to the concepts of ‘warmth’ and ‘coldness’ define the semantics of the whole idiom which is used for figurative naming human emotions. Looking at the use of colour components in an idiom, we cannot, but consider the key element of an idiom, i.e. idiomaticity, which we understand as the reinterpretation of an expression and the murkiness of its meaning. The article contains the analysis of both idioms which can be traced to free collocations and expressions which are not used in their literal meaning. The group of idioms in question primarily comprises the expressions of murky semantic structure. The examples of colour names exemplify the situation, when reinterpretation can apply no just to a single expression, but also to its components. In this case the colour component of the idiom acquires new semantics, i.e. It no longer means the colour in its literal sense, thus adding the meaning of ‘emotion’ to the semantic structure of the idiom, giving it a new meaning. It is worth pointing out that the number of colour nominations that can be viewed from this perspective is limited. At the same time a huge number of words denoting colours and shades have now emotive meanings whatsoever. However, if we look at other languages, we might find such examples, which in turn can be explained by the fact that people of different cultures perceive the world differently. Language is very good at capturing similarities and differences. The questions raised in the article are of utmost importance as they resonate with the current trends in linguistics, namely with the theory of secondary nomination in various languages and the issues of ideas’ verbalization in phraseological units. Typological and etymological studies of dozens of languages have revealed a set of universal mechanisms in the system of color naming. However, along with universal mechanisms, there are language and culture specific ones. The analysis of such kind gives us a better understanding of this part of the worldview in different cultures.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2019;10(3):714-721
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