Vol 10, No 2 (2019)

FROM THE EDITORIAL BOARD
MAIN DIRECTIONS OF PRASEOLOGICAL STUDIES
Novospasskaya N.V.
Abstract
RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2019;10(2):233-237
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PHRASE RESOURCES
QUOTES FROM THE FABLES OF IVAN ANDREEVICH KRYLOV IN RUSSIAN SPEECH (The 250-th anniversary of the birth)
Sidorenko K.P.
Abstract

The article is devoted to some questions of functioning of quotation units from I.A. Krylov’s fables (actually quotations, literary images, winged expressions and phraseological units created on their basis). The author's word is considered from the standpoint of intertext dynamics, taking into account the complex problems of intertext derivation associated with variation, normative mobility, frequency, segmentation, associative activity, polydiscursivity, diversity and inconsistency of illustrative contexts, types of intertextile contaminations on the background of the phraseological contamination. Intertexual energy of the fable, within the terms of the Russian verbal culture, directed from the source of morality as the foundation works to engage in explicit or implicit citation of the fragments, correlated with the narrative escorts, consequential historical events and the development of a variety of structuralsemantic paradigms and based on a specific organization of the units used. Description of intertext units can be focused on two ways of accounting and processing of material. First, it is an appeal to the “nuclear” part of the circle of verbal culture. The number of works of an author is usually relatively small, but a large number of authors themselves. In the dictionaries of the winged expressions as a whole is represented by about 50-60 dictionary entries of Krylov. Secondly, there may be publications on the intertext potential of one author, when taken into account almost all or almost everything that goes beyond the source text, the number of dictionary entries increases significantly, which allows to determine the status of the author’s idioms in the intertext picture of the world. In this case, it becomes possible to understand the citation in the broadest sense as the use of the author’s word outside the author’s text. The revised citation heterogeneous unity: idioms, actual quotes, often playing off of segments of these unities, literary images. Intertext dynamics is a functional condition for the life of this material. It is primarily numerous changes frazeological modeling, segmentation, dispersion, associative movement. It is significant that the past two centuries have shown consistent continuity and significant typological similarity in a series of endless uses of the fabled word Krylov.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2019;10(2):238-255
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WINGED WORDS IN A MODERN CULTURAL CONTEXT
Lomakina O.V., Mokienko V.M.
Abstract

The article analyses functioning of winged expressions in contemporary texts falling into different types of discourse. Despite coexistence of different terms (winged unit, winged expression, intertexteme, precedent text, text reminiscence, eptonym, eptologism, logoepisteme, commemorate, etc.), the essence of the linguistic units described by these terms comes down to the main characteristics thereof - direct dependence on the source, reproducibility and recognisability thereof. The article reviews development stages of the winged unit study term system as part of the winged unit study, names scholars who have significantly contributed to the development of this field. It shows that despite the terminology divergence and the early days of the winged unit study metalanguage, this study as part of phraseology has assumed a stable position both in the Russian and European linguistics owing to the winged unit study functional potential realisation in different text styles and genres. The authors define research directions related to the winged unit study functional potential. As part of the study there were reviewed demotivators where the winged units В России две беды - дураки и дороги (Russia has two problems: pinheads and roads) (N.V. Gogol) and Рождённый ползать - летать не может (He who was born to slither cannot fly) (M. Gorky) are used in the verbal part and acquire the text forming meaning. There have been studied the neologisms Я - Шарли (Je suis Charlie) - Я не Шарли (I am not Charlie), Крым наш (Crimea is ours), вежливые люди (the polite people) that appeared owing to the modern cultural context. The article uncovers the need for the creation of the pragmatically loaded dictionary ‘Classics of Russian Literature Mirrored by Winged Expressions’. The relevancy of the study undertaken is stemming from the review of winged expressions in modern different genre texts.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2019;10(2):256-272
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REALIZATION OF TRANSFORMATION AND CREATIVE POTENTIAL OF THE KRYLATIKA IN MEDIA DISCOURSE
Makarova A.S.
Abstract

The modern process of the mediatisation of all spheres of public life affects both the volume of speech creation and the media texts themselves. The mass character and the multi-language openness of media discourse allow us to consider winged units as a means for representing and imple- menting phraseological innovations. The role of mass media in the formation of new sustainable turns is being actively studied, which speaks of their significance in this process, since it is the media discourse that demonstrates most clearly the current usage and viability of phraseological innovations in language and speech. The media discourse has a large number of ways of influencing the mass addressee, and, as recent studies of Russian media texts show, the fund of winged units as an integral part of the phraseological corpus of the national language is widely used in it. Various phrase resources (idioms, winged expressions, paremias, aphorisms, etc.) are often used both in a strong text position - the title or ending of the publication, and in the creation of media texts connecting the verbal and visual parts in which their transformational and creative potential is most clearly realized, multiplying their linguo-pragmatic effect on the addressee. The analysis of the media content of the site “Orthodox Laughs” revealed the tendency of creative use of folklorism “Баю-баюшки-баю, не ложися на краю. Придет серенький волчок - И укусит за бочок!”, which has not yet been fixed by lexicographical practice, as well as its variants that are the result of various methods of transformation language units. Structural and semantic transformations of various categories of phraseological units are an effective means of implementing specific expression in the media text. Previously, fiction was considered the main source of winged units, today the situation is changing, and the leadership belongs to synthetic art forms (cinema, television, pop, etc.). The analyzed potential winged unit has not one source of appearance: along with Russian and German folklore, this is German literature, but the expression in the Soviet animated film “The Bremen Town Musicians” was actualized. In analyzing the publications of this site, interdisciplinary methods of studying media content were used: discursive, descriptive-analytical, linguocultural, and media linguistic. The conducted research has shown that the functioning of the considered potential winged unit and its transforms confirms the thesis that these language units are in demand and widely used in modern media texts, since they have productive mechanisms of meaning formation.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2019;10(2):273-287
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STEREOTYPIC IDEA OF A TOM-CAT AND A CAT THROUGH THE PRISM OF COMPARATIVE PHRASEOLOGICAL UNITS OF RUSSIAN AND SWEDISH LANGUAGES
Alyoshin A.S., Zinovyeva E.I.
Abstract

The article attempts to identify the stereotypic idea of widespread domestic animals (a tomcat and a cat) on the material of similes of Russian and Swedish languages that characterize humans. The objective of the study is to identify the dominant characteristics of the “tom-cat” and “cat” in the Russian language picture of the world, which serve to assess a person, against the Swedish background. The sources of the material were dictionaries of Russian similes, the Swedish Phraseological Dictionary, data of the Russian National Corpus and the Swedish National Corpus. The main methods used in the study are methods of complete and directed material sampling, lexicographical, contextual and comparative analysis. This is an ideographic classification of Russian idioms, which allows to reveal comparison signs relevant for the Russian language picture of the world. The article identifies the dominant comparison bases in each group, indicating the importance of the corresponding attribute for native speakers. It analyzes gender distinctions in the use of Russian phraseological units with the “tom-cat” and “cat” reference standards, and peculiarities of using Russian similes in fiction contexts. A contrastive analysis is carried out with Swedish comparative phraseologisms with the standard “en katt”. The novelty of the study is to identify similar and different characteristics that allow to make a “portrait” description of domestic animals that serve as standards of similes, to identify relevant features for Russian and Swedish language pictures of the world. The study vector is directed from the standards of similes to their bases. As a result of the study, conclusions are drawn about the greater nominative density of idioms with “tom-cat / cat” components in Russian compared to Swedish, differences in gender relatedness due to the lack of generic differentiation of the Swedish standard of comparison, despite the fact that in Russian the replacement of the component “tom-cat” by “cat” leads to a change in the meaning of the phraseological unit, more detailed stereotypical representations in the Russian language particularly in such ideographic groups of similes as characteristics of appearance and behavior and to a greater peyorativity of Russian phraseological units compared to Swedish ones. The identified equivalent units in two languages, as well as the presence of the same ideographic groups of similes are due to the centuries-old observation of the peoples-speakers of languages for the universal features of the appearance and behavior of animals.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2019;10(2):288-300
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IMAGE OF A WOMAN IN RUSSIAN, FRENCH, SPANISH AND MALAGASIAN LINGUO5CULTURES ON THE MATERIAL OF PAREMIA
Novospasskaya N.V., Raadraniriana A.M., Lazareva O.V.
Abstract

The article offers an analysis of the paremias of Russian, French, Malagasy and Spanish, devoted to women. The research material was the paremiological units of these languages, obtained by continuous sampling from collections of paremias, works of art and bilingual dictionaries, the selection criterion is the presence of a woman’s lexical unit (French femme , Spanish mujer , Malagasy Vehivavy ) or a description of appearance, significance, behavior function as mother, wife, housewife, etc. in paremias in considered linguocultures. The purpose of the study is to reveal the universal and cultural-specific features of the concept of a woman in the considered corps of the Russian, French Malagasy and Spanish paremies. The tasks of the work also include consideration of the peculiarities of the paremiological and lexical units used in this fragment of the linguistic picture, as well as to describe the general and non-coinciding aspects of the origin and functioning of the antiparemia and the use of gradualness in the paremies. The selection and analysis of paremiological units showed that in the languages in question one can find paremic units characterizing a woman as ideal, intelligent, strong, etc. person, and also the importance of a woman as a housewife and her superiority over a man. A significant part of the analyzed linguistic material is made up of paradoxes in which a woman is compared with a female animal, a plant or object with which a certain quality of a woman is associated, and also a woman is presented as a stupid, talkative, unreliable, lazy, capricious person or unreasonable wife. The originality of the research is that the first time the analysis of the comparative consideration of the paremias about the woman on the material of the Russian, French, Malagasy and Spanish languages and the lexical and paremiological material of the Malagasy language introduced into the scientific circulation is made.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2019;10(2):301-322
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REPRESENTATION OF ETHNO-CULTURAL VALUES IN THE PROVERBS OF FRENCH-SPEAKING COUNTRIES
Nelyubova N.Y.
Abstract

The paper deals with the analysis of value markers of French speakers living both in France and abroad. The relevance of this problem is explained by the anthropocentric orientation of modern linguistic science, by the study of linguistic facts in close connection with the facts of culture and their mutual influence, as well as by the lack of special research papers on the comparison of value markers of different speakers of the multinational French language. The purpose of this research is to identify the basic values of representatives of different French-speaking countries on the basis of thematically organized proverbial material presented in lexicographical sources. In the course of this research methods of comparative, statistical analysis were used, the material was obtained through continuous sampling from the specialized dictionary of French proverbs and sayings and amounted to 2041 units. The research has revealed that all French speakers living both in France and abroad are more likely to be oriented towards material rather than spiritual values. The peculiarities of French proverbs in each country reflect ethnically specific historical, geographical and sociolinguistic factors and conditions.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2019;10(2):323-335
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LANGUAGE UNITS WITH SACRED SEMANTICS: LINGUOCULTUROLOGICAL AND LEXICOGRAPHIC ASPECTS
Shkuran O.V.
Abstract

Proverbs are precedent language units that relate to the field of speech elements. The presence of sacred components in the composition of these units, reinterpreted in according to the speech situation, indicates a high motivation of the internal form of the communicative microstructure. In our article we call them linguistic units with sacred semantics and give the definition as a complexly structured moralizing statement with holistic and generalized ideas about the positive attitude of folk culture to traditional religion. The studied proverbs have parallel components arranged in a linear sequence. An important feature for the paremiological semantics is “weak thoughts”, i.e. which are difficult to be understood without knowing the situation that they fully characterize. For proverbs, a discursive intention is important, which illustrates cognitive content with moral, and in our case, traditionally confessional function. Modern social, ideological, moral, ethical and everyday problems are correlated and commensurate with the existence of the sacred world in order to give current problems both universal and temporary features giving an assessment from the point of view of the tenets of traditional religion. The article on the diachronic socio-historical and cultural background illustrates the ethno-labeling markers grief, trouble, strength, mind as part of stable language units with sacred semantics gore - ne beda; sila yest - uma ne nado ; the main periods of common usage named components in lexicographical sources are presented and the sacralization of these meanings in russian orthodox culture is represented. However, in the process of civilizational changes, we state the profane of sacred meanings to ironic level. These proverbs - linguistics with sacred semantics - at the same time both phrase combination and aphoristic statement, and micro-text with deep linguistic and culturological content, reflecting different historical, ideological, political eras. The defiling process of the language units with sacred semantics can be explained by the open form of the proverbs themselves, involving various forms of transformations. Due to the active people abuse they develop special principles of attitude to the world, to god, to a man, use it in their native language and in many ways with the help of language that opens up opportunities for us to study new linguistic subparadigms.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2019;10(2):336-352
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ARCHETYPE AND LOGOS OF FURNACE AND FIREPLACE
Gerasimova S.V.
Abstract

The article is literary in nature: the example of the furnace shows the difference between the logos and the archetype, as well as the principles of modifying the logos into an archetype. The aim of the work is to systematize a wide range of values of the archetypal symbol of the furnace, finding the sacred logos to which they ascend. The article is written on the material of ancient mythology and literature of the New Time: the archetypical images, related to the archetype of the furnace, such as the affected heel, fire, serpent, are analyzed - their relevance to world culture and literature, related to their repeatability and stability, is proved. So it is concluded that there is a close relationship between all the elements of the semiotic system: as a result of the disappearance of one of the furnaces, the archetype of the furnace, from everyday culture, the attitude and principles of human behavior changed, which radically affected the course of history.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2019;10(2):353-372
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OPTIONS OF PHRASEOLOGICAL UNITS CONTAINING TEONIMA IN THE AZERBAIJAN LANGUAGE
Sadigova A.P.
Abstract

In the article, the idea is put forward that in the phraseological system of the Azerbaijani language, alliteration and assonances are less active in the manifestations than in other languages. Comparative analysis of theonyms and demonims in composite phraseological units in the Azerbaijani language shows that a sufficient degree of functionality is demonstrated here not only by the presence of types of sound reproduction of both sound repetitions, but also by the widespread joint (alliterativeassonance) model of figurative phonetic image techniques.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2019;10(2):373-380
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ASPECTS OF EMPIRICAL UNDERSTANDING OF APHORISM
Ivanov E.E.
Abstract

Nowadays, modern linguistics pays much attention to the study of aphorism as a phrase text and a fixed phrase. In this regard, the analysis of the properties of aphorism, which characterize it in various types of discourse and spheres of communication, is particularly relevant. The article attempts to differentiate and describe various empirical understandings of aphorism. The purpose of the study is to establish and describe aspects and distinctive features of the empirical understanding of aphorism as a verbal means of expressing general judgments and universal generalization of reality in the form of phrase (phrase text). Research methods - heuristic, descriptive, taxonomic, generalization, analysis and synthesis. The material for the study are more than 100,000 aphoristic units taken from more than 300 handwritten and printed sources in Russian, Latin, English, German, French, Spanish and other languages. As a result, the notion of empirical qualification of aphorism is defined, it is a verbal means within this type of discourse or sphere of communication used in a particular social or cultural practice, the branch of knowledge (including scientific). Each particular empirical understanding of aphorism can be considered as one of the aspects of its general empirical understanding. Aspects of an empirical understanding of aphorism were formed at different times, emerged and developed in various national (or international) traditions, under the influence of various cultural trends and social processes, within the paradigms of scientific knowledge and linguocultures. It was established that there are only nine of the most significant empirical understandings of aphorism (scientific-philosophical, literary-philosophical, religious-literary, literary-fictional, literary-publicistic, literary-legal, folk-poetic, poetic-rhetorical, colloquial-linguistic understandings). Each of them forms a separate aspect of the empirical understanding of an aphorism based on a set of properties and functions (distinctive features), specific to the implementation of aphorism as a verbal means within a given social or cultural practice, the branch of knowledge. Introduction to the science the concept of “empirical understanding of aphorism” and the differentiation of aspects of such understanding is based on the use of aphorism in various types of discourse and spheres of speech communication, will allow to systematize aphoristic units as speech genres (scientific aphorisms, philosophical, literary, journalistic, legal, folklore, etc.), and also to distinguish the scientific directions of studying aphorism.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2019;10(2):381-401
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THE PRECEDENT NAME IN THE MASS MEDIA TEXT: IMAGE OF SHVONDER AS A MEAN OF CHARACTERIZATION AND ESTIMATION
Seliverstova E.I.
Abstract

The precedent phenomena, to which the names of the heroes of literary works belong, are very typical for modern journalistic texts “charged primarily with negative emotions” (V.I. Shakhovsky) using indirect estimation methods: brief and expressive, with a wide range of connotative and associative links, they become an emotionally evaluative component of the text. Colorful - not only for the twenties of the XXth century - the figure of M. Bulgakov's novel “The Heart of a Dog” Shvonder firmly settled in the modern gallery of precedent literary names. Russians define a very wide variety of typical traits of individuals and their behavior, as well as social phenomena, verbalized by the words Shvonder (Shvondery), shvonderovschina, to shvonder, etc. The main vectors of comprehension come to light on the material of the texts from the National Corpus of the Russian language and Internet resources, which shows the tendency to use the subject's name as a way of indicating the manifestation of one important feature in his behavior - and, accordingly, in the behavior of someone else (Shvonder - “hater of the intelligentsia”, “vindictive”, “symbol of imaginary employment”) or a characteristic act committed by him, which becomes a kind of standard (Shvonder is “the destroyer of the old good world”, “the requisitor of another's housing”, “rejects the values accumulated by society in the past”, etc.). Through the combination “Shvonder - Sharikov” the emphasis is placed on the typicality of the observed phenomenon, on the ideological and party affiliation, etc. The name Shvonder often appears in combination with the names of other characters - in particular, Preobrazhensky and Bormental, - when a modern author outlines a conflict between bad manners (rudeness) and intelligence, ignorance and education, empty rhetoric and real actions, etc. The speakers find all the new possibilities of interpreting the image of Shvonder and use this name, like other new words with the same root, to express their position on the subject of speech, ironic or dismissive attitude to it. On the other hand, the precedent name may be semantically diffuse and vague in the “new” text, but it’s magnetized with special connotations and serves to enhance the ironic, negative-evaluative coloring of the secondary text and makes various interpretations possible. Even in the absence of specific words that reveal the dominant semantics of the text fragment, the very use of the Shvonder’s name already guarantees at least a high level of expression and a tangible degree of negative estimation.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2019;10(2):402-417
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PRECEDENCE AS A CATEGORY OF A POLICODE TEXT OF POLITICAL CARTOONS IN THE ARABIC AND FRENCH LANGUAGES
Dugalich N.M., Gishkaeva L.N.
Abstract

The article presents the material and the results of the study of a political cartoon in the Arabic and French languages. The relevance of this work is due to the description of the precedence in a polycode text in a comparative aspect due to the lack of a sufficient number of scientific papers affecting this issue. The authors offer an overview of the main stages of the study of texts with iconic and verbal components and different types of the component links; and history of the appearance of the terms that nominate this type of text. The text in our research is characterized by the use of semiotic codes, for example, colour and kinesics; it is accompanied by paragraphemic means, which are font variations that go beyond the use of punctuation marks in the standard language, and topographic means, representing various flat layouts of text. The implementation of the described type of text becomes a political discourse, the study of which also relates to the actual research topics of modern linguistics. It should be noted that a political cartoon is always a reflection of the opinion of society or an individual’s reaction to a significant public event, and it is its universal feature, which makes it possible to compare the means and categories of a creolized text of political cartoon in different linguistic cultures/in different languages. The object of the analysis is the creolized text of a political cartoon; the subject of the research is the category of precedence and its features aimed at the realization of the author’s intention in the political cartoon in Arabic and French. An important systemic characteristic of a creolized text is the category of precedence, which in this article corresponds to the category of intertextuality. The authors give examples to examine the use of precedent information at the level of the text and the image and their interconnection. The thorough analysis of the cartoons demonstrates the possibility of decoding a precedent sign in accordance with the type of speech culture of a native speaker. Precedence in a political cartoon can be expressed by a textual or graphic representation of universal human precedent phenomena, civilizational precedent phenomena, onyms and events of a supraregional nature. The formal expression of precedence can also be a symbol. In the conclusion, the article proposes a summary of the results of the study.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2019;10(2):418-434
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PRAGMALINGUISTICS
RECIPIENT FACTOR IN POETIC TRANSLATION DIACHRONY
Filippova I.N.
Abstract

The paper's aim is to analyze transchronical interlingual and intercultural poetic communication. Special attention is paid to the recipient, his significance in diachronic translation is investigated. Linguistic and cultural aspects of poetic communication are analyzed: realities, historicisms, archaisms, phraseological units, allusions. The recipient factor is actively studied in pragmalinguistics, which finds common ground with translation studies and the theory of intercultural communication. The research is based on the integrative method: descriptive, contextual, comparative and discursive analysis are used. The paper reveals the synergetic nature of the recipient, unique on age, gender, worldview, political and cultural characteristics; cognitive dissonance of the author and the recipient in monolingual and in interlanguage communication are revealed. The actual basis is the novel in verse Pushkin “Eugene Onegin”, written almost 200 years ago and numerous translations made at different times (1840-2008). The studied empirical material leads to the following conclusions. The translation multiplicity in transchronical transfer of cultural heritage to foreign languages is natural and unavoidable. The search for adequate means of intercultural translation of poetry is transcendental in nature. The syncretic nature of the poetic sign in diachrony strengthens the discrepancy between the recipient's and the author's conceptual and thematic knowledge content. This is particularly evident in terms of the transf chronic communication when the author and recipient are separated by a significant time interval. The source language recipients and the target language recipients have objective sociocultural differences which are more evident in transtemporal interlingual communication. The above-mentioned factors interact in the complex synergistic system that is impossible to cognize and to describe in a reductive linguistic theory of translation. On the basis of insufficiency of the reductionism of the linguistic translation, can be expected the transition to the methodology of holism translation. Holism as a methodological principle and philosophy of knowledge has found effective application in the Humanities. Its use in translation in cross-cultural, cross-language and TRANS chronic communication appear to be objectively necessary. The need for pragmatic adaptation and the borders of its approximate values is to be verified in further studies, combining pragmalinguistics, cognitive linguistics, translation studies, functional stylistics, discourse analysis and linguocognitive translation.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2019;10(2):435-450
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WAYS OF TRANSLATING NAMES OF WEAPONS IN THE HENRYK SIENKIEWICZ’S NOVEL “PAN WOŁODYJOWSKI”
Szetela V., Moroslin P.V.
Abstract

The article attempts to describe the ways of translating the names of weapons into Russian, which were used by the Polish writer Henryk Sienkiewicz in his historical novel “Pan Wołodyjowski”. The variety of Polish names of cold weapons, which the characters of the novel used, had to receive a corresponding translation into Russian. In the article by comparing fragments of Polish and Russian texts featuring such units, it is shown how the terms of the given thematic group were translated into Russian. It is noted that these units are able to reflect the colouring of the author`s language and the region the action takes place in. In many cases these borrowings as well as other foreign-language inclusions are the findings of a translator, and often have the character of innovation in Russian language text.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2019;10(2):451-456
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CLASSIFICATION OF PREPOSITIONS OF STORY GENRE AS A WORK OF FICTION (on Material of A.S. Pushkin’s Story “The Queen of Spades” in Russian and English)
Semenova S.N.
Abstract

The article presents the prepositions’ classification. The aim of the research is to classify prepositions by types and frequency use (quantitative and percentage ratio) in the story genre as a work of fiction (on A. S. Pushkin’s story “The Queen of Spades” in Russian and English). To achieve the goal, it was necessary to solve the following tasks: 1) to study “The Queen of Spades” in Russian and English; 2) to make tables on the prepositions’ types; 3) to build diagrams on the prepositions’ types; 4) to describe the collected information. The author used in the material research: 1) component analysis method; 1. quantitative calculation method; 3) percentage calculation method; 4) classification method. In the course of studying the Russian version there are found prepositions that serve to express such relationship as: spatial, temporal, causal, target, mode of action and object; in English: prepositions of abstract relations (genitive case, dative case, instrumental case, prepositional case, accusative case), spatial, phrasal verbs, temporal, complex prepositions, causal and target. The found prepositions serve as a sample of bilingual texts for discursive activities not only for specialists, but also for those who are interested in problems related to prepositions in Russian and English. According to the study, it can be concluded that a detailed analysis of the tables and diagrams revealed the main characteristics of prepositions, making it possible to distribute them into appropriate groups; to find the main similarities between groups of English and Russian prepositions, as well as the differences between them.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2019;10(2):457-474
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NOMINATION AS THE PRINCIPAL AXIS OF PUSHKIN’S THOUGHT
Perevolochanskaya S.N.
Abstract

The article deals with the description of a modeling process of nominative units in A. Pushkin language; the units presenting a nominative field with certain value landmarks. The semantic valence of Pushkin`s word related to a primordial image (archetype) is shown in the ability to evolute extensively the meaning energy in a text prospect. The data for study were the units of two synonymic rows with the core units “ арап ” and “ негр ” functioning in A. Pushkin language. The study aimed at revealing the nomination specificity in the poet language, and characterizing the factors determining a nomination process. The author`s reflective vector in a language material analysis became evident at a deep symbolic level. An analytical procedure to reconstruct a meta-semantic text construct was based on a componential analysis combined with a contextual one, as well as on an interpretation technique and a descriptive method. The findings demonstrated the mentioned nominative units to have a specific axiological value, be implemented within the semantic areas “ своё ” (`my ancestors`, `pride of grateful descendants`) and “ чужое ” (`hostile world, which failed to comprehend and accept him`). And their semantic evolution specifies the text sign space arrangement. A nominative frame of Pushkin`s discourse is determined by a cross point of two destinies disconnected by time - the poet`s great grandfather, Abram Petrovich Hannibal, and Alexander Pushkin, a converging point of “racial” drama and public and creative loneliness drama of personalities rejected and unappreciated by their contemporaries. A semantic “tension” of the author’s idea, its dualism reaches the summit when the self-consciousness reason is fathomed: it is inside негр- арап opposition, where there is a semantic, and wider - a mental point haunting the poet’s reflecting consciousness. The conclusion appears to be conceptually significant: черный дед мой Ганнибал, <...> сходно купленный арап <...> Царю наперсник, а не раб . Semantic increments are exhibited against a rich association background of Pushkin cognition: the poet ‘models’ the text with abundant implication, where every “nominative hint” unfolds under the abundance of a semantic prospect. Major components of the process are intertextually loaded units - precedential names. Their usage forms the basis for a cognitive mechanism to convey implication through an “economical” nominative procedure. The study findings can be used to create semantic dictionaries of a complex type.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2019;10(2):475-492
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THE CHURCH SEPARATION OF THE XVII CENTURY AS “NAMEEEEE” CONTENT: PRESENTATION OF THE PROBLEM OF COGNOMINAL EVENTS IN THE CULTURE (on the Material of Texts of the First Half of the Seventeenth Century)
Zagumennov A.V.
Abstract

The relevance of the proposed article is to rethink the semiotic trends in the light of a systematic approach. The aim of the work is to apply G.P. Melnikov's developments to the study of the Church separation of the second half of the XVII century as a reproducible event in the secondary modeling system. The General content of the work was prompted by the international scientific training “General and private methodology of philological science” held from 01.04.2009 to 06.04.2009, as well as some generalizations published in the collective monograph “System view as the basis of philological thought” (2016). The texts of the first half of the XVII century are used as materials. By means of observation, description, contextual analysis and elements of philological hermeneutics it is proved that the wholeformed event in culture has its own field of meanings capable of being segmented and having “pre-final” stages of its formation. It is concluded that the Church separation of the second half of the XVII century was a “hinted content”, a projection of individual creative consciousnesses that formed in the supra-system (social consciousness) a request for the implementation of semiotic trends.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2019;10(2):493-498
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US-VERSUS-THEM POLARIZATION IN THE US PRESIDENTIAL DEBATES OF 2000
Mukhortov D.S., Zhovner E.A.
Abstract

Political discourse as a specific sign system in which the meaning depends on the speaker’s intention tends to portray participants in terms of “us” versus “them”, which makes “us-versus-them” polarization one of the main distinguishing features of political discourse. The onset of the 21st century is a turning point in the history of geopolitics, which requires politicians to be more creative in search of vote-winning means. The pragmasemantic approach allows to study presidential debates between 1. Bush and Al Gore from the standpoint of semantics which studies meaning and which has been recently affected by pragmatics that deals with non-linguistic aspects of meaning such as the context of a situation and the speaker’s intention. The presidential debates of 2000 are a vivid illustration of how two opposing politicians strive to share the same objective though different language means. The contentanalysis program LIWC (Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count) was used in order to verify the results of research. The analysis of Pronouns, Positive/Negative Emotions, and Tense Focus through LIWC makes a contribution to political discourse studies. This article illustrate how various language means such as use of pronouns “we” and “they”, specific vocabulary and slogans, when grouped together, can appear to be an efficient research tactic.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2019;10(2):499-512
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THE KAZAKH LANGUAGE HAS THE ASPECT CATEGORY IN ITS MATRIX
Kakzhanova F.A.
Abstract

The subject of the article is the absence of an aspect category, expressing main ideas of sentence propositions in the morphology of the Kazakh language and the conceptual confusion of the aspect category with tense category in the Kazakh language, which create certain difficulties not only in learning of the Kazakh language but also making correct translation from Kazakh into other languages or vice versa. It has no official title, fixed in academic dictionaries, in spite of having objective content plans and expression plans in the Kazakh language. There are different opinions about the aspect category in the Kazakh language, some linguists consider, that there is the aspect category in the Kazakh language, others deny it. The result is the aspect category has not been presented in the morphology of the Kazakh verbs. The article is devoted to analyzing the objective prerequisites creating the aspect category in languages, including the Kazakh language and reasons of appearing of subjective negations of the aspect category in this language.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2019;10(2):513-521
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FOSSILIZATION, COMMUNICATIVE RATIONALITY AND COMMUNICATION STRATEGIES IN SECOND LANGUAGE LEARNING
Vavilova Z.E., Broadbent J.T.
Abstract
Fossilization was first defined in 1972 as a failure, or an ultimate attainment in adult second language acquisition that falls short of native-speaker competence. It represents a final stage in the interlanguage development of the individual learner and characterizes all but a very few adult second language learners. Over the 40 years or so since the term appeared, fossilization in adult second language acquisition has come to be widely accepted by scholars as a genuinely existing phenomenon. Fossilization is now viewed as permanent and resistant to correction either through instruction or acculturation. However, no universally accepted definition or explanation of fossilization has achieved universal acceptance. This paper attempts to add an extralinguistic perspective on fossilization and its possible outcome in the communicative practice of adult L2 speakers by building a bridge between linguistics and teaching languages, on the one hand, and philosophy of communication, on the other. Habermasian concept of communicative rationality is applied to demonstrate that oratory and writing skills ensure a more significant role in a dialogue, which seems to be sufficient grounds for fighting fossilization. In terms of the theory of speech acts, the paper attempts to trace the mechanism of fossilizing in a transition from the inner space of an individual consciousness and intent (illocution) to the outer space of the perlocutionary consequence when a locutionary distortion of the speech itself does not affect the speaker’s intent and he / she receives no feedback of the error made. Several factors inhibiting the effectiveness of such corrective feedback are touched upon, as well as certain strategies adopted by second language learners in their communicative efforts.
RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2019;10(2):522-531
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ADDRESS FORM AS A REFLECTION OF ETHNO-CULTURAL STYLE OF COMMUNICATION (based on British and Canadian English)
Yuryeva Y.B.
Abstract

Culture and the process of communication are interrelated, since culture not only indicates between which members of the society a communication act is possible, but also helps to decode correctly the meaning of the message that was encoded, and also according to what conditions the message would be correctly interpreted by the interlocutor. The historically established ethno-cultural style of communication (T. Larina) reflects the communicative peculiarities of people’s behavior when choosing verbal and non-verbal means in the process of communication. The article is devoted to sociocultural features that influence the choice of language means for expressing an initial speech formula. The aim of our research is to examine address forms in the boundaries of one language but in two different countries (Canada, Great Britain) with their historical and cultural background. We draw on Cultural Dimensions of G. Hofstede (1991), the Theory of Politeness (Brown & Levinson 1987, Leech 2014), the background of Intercultural Pragmatics (A. Wierzbicka 2003, I. Kecskes 2014), Speech Accommodation Theory (Giles 1977) and etc. The article presents the results of the study on the usage of address forms among the representatives of British English (BrE) and Canadian English (CanE) in order to identify similarities and differences and to explain the results according to cultural characteristics.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2019;10(2):532-543
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