Vol 9, No 2 (2018)

FROM THE EDITORIAL BOARD
FUNCTIONAL AND COMPARATIVE SEMANTICS
Lazareva O.V.
Abstract

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RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2018;9(2):247-253
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Functional and Comparative semantics
THE INFLUENCE OF SOCIAL FACTORS ON VERBAL BEHAVIOR OF PUBLIC OFFICIALS
Panova M.N.
Abstract

The article is devoted to professional speech of public officials. The author analyses specific social factors, which influence the language of state administration. These are functions of public administration, the necessity to follow а new style of state administration, modern administrative discourse, social and cultural trends as well as the language mode - the factor which influences verbal behavior of public officials. The article deals with the problem of the usage of the Russian language as an official language of the Russian Federation in the field of law and public administration. It is very important for public officials to use literary language norms in official texts, documents, where they use Russian as an official language. The article focuses on certain linguistic difficulties in official documents. Analysis of the usage of literary language in the field of public administration indicates that there are some traditions of public officials corporate language. The author analyses linguistic difficulties in official texts, some of them are not described in special dictionaries. Some recommendations of dictionaries are not applicable for public officials, because they have the contradictions with their real speech practice. The author of the article indicates some political and legal factors, which influence the language of state administration. They are of great importance in situations of choice of linguistic variants in speech practice of public officials. The author suggests the solutions for the problem of contradictions in the recommendations of the academic vocabulary and actual practice of public officials for literary language normalization. The solution of this problem will improve the quality of drafting of official documents.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2018;9(2):254-272
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THE DIFFERENCES IN PERCEPTION OF THE BASIC VALUE “DEVELOPMENT” IN PUBLIC LINGUISTIC COSCIOUSNESS OF RUSSIAN GENERATIONS ON THE BASIS OF ASSOCIATIVE DICTIONARIES AND THE DATA OF THE PSYCHOSEMANTIC EXPERIMENT
Zhamaletdinova E.K.
Abstract

This article examines the meaning of basic value “development” reflected on the common level of linguistic consciousness of representatives of two generations: the one of “perestroika” times and the Post Soviet one. The common level of linguistic consciousness is revealed through analysis of associative dictionaries and the results of the psycho-semantic experiment. The analysis of the articles from associative dictionaries helps to distinguish components of the meaning of the basic value under investigation on the common level of linguistic civil consciousness. The data of the psycho-semantic experiment that is presented as factor matrices and cluster trees allow to capture connotative differences of the perception of the value in question and trace the link with such values as “labour” and “cooperation”. We resort to historical, sociological and statistic data in order to interpret the results of the analysis. The methodology of the research is based on the theory of activity approach elaborated by Leontiev A.N., the conception of linguistic consciousness of Tarasov E.F. and Ufimtseva N.V. and the intergrative and eclectic approach by the mixed method designed by Yanchuk V.A. The results of the given research show that there were not significant shifts in the perception of the value “development” on the common level of linguistic consciousness of the two generations. However we can spotted the changes in the contents of the value in question on the linguistic common level of civil consciousness due to the movement from the industrial type of economy to the postindustrial one that is characterized by the growing significance of intellect. The methods of the analysis can be potentially used for similar research of basic values of national cultures. The materials of this paper can be employed to create tasks for Russian as Foreign language classes.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2018;9(2):273-286
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ASSIMILATION OF ENGLISH LOANWORDS IN CHINESE
Perfilieva N.V., Hu P.
Abstract

This article is devoted to the problem of the main ways of assimilating English words into Chinese: phonetic, semantic and calque are the main methods of assimilation of English words. Which way of loan words is preferable remains a debatable question among the Chinese linguistics. Specifics of hieroglyphic writing of the Chinese language predetermined a number of features of assimilating English neologisms by calque. Currently, a large number of words are assimilated in a mixed way, in addition to the exact translation of an English word or part of a word into Chinese, there is necessarily a hieroglyph or a combination of hieroglyphs that convey the sound of English word or part of an English word. Such sound characters can be found in both the preposition and the postposition of the semantic part of word. A distinctive feature of such hieroglyphic signs is their asemantic character. As for the graphic method, it is not a productive way in Chinese. In recent years, in Chinese language a method that hieroglyphic word synthesized by hieroglyphic signs, digital signs, symbols and English graphemes is actively used. The specific point of this loan words method in Chinese is their function as abbreviations. A separate role is the classifier in terms of assimilation of English new words in Chinese. Adding a classifier to a loan word makes it easier for Chinese speakers to understand. This article also describes the variants of assimilation English loan words in Chinese. The article provides a large number of examples illustrating typical ways of assimilating English neologisms in Chinese.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2018;9(2):287-301
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STRUCTURE OF COGNITIVE TYPE OF SCIENTIFIC ARTICLE ON MOUNTAIN ECOSYSTEMS
Semenova S.N.
Abstract
The structure of cognitive type of scientific article on mountain ecosystems is given in the article. The purpose of the research is to build a structure of cognitive type of scientific article describing mountain ecosystems. For achievement of the stated work’s aim it was necessary to solve the following problems: 1) to explore the text corpus of scientific article on mountain ecosystems; 2) to define the topical structure of cognitive type of scientific article describing mountain ecosystems; 3) to present verbal fragments for each compositional-thematic unit; 4) to describe pragmatics of text realization of scientific article on mountain ecosystems; 5) to build mini-thesaurus of words and phrases. The author justifies the thesis that the cognitive type of a scientific article is the basic part of one of the cognitive blocks in the system of human knowledge representation in subject area “Mountain ecosystems”. The main elements as: (people’s life’s work, environmental pollution, environmental protection, constant nature monitoring) are defined. There are words and phrases which are arranged in sub-topics in English and Russian. These words and phrases are samples from the text corpus of the subject area “Mountain ecosystems” and are not ready texts, but their blank for discoursive activity not only for specialists in this sphere but for everybody who is interested in ecological problems in English and Russian. Summing all up, it can be noted that the structure of the cognitive type of the scientific articles is a mental-linguistic frame used by the authors of the scientific articles in the process of generation of texts and the readers in the process of understanding. The structure of the cognitive type is presented by a scan of a specific topic and verbal fragments for each thematic unit. The reader is able to solve or suggest a solution to the critical environmental situation in the ecosystem based on the data obtained in the course of the text description of the environmental problems of mountain ecosystems.
RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2018;9(2):302-319
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EXPRESSING OF NATIONAL AND CULTURAL IDENTITY IN ENGLISH AND RUSSIAN PROVERBS
Orlova T.G., Kolosova A.A., Medvedev Y.S., Barov S.A.
Abstract
The paper deals with the linguistic comparative structural and semantic analysis of English and Russian proverbs with the concept of ‘happiness-unhappiness’ that reflects national and cultural identity and the specificity of thinking of the English and Russian people. The aim of the paper is to explore and show similarities and differences in mentality and perception of the world by English and Russian people. This aim was achieved due to the study of the structural and semantic components and expressive-evaluative components of the proverbs. As a result of the study both common and specific meanings of the Russian and English proverbs were revealed in the languages under consideration. The object of the study is English and Russian proverbs associated with the binary concept of “happiness-unhappiness”. During the analysis the basic meaning of the proverbs were revealed and systematized. The analysis of the phraseological meaning, lexical components, syntactic structures, expressive and emotive connotations, sound organization of English and Russian proverbs made it possible to identify the role of linguistic means in expressing the features of the mentality of the English and Russian peoples.
RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2018;9(2):320-334
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SEMANTIC ASPECT OF THE LINGUISTIC DESCRIPTION OF LEXICON OF ORTHODOX DOGMA IN CHURCH SLAVONIC LANGUAGE
Feliksov S.V.
Abstract

In article one of relevant and not enough studied problems connected with a question of semantic classification of lexicon of orthodox dogma functioning in texts of Church Slavonic language is considered. The author notes that the experiences of semantic division of lexicon of the religious sphere presented in scientific literature more carry applied, than fundamental character. It in many respects is explained by absence from the scientists dealing with this problem, complete approach to consideration of the studied subject. Overcoming methodological unilaterality, lexicon of orthodox dogma in work receives the semantic description as taking into account those values which are recorded at it in lexicographic and text sources of Church Slavonic language, and with a support on extralinguistic factors. Such approach allowed to develop, according to the author, the accurate bases for semantic division of religious language units and to develop the universal classification scheme allowing to describe all that variety of lexicon of orthodox dogma which exists in Church Slavonic language on its base. Defining the teoretiko-practical importance of the results received during the research, in work it is noted that the submitted solution of a linguistic problem can be used in the methodical purposes when writing education guidances on Church Slavonic language and also it will be useful by drawing up the semantic dictionary of religious lexicon.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2018;9(2):335-350
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TRANSLATION OF THE EXTRACTS WITH HUMOROUS EFFECT: CONTRASTIVE ANALYSIS
Abaeva E.S.
Abstract

The article deals with the idea of changing general system how to decompose the extracts with humorous effect when carrying out the contrastive analysis of the original text and its translation. The previously used system of translation techniques based on a language structure doesn’t always have a positive effect on the results of the contrastive analysis of these texts. The author suggests using General theory of verbal humour (GTVH), created by S. Attardo semantic theory of humour (V. Raskin). The essential parameter is script opposition. The paper having one source text and two target texts as the material shows the advantages of the theory to find out differences and similarities in the system «original text/ translation», as well as in the system «translation 1 / translation 2». The author believes that changing the perspective for contrastive analysis with the help of the new system applied we can describe the translation procedure in more details, as well as demonstrate his/her strategy and explain the variability in linguistic means usage. Moreover, the new approach helps us explain some possible translation failures more objectively and carry out the contrastive analysis of two variants of translation of one source text, if necessary. The observations and conclusions, presented as the results in the paper, could be important for the development of humour translation theory in general and for practice in the sphere of literary translation in particular.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2018;9(2):351-364
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SPECIAL ASPECTS OF WORKING WITH THE LEXICAL LEVEL OF LEGAL DISCOURSE TEXTS IN THE ENGLISH AND RUSSIAN LANGUAGES
Alontseva N.V., Ermoshin Y.A.
Abstract
This article considers the lexis of legal discourse. The material of the study is the results of a survey conducted among the students of the Law Faculty of the Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia, who have the skills to compile and translate legal texts, in particular, international treaties. 58 Bachelor students of the third and fourth year of studies took part in the survey. The analysis of the survey results showed the presence of systemаtic errors and revealed some problem areas in the usage of lexical units while writing and editing texts of this type. The object of the study is legal discourse in Russian and English. The subject of the study is the lexis of international documents and its translation into Russian and English. The relevance of the analysis is supported by the institutional nature of legal discourse texts, i.e. by the necessity of observing certain rules and the mode of communication, as well as by the prescriptive function of legal discourse texts, which requires particular accuracy and absence of contextual synonymy when using lexical units. The authors of the article classified the lexis of this type of texts, which is potentially capable of correlating in the source text and the text-translation, as equivalent contextual-semantic, partially equivalent contextual-semantic and nonequivalent contextual-semantic; they also suggested its description by types and gave examples. The conclusion was that a special set of exercises is needed aimed at developing the necessary skills of differentiating lexical units into types and their translation taking into account the units type in the created or edited text. The necessary recommendation for students will also be the creation of their own individual vocabulary of partially-equivalent and nonequivalent English lexis. Based on the results of the study, the authors introduced a textbook.
RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2018;9(2):365-378
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CONCENTRATION OF FOREGROUNDING DEVICES IN A POETIC TEXT
Dzhusupov N.M.
Abstract

The article deals with the analysis of foregrounding devices represented in the poetic work “Aytys” by Olzhas Suleymenov. In general, foregrounding as a stylistic phenomenon is typical of all the functional styles. However, it acquires a special importance in the poetic texts which are characterised by a great variety of all-level foregrounding devices and the absence of functional stylistic, emotive, expressive and figurative limits. The foregrounding devices in a poetic context and their distinguishing functional features give the author the opportunity to create non-standard (linguistically deviant) poetic micro text determined by the bilingual artistic thinking. A special attention in the article is given to the analysis of semantic-stylistic groups which include different components providing maximal level of foregrounding in the text: repetition of homogenous syntactic constructions, repetition of lexical units, semantic contrast, violation of rhyme and rhythm, personification, stylistic paradox, etc. The concentration of a great variety of foregrounding devices in the context displays the internal stylistic potentiality of a poetic text in general. The poetic text under analysis is the integration of Kazakh and Russian perceptions of the world which is transmitted by means of the Russian language. The poetic text is characterised by the dominance of the Kazakh mental images, phenomena and objects formed in the mind of a translingual poet. This fact provides the semantic richness of the text and its stylistic potential which is characterised by the author’s individual expressions and the variety of foregrounding devices.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2018;9(2):379-387
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EYES AS A MIRROR OF THE SOUL: THE LEXICAL-PHRASEOLOGICAL ASPECT
Seliverstova E.I.
Abstract

The article considers, on the one hand, phraseological units with the eye-components, capable of characterizing various manifestations of the psychoemotional aspect of the human person, the manner of behavior and the peculiarities of relations between people. In the field of our attention is the nature of the changes observed in the frequency of idioms usage in the speech, and especially in the speech of writers, all range of the used phraseological units, the main vectors of their comprehension. Modern discourse - mostly fragments of the novels and stories - shows the variety of possibilities for using the characteristics of the eyes as a pair organ, as an important attribute of the “decoration” of the face, as a “mirror” capable of hiding / revealing the person’s intentions and thoughts, reflecting mental activity and intellectual abilities or their absence and so on. At the same time for some writers, the reception of the eyes “life” is very important - and not only for creating memorable portraits of characters (with a mention of color, shape and size of the eyes), but also to show a peculiar manner of behavior, character traits, physical or mental state.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2018;9(2):388-402
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CODE-SWITCHING: STATE-OF-THE ART
Krasina E.A., Jabballa M.X.
Abstract

Code-switching is one of the aspects to study the immediate results of language contacts which supposes that intra-sentential analysis of morpho-syntactic structures could explain the causes and reasons of language borrowings in synchronic linguistics. It also involves psychological and social aspects of human behaviour, but confines itself to linguistic analysis. At present three main theories which are language rooted and the most developed ones govern code-switching research, namely, linear order constraint model of S. Poplack et al.; linear order non-constraint model of N. Chomsky and E. Woldorf and Matrix Language Frame model elaborated by C. Myers-Scotton. All the three proceed from the idea of a monolingual grammar regulating code-switching process, though in Chomskyan model such monolingual grammar is substituted with the Universal Grammar in combination with generative grammar rules. The C. Myers-Scotton Frame model seems more complicated as it is organized as a double-headed instrument: dominant Matrix Language doesn’t eliminate the factor of Embedded Language which in course of their interaction creates a kind of collaboration. All the three models basically deal with a sentence structure and thus are in fact intra-sentential studies, though the conclusions are also made on the morphological and even phonological aspects of the utterance. Lexicon of languages in contact is practically neglected in the studies but N. Chomsky, and J. MacSwan and C. Myers-Scotton pay attention to lexical borrowings; they prove the importance of those by developing the notion of nonce borrowings specific representation of culture and tradition. In fact the present day state-of-the art in the domain of code-switching base itself upon observation and language samples accumulation in course of analysis of structural features of contacting languages. The shortcomings of the approach might be motivated by the fact that typological language features are not applied, so the analysis lacks a solid background bringing in random data without any classification possible. Thus one may assume that main results at a present level of research could be found in the sphere of methodology and methods. As to code-switching terminology it’s in course of development: even the notion of ‘code’ in our opinion needs more precise definition as it originally refers not to language itself but to semiotic systems of various origins and nature. The directions for future research do not confine themselves to bilingual or multilingual data, but mean to deepen the multidisciplinary studies of language contacts and verify the reasons for code-switching through the complex of humanities and natural sciences applied to linguistic items and codes.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2018;9(2):403-415
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LEXICOGRAPHY
THE AUTHOR'S COMPARATIVE LEXICOGRAPHY: PROBLEM STATEMENT. OPPORTUNITIES AND PROSPECTS
Osokina E.A.
Abstract

The paper first presents the unique material matching the description of the word TIME in different author's dictionaries, created one model - in is the idioglossarium of Dostoevsky and etnnoidioglossarium of Ch. Aitmatov. There are no textual database of all works of Chingiz Aitmatov, there is no etnnoidioglossarium, but perfectly designed structure of a dictionary entry in the idioglossarium of Dostoevsky gives the possibility, firstly, to create a similar entry on a separate piece of another author; secondly, it gives an opportunity to see the peculiarities of the author's intention and his creative workshop, even if the work of different writers belongs to the different epochs; thirdly, it gives an opportunity to see the broad linguocultural and historical context of the writer's Outlook. To compare the language of two writers in this article the most informative, interesting and suitable parameters for comparison on incomplete material are chosen: this word frequency is a significant indicator for idioglossa; this is a system of contextual values - definitions - giving an idea of the completeness of the meaning of the word; this is the phraseology that has a stable form; it is the aphorisms - are important indicators of the author's thinking; this is an associative field, identified vocabulary from the context of the idioglossa; there are figures of speech showing the level of language proficiency and the breadth of precedent texts. Not represented vocabulary of idioglosses, as it does not make sense to compare the wordlist of a single work and the most complete Glossarium of all the works of the two authors. For comparison, two authors were chosen - Russian-speaking and bilingual, writing in Russian and Kyrgyz languages, and this is a unique opportunity to see the creative and linguistic features of each on the basis of Russian. This comparison contains unlimited perspectives. The dictionary description of the writer's language reveals the worldview (“picture of the world”) of each of them does not depend on the subjective assessment of the researcher, but reveals the truth.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2018;9(2):416-438
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REPRESENTATION OF THE DICTIONARY IN THEORETICAL AND EDUCATIONAL LEXICOGRAPHY
Nesova N.M., Bobritskikh L.Y.
Abstract

The article is devoted to the main issues of studying modern lexicographic science, its theoretical and educational direction. The concept of lexicography, the main types of dictionaries of Russian and English are considered. The linguocentric and anthropocentric approaches to the study of science are analyzed. Distinctive features of educational lexicography are the consideration of methodological requirements, the specificity of the approach to the selection of material in dictionaries. In lexicographic practice, theoretical research is carried out in the study of ways to identify and semantize cultural information. The article is devoted to the main issues of studying contemporary lexicographic science; practical and theoretical approaches in considering the macrostructure of bilingual dictionaries. The basis of lexicographical design, planning and organization of vocabulary work is described. The relationship in the dictionary of linguistic and extralinguistic information is a significant issue for modern lexicography. Bilingual dictionaries are considered as a repository of culture on the one hand, and on the other - as bridges between different cultures, representing not only linguistic forms, but also cultural facts. The inclusion of the cultural component in the composition of the dictionary entry corresponds to the anthropocentric orientation of modern lexicographic science. The article considers the main types and specifics of bilingual dictionaries, their typological functions based on the classification of user skills.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2018;9(2):439-450
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SCIENCE 21.0
ILLOCUTIONARY DIRECTION AND REFERENTIAL SPECIFICS OF LANGUAGE GAME
Timofeeva N.Y.
Abstract

The definition of the term “language game” stays an actual problem of linguistics, as the term essence was not clearly revealed under the first usage at E.A. Zemskaya’s researches, where the phenomenon had got an aesthetic interpretation appealed to the poetic function of language. Contemporary science treat facts of language game as comic ones. Simultaneously language game researches are based on texts material, whereas speech aspect need a careful examining. In this case, there is a dining material texts in the study of this phenomenon, although the roar of the variant of the phenomenon also requires study. The article proposes the use of pragmatic options for a living material spontaneous speech with the aim of delineating the actual game pieces and the creative category. Records of a live speech of inhabitants of St. crimes from cards of chair of the Russian, Slavic and General linguistics Trick of Academy of the Crimean Federal University act as a material. The material is subjected to discourse, word-formation and semantic analysis. Shot polonium research opposes the fate and referent (cognitive) functions of the language. Highlight the statements about the provence in the flow is subject to consultation and actions between messages. At the same time, there is a nerve distribution of the load distribution on each of the components of the act. The playful nature of some of the units reduces informative statements, customize discuss around the contact rather than the message, as that implies a static criterion in determining the language game. During interaction about the type of the participants orally by means of neural realist objectives: empathy is to share state of the opponent, to emphasize the closeness of the relationship, to establish contact with a stranger, to make him communication. This type of organization discuss attests to the special specificity of the preferential component statements containing the standard receive units. Calms these units with a daily does not sort to the direct preferential individual character sum, but is set indirectly - through discourse descriptors indicating the purpose of the action and the ways of its implementation. Analysis of preferential specific rev units grow character to demonstrate a relic of the degree of correlation of intra-factors discuss organization extras and that allowed to draw a conclusion about the Orient of the scope of the terminal “language game” facts fate of Provence.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2018;9(2):451-462
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STRUCTURAL SCHEMES THAT REPRESENT THE SYNTACTIC CONCEPT “THINKING ACTIVITY” IN THE SECOND CHAPTER (“NAYANUSHKA ALEXANDER”) OF A ROMAN A. BELY “KOTIK LETAEV”
Rodina J.D.
Abstract

The article is devoted to the analysis of ways of syntactical realization of the concept “thinking activity” in one of the chapters of the autobiographical novel by the writer-symbolist Andrei Bely “Kotik Letaev”. Thinking activity is the main way of characterizing the central character of the work - the little Kotik Letaev. The purpose of the article is to identify the main syntactic schemes that represent the thought discourse of the hero of the work, the basis of which are the verbs of thinking, understanding, cognition, imagination, memory. The study is based on an integrated, systemic approach, combining elements of cognitive, comparative-typological and concrete-text analysis. An attempt was made to show on the specific linguistic material the author's originality in the creation of the concept “thinking activity”, its functioning in the organization of the text. The author focuses on the specific textual implementation of the selected 5 structural schemes in terms of the writer's reproduction of the individual's inner life, beginning with subconscious reflexes and the first pulsations of consciousness in the infant opening the world, and ending with the period of growing up. Particular attention is paid to the nominations that fix the objects of the intellectual activity of the little Kitty, taking into account his growing up and broadening his horizons. The theoretical significance of the article is that it is a definite contribution to the process of studying the ways of linguistic representation of the syntactic concept “thinking activity”. The practical importance of the article is that its main conclusions and provisions can be applied in the practice of university teaching, in general and special courses on cognitive linguistics. Materials can be used for their practical purposes by cognitologists and philologists in the compilation of textbooks and manuals for universities on the study of idiostyle A. Bely.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2018;9(2):463-479
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ALGORITHM OF ANALYSIS the BUSINESS LETTER
Pudikova G.N.
Abstract

The algorithm of analysis of business letter in Russian, English and Portuguese languages on the basis of next aspects: style and genre, structure-semantic and pragmatic features, pragmatic information, genre varieties are presented in the article. A business letter as the type of text that has the special communicative structure and provided with documentary force grammatically executed and semantically completed is certained here. It is shown that pragmatic information in texts of business letter will be realized through the grammatical category of modality and pragmatic category of business politeness, that explisite in hyperbolae, formulas of politeness and indirect speech act of request. A commitment letter as the form of business correspondence is examined. A commitment letter is presented as a document, in that a sender promises or guarantees to carry out implementation of some actions in regard to an addressee, that conected with its interests. The aim of the article: to investigate the specific of analysis of business letters in Russian, English and Portuguese.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2018;9(2):480-496
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