Vol 10, No 1 (2019)

FROM THE EDITORIAL BOARD
SYSTEMIC TYPOLOGY OF LANGUAGES: ANALYSIS AND SYNTHESIS IN LINGUISTIC STUDIES
Denisenko V.N., Krasina E.A., Lazareva O.V.
Abstract
RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2019;10(1):9-18
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SYSTEMICITY IN LANGUAGE STUDIES: INTERIOR AND EXTERIOR DOMINANTS OF LINGUISTIC CATEGORIES AND UNITS
FROM SYSTEMIC LINGUISTICS TO SYNTHESIS WITH OTHER FIELDS OF KNOWLEDGE
Maslova V.A., Lavitski A.A.
Abstract

The article shows that G.P. Melnikov’s scientific heritage is still of great importance in the 21th century. As a prominent thinker of the 20th century he both deepened the concept of the systematic nature of the language by creating an evolutionary approach to the problem and laid the foundation for the holistic picture of the world, the development of integrative approach and made it clear that the range of research tools had to be widened. His works support the ideas revealed when the potent directions of modern linguistics are considered in detail in terms of including anthropological, sociological and psychological aspects of language space and language picture of the world into research. To a certain extent G.P. Melnikov’s works supplement the developing theories of integrativeness and transfer, synergies and other.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2019;10(1):19-24
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THE SYNTAX OF NOVEL FIGURATIVE NAMES IN RUSSIAN AND ENGLISH: TYPOLOGICAL ASPECT
Kiose M.I.
Abstract

The study reveals the syntactic features of novel figurative names and nominal constructions in texts in application to typologically different Russian and English languages. The data obtained helped to clarify the role of predication in salience enhancement, which encompasses novel figurative names construal. We conducted the two-staged contrastive analysis, which allowed to detect several specific parameters and synchronization means demonstrating the typological diversity of the two languages. As it is the salience that serves as one of the basic factors of successful reference identification in terms of implicitness and figurativeness, the research results will play a role in explaining why indirect names are interpreted differently. At the first stage we applied the statistical analysis to detect typologically relevant characteristics of syntactic positioning in terms of novel figurative names and nominal constructions. At the second stage we developed the procedure of 54 and 56 parameter correlation analysis to synchronize the lexical, syntactic and narrative parameters with figurative names in subject and predicate positions. These correlations revealed a group of parameters activated in the English language and restricted in Russian. The subject salience parameters involve the use of substantiated attribute in pre-position, sentence final position with predicate in pre-position. The predicate salience parameters were hybrid morphological character of predicate indirect names, explicit exteroception in pre-position or in the name itself, characterizing focus of indirect names (metaphoric transfer). At the same type due to syntactically salient predicate position such indirect names could allow non-agentive event role and orthographic non-markedness.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2019;10(1):25-42
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THE CONCEPTS OF THE SIMPLEST AND SIMPLE SENTENCES IN THE PARADIGM OF SYSTEMIC THEORY OF CASE
Dremov A.F.
Abstract

The article presents some of the results of systematic studies of the functions of the cases in a simple Russian sentence. Primarily, the systemic interpretation of the simplest and simple sentences as syntactic units is postulated, which possess not only different compositions and structures, but also reveal different grammatical meanings and categorial senses. Alongside, the notion of an event is defined and determined; the concept of predication is clarified and redefined; the concept of a dialectic, or causal, syllogism is introduced as a meaning caused by the internal form of a simple sentence. Consecutively, the ostensive definition of the internal determinants of the Russian language is given.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2019;10(1):43-62
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ACTIVE PROCESSES IN MODERN RUSSIAN IN THE LIGHT OF DETERMINANTAL ANALYSIS
Valentinova O.I., Rybakov M.A.
Abstract

The authors of the article discuss the possible ways to analyze the facts of mass modern Russian speech, which are traditionally considered from a normative-didactic point of view, from the standpoint of systemic linguistics, that is, applying analysis of the relationship between the determinants of a language of a certain morphological type and particular phenomena at all levels of linguistic structure. Such facts include, for example, violation of case coordination, use of nominative case instead of indirect, occurrence of the plural in abstract nouns outside the formation of concrete figurative meanings, incorrect usage of verb voice forms, luck of correlation between subject and verbal participle, lack of correlation of wordorder structure of a sentence to the communicative (thematic-rhematic) structure of an utterance, the misuse of synonyms, etc. The method of determinant analysis of languages developed within the framework of a systemic typology allow researchers to identify the tendency to break down inflectional connections between words at a formal and substantive level, which is surely fixed in modern Russian, and increase the analytical methods of constructing a phrase. The deformation of the inflection of the Russian language, caused by the growth of the national, social and cultural heterogeneity of the linguistic group, while retaining such parameters of the external determinant that determine the inflectional grammatical type, like the scale of the linguistic collective and the mode of communication, not only makes it difficult to express complex meanings, but also makes them ultimately account unclaimed in society, reducing the continuity in the transfer of socially significant experience. The authors focus on such problems as comparing the typological standard of inflectional languages and characteristics of the grammatical system of the Russian language, the correspondence of the accepted literary norm to the typological ideal, the correspondence of mass speech practice with the literary norm, the factors changing the frequency of grammatical forms, the interaction of external and internal determinants of the modern Russian language. The theoretical basis of the article was developed in the second half of the 20th century, but still not widely known in linguistics the systemic linguistic concept of Professor Gennady Prokop'evich Mel’nikov, which revealed large prospective for the synthesis of special linguistic disciplines, as well as linguistics, semiotics and computer science.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2019;10(1):63-74
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SEMIOTIC “STACKING DOLL”: CODING IN HETEROGENEOUS SCREEN TEXTS (case study of a film text “King’s speech” and a videotext “You’re single, you’re such a name”)
Evgrafova Y.A.
Abstract

Volume and quality of information circulating in modern society is constantly increasing. To process, record and transfer which it is needed to employ more capacious means that ask for less effort while decoding and perception. This leads to the situation when a semiotically expanded heterogeneous text becomes dominant in the modern information society. This article deals with the means of information coding in heterogeneous texts which mean of transmission is the screen. The classification of information codes based on synthesis of information and semiotic theories is suggested. The case study of a film text demonstrates the codes employed to generate audio-visual message, device of semiotic “stacking doll” is described, the employment of which leads to the appearance of semiotic situation od sumulacrativity, which aim is to make the spectator believe in what is happening on the screen. This article is aimed at specialist audience: students, post-graduates, professors, linguists and others who are interested in general and linguistic semiotics.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2019;10(1):75-84
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THE DETERMINANT OF LANGUAGE AND PHONETIC PHENOMENA
Kirov E.F.
Abstract

The article is devoted to the consideration of the concept of language determinant, which was developed by Prof. G.P. Mel’nikov. The productivity of this concept is shown to explain the sociophonetic and iconic phonosymbolic nature of such phenomena as vocalic harmony - okanje as overusing vowel sound O and akanje as overusing vowel sound A.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2019;10(1):85-91
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INTERIOR AND EXTERIOR DOMINANTS OF THE TEXT
AUTOMATIC DISTRIBUTIVE-STATISTIC ANALYSIS AS SYSTEM TEXT PROCESSING
Maksimenko O.I.
Abstract

The article is devoted to the to the description of the automatic distributive-statistic analysis, distinction in distributive and statistical approaches for the analysis of terminological lexicon, an opportunity of application of the method for automatic text processing, formation of thesauruses and possibility to use it for the identification text genre in the corpse of technical texts.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2019;10(1):92-100
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THE PECULIARITY OF THE COMMUNICATIVE PERSPECTIVE RUSSIAN LANGUAGE SYSTEM FROM THE STANDPOINT OF SYSTEMIC LINGUISTICS
Todorova I.D.
Abstract

The article is devoted to the description of the peculiarity of the communicative perspective of the Russian language system from the standpoint of systemic linguistics (or the system typology of languages - the theory of the system-typological language determinant G.P. Mel’nikov). Achievements of a systematic approach to the language allowed to determinants the internal forms - the internal determinants of the four morphological types of languages identified by V. von Humboldt. From the standpoint of systemic linguistics, the internal determinant of the Russian language is event-driven. According to G.P. Mel’nikov, one of the strange features of the Russian language are some non-standard constructions - “non-event” plots expressed in metaphorical ways. In the article on a number of examples to attempt to illustrate and comprehend these “non-eventual” sentences and explain their eventfulness from the position of G.P. Mel’nikov.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2019;10(1):101-107
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SPEECH COMMUNICATION IN THE DETERMINANT ANGLE
THE NUMBER OF PARTICIPANTS AS A COMMUNICATIVE SITUATION FACTOR: A TYPOLOGY OF SITUATIONS WITH THREE PARTICIPANTS
Temirgazina Z.K.
Abstract

The topicality of the study of communicative situations with three participants is conditioned by, firstly, the fact that pragma-linguistic characteristics of such form of speech interaction as trilogue should serve as a basis for the program development of chat-robots - virtual interlocutors; secondly, a traditional understanding of a communicative situation without reference to the number of the participants does not fully allow to identify the peculiarities of a person’s speech behavior in small-size speech groups. A communicative situation with three participants possesses a variety of pragmatic characteristic features conditioned by a limited number of verbal communication participants; regularities of turn-taking - the speaker and the listener - among the three participants; the configuration of the participants and the specificity of their relationship; the role-based status of the third person and other circumstances that influence the intentional and semantic aspects of utterances. For the classification of communicative situations two factors are important, particularly, the configuration of the participants and the specificity of their relationship; these features are the ones that determine the other pragmatic characteristics of a communicative situation. Based on these factors three major types of a communicative situation are distinguished: in the first type each of the three communicants are participants of verbal communication taking turns in a conversation, where necessary, with various illocutionary intentions; in the second type one of the communicants is the speaker and two others are addressees; in the third type the first two communicants are primary (the speaker and the addressee) while the third participant is secondary, optional. “The third person” can acquire a definite status in the communicative situation depending on the degree - from minimal to high - of his/her involvement in communication.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2019;10(1):108-120
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THE REPRESENTATION OF THE FEMININE PRINCIPLES IN BUSINESS MANAGEMENT (According to the Media)
Kokova A.V., Tameryan T.Y.
Abstract

In the article, on the material of interviews with women entrepreneurs in the Russianlanguage press of the North Caucasus, the selfimage of a business woman is built. In sociolinguistic and psycholinguistic perspectives, the self conceptualization of a business woman is carried out through the analysis of feminine principles of management. Based on cognitive, semantic and conceptual approaches cognitive features, ethnic and gender marked values characteristics of the concept and language means of its representation in the female ntrepreneurs Russian-speaking picture of the world in the North Caucasus are established.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2019;10(1):121-128
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MISCELLANEA: SYSTEMIC APPROACH IN THEORETICAL AND APPLIED DESCRIPTIONS OF LANGUAGE
PROBLEM OF LANGUAGE REDUNDANCY ON THE EXAMPLE OF A SCIENTIFIC TEXT
Alontseva N.V., Ermoshin Y.A.
Abstract

Language redundancy is an actual problem for native Russian speakers. In this article, the authors consider the issue of linguistic redundancy in written communication, and describe some of its aspects using examples derived from various scientific and popular-scientific articles in the field of humanities (psychology, linguistics, literary criticism) selected from public Internet sources. The article describes the history of the scientific study of the problem of linguistic redundancy in texts of various styles, presents a typology of examples of linguistic redundancy primarily at the level of a combination of lexical units and at the level of text construction. The research also gives arguments on the reasons for linguistic redundancy emergence and possible steps to overcome it. The object of the study is a popular-scientific and scientific text, the subject of the study are stylistic errors and elements of language redundancy. The material of the analysis is represented in the texts obtained by the method of continuous sampling from collections of scientific articles in the Russian language, posted on the Internet. In each specific example, the authors propose their own way of expressing content without unnecessary lexical units, omitting or replacing them with synonyms and synonymous expressions. The stylistic error causing the problem of linguistic redundancy is a violation of the formal connection of sentences in the text, in which the reference words or link words are repeated. The article provides their typology and examples of errors of this type. The scientific novelty of the research is primarily related to the lack of research on linguistic redundancy on the material of scientific texts In Russian. The authors of the article see the practical value and possible implementation of the results in the drawing attention of the authors of scientific texts to their works in terms of their compliance with the norm in this aspect.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2019;10(1):129-140
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DYNAMICS OF METAPHORICAL VERBALIZATION IMAGE OF KANZLERIN ANGELA MERKEL
Tameryan T.Y., Tsagolova V.A.
Abstract

The paper presents the results of modeling the multilayer structure of the image of Kanzlerin Angela Merkel , the core of which is the metaphorical layer of the political concept. The relevance of the study is due to the growing role of political communication in society and the lack of study of its image aspect. policy in terms of the objectives of the communication of power, the relationship of language and culture, emotion and cognition, the reflection in the language of the value picture of the world of the speakers of the German language. The article is carried out in the framework of cultural anthropology, linguocognitology, political linguistics and discoursology. As methodological basis of the study the following methods and approaches are used: the method of continuous sampling, the classification method, the method of cognitive modeling, the cognitive-interpretative method, the conceptual analysis, the method of statistical data processing. The analysis is based on the articles from the German information and political journals Der Spiegel and Focus for the period of 2005-2017. In the study, based on 8180 text fragments, metaphorical models and their subtypes are described, cognitive features and dominants of each period of the Chancellery A. Merkel are revealed.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2019;10(1):141-151
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CANTONESE DIALECT IN MODERN CHINA: THE PROBLEM OF CONSERVATION
Barov S.A., Egorova M.A.
Abstract

The artice is devoted to the problem of preserving the Cantonese dialect (language) in modern China, where for several decades the government persistently pursued a policy of disseminating of the nation-wide Chinese language (“pǔtōnghuà”). Cantonese is the largest language by speakers among all Chinese languages and it is native to most residents of Guangdong and Hong Kong, however, unlike the languages of the national minorities of China, it is not fully protected by law and is consistently ousted from the education system and out of business communication. In the article the authors carefully analyze the linguistic history of China, the role of dialects in the system of Chinese languages and the historical and political significance of a single written norm. According to the authors, the division of China into two large cultural and historical communities (northern and southern) corresponds to the established linguistic division, but unlike many other countries in the world, the ethnolinguistic and ethnocultural differences between the northern and southern Chinese due to the centuries-old unifying efforts of the central government do not lead to the division of the Chinese nation. The article examines in detail the history of Cantonese, a linguistic analysis of the differences between Cantonese and Putonghua, and on this basis concludes that Cantonese should be considered not as a dialect of Chinese, but rather as a separate language of the Sino-Tibetan language group, albeit closely related to the Chinese language. Analyzing the role of Cantonese in the formation of a special cultural and historical community in Guangdong and Hong Kong, the authors conclude that the declining of the Cantonese dialect (language) will probably occur over the next several decades, unless the language and education policies of the Chinese government are changed. Otherwise this tendency will lead to the loss of the province's identity, which is part of the intangible cultural heritage of the entire Chinese nation.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2019;10(1):152-166
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EURASIAN MULTILINGUAL AREA: PRESENTATION OF WORD0TERM “LUGAT” IN DICTIONARIES OF TURKIC LANGUAGES (KAZAKH, UZBEK)
Dzhusupov M.
Abstract

This paper deals with the problem of interlingual and intercultural interrelations of the Turkic world of Eurasia with other lingual and cultural national entities. Issue of such interrelations is based on the analysis of lexeme ‘dictionary’, which was borrowed from the Arabic language on the material of the content of its definition in explanatory dictionaries of the Kazakh (лұғат) and Uzbek (луғат) languages. Term lugat (лұғат) means the same in the Kazakh and Uzbek languages, but it is presented differently in the explanatory dictionaries. Meanings of lexeme ‘dictionary’ are presented in more quantity in the Uzbek dictionary, than they are in the Kazakh dictionary. There are also presented word-terms, which were formed from the lexeme lugat by suffixation (луғатчи (lugatchi), луғатшунос (lugatshunos), луғатшунослик (lugatshunoslik), which form synonymic rows with the terms lexicographer, lexicography. Words лұғатшы (lugatshy), лұғатшылык (lugatshylyk) aren’t presented as independent dictionary entries in the Kazakh dictionary. Given words exist in lexis of the Kazakh language, but their usage is rare in the speech of linguists. These lexemes are stylistically colored units in the Uzbek language. Lexeme lugat is marked as literary in the Kazakh dictionary. Lexeme lugat hasn’t dictionary mark “literary” in the Uzbek dictionary, i.e. the word is characterized with neutral stylistic nuance. Borrowed word, which was became a heritage of the Kazakh and Uzbek languages, kept its original semantics, but it acquired new meanings, which were created by word-formative models of the two languages. It became one of the reasons of appearance of essential distinctions in the content of their presentation in explanatory dictionaries of two Turkic recipiented languages.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2019;10(1):167-176
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FORMATION OF PROFESSIONAL (LINGVOCULTURAL) COMPETENCE OF ITALIAN STUDENTS0CULTUROLOGISTS
Persiyanova S.G., Rostova E.G.
Abstract

The article deals with the problem of the formation of the professional (linguistic and cultural) competence of Italian students-culturologists, specializing in the study of Russian culture in its synchronic and diachronic examination. The authors offer a description and analysis of the program implemented by the Pushkin State Russian Language Institute together with the Milan State University. The program includes courses: “History of Russian Culture”, “Modern Russian Literature”, “Language and Culture”. The article focuses on the original course “Language and Culture”, which is part of the program, based on an analysis of the peculiarities of the connection between the Russian language and culture in different historical periods, which fundamentally distinguishes it from traditional language and culture courses. The article describes the features of the structure and content of the course “Language and Culture” for students-culturologists, its goals, tasks and methodological apparatus. The course includes five thematic sections: “The Language and Culture of Ancient Russia”, “The Russian Language and Culture of the 18th Century”, “The Russian Language and Culture of the 19th Century”, “The Russian Language and Culture of the 20th Century”. The main goal of the course is to deepen students’ knowledge of the relationship between the Russian language and culture (in the interaction of diachronic and synchronous components), the development of their communicative competence, mainly in the socio-cultural sphere of communication associated with the future professional activities of the culturologist. An important component of the training in this course is the Multimedia language and culture Dictionary “Russia”, which is publicly available on the Pushkin State Russian Language Institute portal. The dictionary materials (articles, media library, interactive tasks) form the main content of the course.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2019;10(1):177-186
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EFFECTIVENESS VS. EFFICIENCY: AN ANALYSIS OF VALENCY AND COLLOCABILITY IN A TECHNICAL CONTEXT
Filyasova Y.A.
Abstract

Abatract. The article presents the results of a lexico-syntactic analysis of valency and collocability of English words, related to one semantic group: effectiveness and efficiency . The aim of the research was to study the ability of these words to syntactically and lexically contact with other words, taking into consideration certain difference between their lexical meanings. The objectives included determining semantic variations and analysis of word classes in the left and right contexts. The material, 177,144 words, comprised 700 article titles and abstracts from seven international journals with geological and petroleumrelated specializations. Methods of study involved continuous sampling, classification, and analysis of lexical meanings of relevant words. It was found that the frequency of effectiveness was 40% higher than that of efficiency. Both of them had similarities in syntactic valency: they occurred in identical syntactic structures, however, with different rates of occurrence. The difference is the most obvious in such syntactic structures as N(E)+of+N - characteristic of effectiveness, and V+A+N(E) - specific to efficiency. A typical example of effectiveness was the effectiveness of the proposed method , while that of efficiency - improve production efficiency . Effectiveness collocated more often with method-related notions, whereas efficiency - with processes. The gained data correlate with the definitions: effectiveness has a wider semantic field (which explains a higher rate of its occurrence) and is oriented towards result, while efficiency implies process and has an additional technical meaning. The data can be used in the practice of teaching English as a second language for students with technical specializations and technical translation.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2019;10(1):187-196
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SCIENCE 21.0
FIELD ORGANIZATION OF CONCERTS “WAR” AND “PEACE” IN THE MODERN LINGUISTIC WORLD VIEW
Golubenko E.A.
Abstract

Nowadays anthropocentric approach is widely used in the study of national culture in the Russian and foreign linguistics. It proves the emergence of linguistic and cultural trends in modern science, in which there is an interest in the issues of conceptualization and linguistic world view. Linguistic world view is a fundamental object of many modern scientists’ research, which is a complex process, the study of which is dictated by the development of linguistics and its individual areas in particular linguoculturology. The concept as a carrier of cultural information of a particular nation and an integral component of the national conceptual sphere unites the whole range of conceptual concepts and scientific views. The concept is a conceptual formation containing individual judgments and generally recognized standard values, i.e. the possible conceptual content of the object study or a linguistic phenomenon. The article considers the main results of the comparative study of the concepts “war” and “peace” and their representation in the linguistic world view of the Russian, English and Japanese languages. The result of the study of these concepts is the modeling of their field organization in the form of verbal and graphical representations, i.e. the content of concepts in the form of their field structures. This modeling allows us to confirm that the field organization of concepts in the implementation of their comparative analysis reveals the relationship of language with the existing reality, as well as reveals the national and specific characteristics of the linguistic consciousness of the ethnic group. The respondents’ reactions to the concepts “war” and “peace” directly depend on their linguistic identity and the type of culture they belong to. The modeling of the field organization provides a complete picture of the national and specific nature of the concepts. It is the concept “war” rather than “peace” that has a higher level of frequency and expressiveness in the native speakers’ minds of all three analyzed languages, that is not surprising, since respondents regardless of their cultural differences constantly face the outside world phenomena and experience the same basic emotions.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2019;10(1):197-212
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TRANSLATION OF LINGUOCULTUREMES IN THE FICTION TEXT “PETER PAN”
Yunkova E.P.
Abstract

This article presents the comparative analysis of two different Russian translations of English fiction text. The research deals with linguoculturemes. The author gives a variety of definitions of the term linguocultureme, comparing this concept´s studies. The author offers to consider not only Russian-speaking but also foreign theoretical practices on a subject of basic linguoculturological concepts. Thus, through the synthesis of domestic and Spanish-language works the basic definition of a linguocultureme is offered. The four-component classification of the linguoculturemes helps to present the diversity of these components in the space of the English fiction text. The material of the research is Russian variants of translation of the English story “Peter Pan”. The purpose of this article is to compare the translations of the fiction text observing the rate of linguoculturemes in the text and classifying them, showing the variety of translation strategies. The results confirm the thesis about linguocultureme as a “zero-unit” which is a source of a translation problem. Comparative study of two Russian-language translations and its pragmatical analysis also confirms the thesis about the influence of the potential addressee of the text on the choice of language units during the translation. The attempt to study the translation as a part of the cross-cultural communication as well as the presence of the original material make this study relevant.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2019;10(1):213-224
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