SYSTEMIC TYPOLOGY OF LANGUAGES: ANALYSIS AND SYNTHESIS IN LINGUISTIC STUDIES

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INTRODUCTION On November, 9, 2018, the department of General and Russian Linguistics of the RUDN Philological faculty organized the panel discussion “Systemic typology of languages: analysis and synthesis in linguistic studies” devoted to the 90th anniversary of Prof. G.P. Mel’nikov. In the course of the conference, prominent scholars, young researchers, and Prof. Mel’nikov’s followers made reports on developing theory and methodology for systemic studies in modern philology and linguistics. The works by Prof. G.P. Mel’nikov clearly and thoroughly expose and explain the systemicity of the language, firstly, we would like to mention his Dr. of Philology degree thesis “Principles and methods of systemic typology of languages” (Moscow, 1989) and monography “Systemic typology of Languages: Principles, methods, models” / Ed. L.G. Zubkova (Moscow: Nauka, 2003; published postmortem). Based on synthetic linguistic concepts of W. von Humboldt and I.A. Baudouin de Courtenay, in his linguistic studies Prof. G.P. Mel’nikov introduced such notions as interior and exterior (inner and outer) forms, wholly systemic typology of languages, communicative project view, and others. His theory reveals anew well-known categories of linguistic nomination, predication and predicates; new angle was assigned to describe the category of case in Russian, a complex of verbal categories and meanings, etc. Simultaneously, there was elaborated a methodology based on both traditional and new integrative approaches to such a complex and permanently progressing object as language. G.P. Mel’nikov’s language systemology started a new stage in the progress of theoretical and applied linguistic research: it exposed the deepest layers of linguistic studies and outlined large perspectives not only to describe the multitude of world languages, but also to mark a transfer to argumentative integrative conception of the human language as a dialectically on-going social phenomenon. Besides, each separate atomic language element reflects its system as a whole, and, vice versa, language system projects itself upon its tiniest elementary components. The Editorial Board assumes the materials of this issue cover a large complex of topics of modern linguistics, project new horizons to study languages, outline integrative methods of systemic linguistics. The publications are addressed both to philologists and linguists and a large range of readers interested in language studies. A BRIEF REVIEW OF THE ARTICS OF THE ISSUE Articles and reports of the participants of the panel discussion devoted to the 90th anniversary of Prof. G.P. Mel’nikov are grouped in four sections: 1. Systemicity in language studies: interior and exterior dominants of linguistic categories and units. 2. Interior and exterior dominants of the text. 3. Speech communication in the determinant angle. 4. Miscellanea: systemic approach in theoretical and applied descriptions of the language. The first section “Systemicity in language studies: interior and exterior dominants of linguistic categories and units” begins with the article by Prof. V.A. Maslova and Ass.-prof. A.A. Lavitskij (Vitebsk, Republic of Belarus) in which in parallel with stating the significance of Prof. Mel’nikov’s theoretical legacy, the authors tackle the principle issue of language systemicity involving integrative angle of its description and research. The synergic principle is treated as a specific means to demonstrate the interaction of interior and exterior dominants of language within anthropologic, sociologic, psychologic linguistic space and linguistic world view. The article written by Ass.-prof. A.F. Dremov (Moscow, Russia), the follower of Prof. Mel’nikov, discusses essential issues of grammatical systemicity - the categories of case and simple (the simplest) sentence which enables the wording of ostensive definition of the interior determinant of the Russian language. Those categories interoperate at the text level as the main means of textual compression. The publication of Prof. O.I. Valentinova and Ass.-prof. M.A. Rybakov (Moscow, Russia) observes active processes emerging in modern Russian mass speech at different layers of the language system. The systemic typological determinant analysis introduced by the authors in the context of inflexional language helps to reveal the trend violating and destructing the inflexional mode against active influence of the exterior determinant factors interoperating with interior determinant. In essence, the systemic theory of Prof. Mel’nikov forms the core of the synthesized cognition. The final article of the section written by Prof. E.F. Kirov (Moscow, Russia) regards from the point of view of determinant approach at the first sight peripheral phenomena as okanje and akanje in Russian. Still, in the author’ opinion, it is systemic determinant analysis that convincingly proves socio-phonetic and iconic phono-semantic essence of those phenomena. The second section “Interior and exterior dominants of the text” is devoted to text analysis. The article by Prof. O.I. Maksimenko (Moscow, Russia) proceeds from Prof. Mel’nikov’s idea of “inter-coordination of all static and dynamic characteristics” applied in texts. Understanding a text as a linguistic structural and systemic formation of a complex semiotic origin which integrates various linguistic components the author exposes the essence of distributive-and-statistical analysis (DSA) of the text as a whole and its components, in particular. The main objects of the analysis are distributed in the text lexical elements burdened with contextual correlations within a certain textual interval. The results of the analysis help to reveal the so-called lexical dominants - textual determinants of different origins, which in practice help to get down to composing thesaurus data bases. Dr. of Philology M.I. Kiose (Moscow, Russia) picks up the slack and through the prism of special statistic text analysis treats typologically significant features of indirect nomination in structurally different languages - English and Russian. The results of the analysis are accumulated in a number of tables and vividly show the effect of systemic determinant approach as well as the closest interaction of the most important categories of nomination, predication and salience. Ass.-prof. Yu.A. Evgrafova (Moscow, Russia) analyses a specific type of text - cinema or film text heterogeneous by nature. It integrates both linguistic and audio-visual complexes of codes and makes up a specific systemic semiologic formation synthesizing both semiotic and informational means. The final article of the sector written by PhD student A.V. Kokova and Prof. T.Yu. Tameryan (Vladikavkaz, Russia) is devoted to the applied aspect of systemic analysis. The core of research is the autoimage of a business woman associating cognitive aspects, ethnic and gender-marked axiological features of business women within the Russian linguistic worldview in the Northern Caucasus area. The interaction of interior and exterior dominants of the Russian language are of prime importance as the means of analysis. The third section “Speech communication in the determinant angle” starts with the article by Prof. Z.K. Temirgazina (Pavlodar, Kazakhstan). It describes the statics and dynamics of communicative situation with three communicants. The typology of those ‘trilogue’ situations proposed by the author is based on the communicative angle of speech communication while the two communicants - speaker and listener are obligatory and the third one is optional, but absolutely necessary contextually and pragmatically. The article by Prof. T.Yu. Tameryan and university teacher of German V.A. Tsagolova (Vladikavkaz, Russia) shows the results of modelling the multilayered structure of the image of German Chancellor Angela Merkel as the object of German media sources’ attention. The methodology of the analysis combines emotion and cognition, exterior and interior parameters significant for cognitive analysis and classification. The complexity of the model and its systemicity are determined by dominant characteristics of exterior and interior determinants of the German language in each period of the Chancellor’s government. The article by RUDN University PhD student I.D. Todorova (Moscow, Russia) discusses the peculiarities of communicative peculiarities of the so-called “non-eventful” Russian sentences, according to G.P. Mel’nikov interior determinant method. The last section “Miscellanea: systemic approach in theoretical and applied descriptions of language” includes theoretical and applied research carried out on systemic analysis principles. The article by associate professors N.V. Alontseva and Yu.A. Ermoshin (Moscow, Russia) considers redundancy as a linguistic problem based on a scientific text. Associate professors S.A. Barova (Moscow, Russia) and M.A. Yegorova (Moscow, Russia) devote their research to the problem of preserving Cantonese dialect (language) in modern China, which, being the largest in number of native speakers among all Chinese languages, is consistently forced out of the educational system and business communication. The authors analyze the linguistic history of China, the role of dialects in the system of Chinese languages, and the historical and political significance of a single written standard. The article by Professor Makhanbet Dzhusupov (Uzbekistan, Tashkent) examines the representation of borrowed from the Arabic language lexeme dictionary in the dictionaries the Kazakh and Uzbek languages. The research by associate professors S.G. Persianova (Moscow, Russia) and E.G. Rostova (Moscow, Russia) investigates the problem of forming the professional (linguocultural) competence of Italian cultural students who specialize in the study of Russian culture in its synchronic and diachronic consideration. The authors offer a description and analysis of the program implemented by The Pushkin State Russian Language Institute together with the University of Milan. This section ends with the article by associate professor Yu.A. Filasova (St. Petersburg, Russia), which presents the results of the lexical and syntactic analysis of the valence and compatibility of English words belonging to the same semantic group: effectiveness and efficiency. The results of the analysis show that effectiveness has a wider semantic field (which explains the higher frequency of occurrence), while efficiency to a greater degree indicates a process and has an additional technical value. The section Science 21.0 introduces an article by the junior research scientist E.A. Golubenko (Bronnitsy, Russia) that reviews the main results of a comparative study of the concepts “war” and “peace” and their representation in the linguistic world view of the Russian, English, and Japanese languages. The result of the study of these concepts is the modeling of their field organization in the form of verbal and graphic representations, which reveals the relationship of the language with the existing reality, and brings to light national-specific characteristics of the ethnos language consciousness. The article by the RUDN graduate student E.P. Yunkova (Moscow, Russia) examines the translation of a literary text from English into Russian and the interpretation of linguoculturemes. Analyzing different versions of translation of the story “Peter Pan” from English to Russian, the author confirms the thesis that a linguoculturereme belongs to non-equivalent units. Generalizing the content of the articles presented in this journal issue and discussing the materials of the panel discussion devoted to the 90th anniversary of Prof. G.P. Mel’nikov, the Editorial Board has to state that the main result of the discussion is the proof of the objectivity of systemic approach and integrative methodology in modern philology and linguistics.

Vladimir N Denisenko

Peoples’ Friendship University (RUDN University)

Email: semioticj@rudn.university
6, Miklukho-Maklaya str., Moscow, Russia, 117198

Elena A Krasina

Peoples’ Friendship University (RUDN University)

Email: semioticj@rudn.university
6, Miklukho-Maklaya str., Moscow, Russia, 117198

Olessya V Lazareva

Peoples’ Friendship University (RUDN University)

Email: semioticj@rudn.university
6, Miklukho-Maklaya str., Moscow, Russia, 117198

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