Valuation Сomponent of Metaphor UP vs. DOWN in German Political Cartoon

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Abstract


In German political cartoon the metaphor UP vs. DOWN introduces oppositions GOOD vs. BAD, MORE vs. LESS, UNREALIZABLE vs. PRACTICABLE. The paper describes their valuation components accenting the positive or negative sign of oppositions and its base in lexicon of the German language personality. Complex nature of cartoons, which are polycode texts, and their appeal to the language personality allow application of cognitive linguistics and methods of traditional linguistics. The paper demonstrates that political cartoons different realizations of this metaphor are visualized by levels: earth surface, above it, and below it. Certain valuation signs are fixed in realizations that gravitate towards the metaphor GOOD IS UP - BAD IS DOWN based on the human idea of levels structure of the world, which is a specific cognitive model reflected in German phraseology, inner form of words, traditional word combinations. Deviation from this model takes place by realization of the opposition UNREALIZABLE IS UP - PRACTICABLE IS DOWN, which is based on everyday pragmatism fixed in German phraseology. In this case the cartoonist creates special supports for the addressee to achieve correct understanding of his message. Distribution of signs in the opposition MORE IS UP - LESS IS DOWN is determined by the employed valuation grade, used by the cartoonist in his play with valuation signs to influence addressee’s opinion. Forming valuation signs of oppositions, the cartoonist bases on ideas reflected in the lexicon of the German language personality. This feature characterizes all realizations of metaphor UP vs. DOWN in political cartoons.


About the authors

Galina L. Denisova

Togliatti State University

Author for correspondence.
Email: g.denisova@tltsu.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0002-4238-7587
14, Belorusskaya Str., Togliatti, Russian Federation, 445020

Dr. of Philology, Associate Professor, Professor of the Chair of Theory and Methods of Teaching of Foreign Languages and Cultures

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