ASSIMILATION OF BORROWINGS IN SLAVIC LANGUAGES (in the aspect of Russian-Czech-Slovak comparison)

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A rapid increase in borrowings from English is one of the hallmarks of the modern linguistic situation in Slavic languages. Similar diversion processes driven by the active influence of the English language are marked in all Slavic languages, although they take place unevenly, which is shown by a comparative analysis of the Russian language with West Slavic ones, Czech and Slovak. The influence of English is evident not only in the form of direct borrowings, lexical, phraseological and semantic calques from English sources, but also in the penetration of English word-building elements, the impact of the derivational models relevant for the English language, in the import of ways of word-forming reality conceptualization. The article reveals the similarity and specificity of these processes in the Russian, Czech and Slovak languages.

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INTRODUCTION The active processes, currently underway in Slavic languages, are understood as various dynamic linguistic phenomena clearly expressed in a short-time interval, which also concern the lexical and word-formative sides of language. Similar diversion processes driven by the active influence of the English language are marked in all Slavic languages, although they take place unevenly, which is shown by a comparative analysis of the Russian language with West Slavic ones, Czech and Slovak. Nowadays, many Russian and Slavic linguists study the problems of the influence of English on the modern Slavic languages at different language levels - V. Berkov, N. Valgina, I. Vepreva, 2. Volodarskaia, L. Krysin, E. Marinova, G. Neshchimenko, V. Leichik, L. Ratsiburskaia, E. Shagalova, L. Shestak, N. Iudina (Russia), K. Buzásyová, P. Dvořáček, 1. Gazda, L. Janovec, O. Martincova (Czech Republic), Т. Grigorianova, J. Furdík (Slovakia), M. Kormilitsyna (Poland), M. Radchenko (Croatia), G. Gochev, M. Parzulova, L. Tsoneva (Bulgaria), etc. The goal of this article is to describe the individual areas of the influence of the English language on the Russian language against the background of the West Slavic ones, Czech and Slovak. The main research methods include observation method, continuous sampling, component analysis method, comparative, synchronic-and-diachronic, descriptive. PART 1 In the modern era, characterized by globalization processes, the processes of borrowing the vocabulary of Anglo-American origin have intensified in Slavic Languages. However, by the intensity of these processes, the Russian language is on one of the first places, the linguistic purism, traditional for Czechs and Slovaks, is holding back the flow of foreign words to some extent. Evidence of this are such examples as the Russian саммит /sammit/ ‘встреча в верхах’ /vstrecha v verhah/ (“summit”) - Slovak stretnutie na najvyššej úrovni, Rus. консенсус /konsensus/ ‘соглашение’ /soglasheni] (“consensus”) - Slov. zhoda, Rus. юзер /yuzer/ ‘пользователь’ /pol'zovatel'/ (“user”) - Slov. používateľ (from použivať ‘to use’), Rus. электорат /e`lektorat/ ‘избиратели’ /izbirateli/ (“electorate”) - Slov. voliči (from voliť ‘to elect’), Rus. контракт /kontrakt/ ‘договор’ /dogovor/ (“contract”) - Slov. zmluva (rarely kontrakt), Rus. Презент /prezent/ ‘подарок’ /podarok/ (”present”) - Slov. darček, Rus. шприц /shpricz/ (“syringe’’) - Slov. strekačka, Rus. Клининг /klining/ ‘уборка’ /uborka/ (“cleaning”) - Slov. upratovanie (from upratovať ‘to clean’), Rus. стикер /stiker/ ‘наклейка’ /naklejka/ (”sticker”) - Slov. nálepka (from nálepiť ‘to stick’), Rus. дайвинг /dajving/ ‘подводное плавание’ /podvodnoe plavanie/ (“diving”) - Slov. potápanie, Rus. пресс-секретарь /press-sekretar/ (”press-secretary”) - Slov. hovorca, hovorkyňa, Rus. поп-корн /pop-korn/ (“popcorn”) - Slov. pukanec (from pukať ‘to crackle, to pop’), Rus. макияж /makiyazh/ (“make-up”) - Slov. líčenie (from lice ‘face’) etc. The fact that some Slavonic derivation models still do not lose productivity in the Czech and Slovak languages, for example, the formation of verbal nouns with the formant *-dlo (rus. -ло /-lo/) is the proof that the “purist visor” is still holding back the flow of borrowings in these languages, is In the Russian language, this model has long been unproductive, according to our estimates, contemporary Russian language counts about 50 words, both surviving from antiquity (шило /shilo/ (“awl”), мыло /my`lo/ (“soap”), рубило /rubilo/ (“ax”), сверло /sverlo/ (“drill”), зеркало /zerkalo/ (“mirror”), покрывало /pokry`valo/ (”covers”) and others) and the newly formed ones, but having a phonetically altered formant and different semantics - to designate a person (бомбила /bombila/ (“gypsy cab driver”), мазила /mazila/ (“muff”), кутила /kutila/ (“reveller”), etc.). The Czech language counts more than 200 of them (about the same number that the Slavonic language had), and the Slovak - about 100, e.g.: the Czech, Slov. cedidlo (“colander”)’, čerpadlo (“pumps”), držadlo (“handle”), platidlo (“means of payment”), sladidlo (“artificial sweetener”), tužidlo (“hair styling mousse”), sedadlo (“seat”), operadlo (“chair back”) and others. However, it should be noted that the Czech and Slovak languages (the latter even to a bigger extent, for historical reasons) see faster adaptation and assimilation of borrowings to the systems of the adopting languages and their more frequent colloquial use in the lower language register, e.g., the Slov. kzicht from German Gezicht (“face”) is well known within the meaning of ‘snout, mug’, žumpa (“dump”), kšeft from German Gescheft (“business”) refers to ‘a dishonest business, speculation’, which formed the verb kšeftovať (“to speculate”); the words coming from English (colloquial) - pusa ‘kiss’, trema ‘excitement’, gumička ‘chewing gum’, guľa ‘ball, core’, which formed the verb guľať ‘to roll, to fool’. The Slovak has actively functioning words with English roots - reprezentant ‘representative’, gratulovať ‘to congratulate’; the verbs akceptovať ‘to accept’, eliminovať ‘to withdraw’, redukovať ‘to reduce’, absentovať ‘to be present’, disponovať ‘to dispose, to control’, preferovať ‘to prefer’ are commonly used in contrast to their Russian equivalents used only in the scientific style of speech. By analogy with the word alcoholic, трудоголик /trudogolik/ (“workaholic”), шопоголик /shopogolik/ (“shopaholic”) were created in the Russian language, in Czech, not only workoholik ‘workaholic’ and šopoholik ‘shopaholic’ were formed, but also about another 70 derivatives with this affixoid were found in the National body of the Czech language (čajeholik, polevkoholik, pornoholik, etc.). The influence of English is evident not only in the form of numerous lexical borrowing, both direct and calqued, but as phraseological borrowings, which are also often calqued: Rus. крестный отец /kryostny`j otecz/ / Slov. krstný otec, ‘mafia boss’ (from English godfather), Rus. мыльная опера /my`l'naya opera/ / Czech, Slav. mydlová opera (from English soap opera), Rus. отмывать деньги /otmy`vat' den'gi/ / Czech prát špinavé peníze (from English to launder money), делать деньги /delat' den'gi/ / dělat penize (from English to make money), etc. Frequent are also semantic calques (secondary borrowing from English words and expressions.): Rus. теневой /tenevoj/ (теневой бизнес /tenevoj biznes/, теневая экономика /tenevaya ekonomika/) / Czech stínová ekonomika, šedá ekonomika - from English. shadow economy, shadow business; продвинутый /prodvinutyj/ (‘a modern person, familiar with the latest achievements’) / Czech, Slov. pokročilý (používateľ internetu) - from English advanced in the secondary meaning. The internationalization of Slavic languages lexicons is also expressed in the transformation of foreign words and root morphemes into particular word-forming elements - affixoids. In light of the analysis of trends, numerous compoundings, established in accordance with the model of “immutable determinant + determined noun”, which is productive in Endlish, draw attention, although the productivity of this model differs in various Slavic languages; calques are actively functioning in the Czech and Slovak languages, along with analytical nominations, e.g.: Rus. бизнес-образование /biznes-obrazovanie/ (“business education”), бизнес-школа /biznes-shkola/ (“business school”), бизнес-семинар /biznes-seminar/ (“business seminar”), бизнес-аналитик /biznes-analitik/ (“business analyst”), бизнес-портал /biznes-portal/ (“business portal”), бизнес-форум /biznes-forum/ (“business forum”), бизнесвумен /biznes-vumen/ (“business-woman”), etc. / Czech business třída ‘business-class’, business-class, byznysplán, byznyscentrum, but: byznysmenka ‘businesswoman’, along with podnikatelská veřejnost ‘business community’, podnikatelský záměr ‘business concept’. In contrast to the Russian prefixoid Internet, a declinable adjective internetový was created in the Czech language: internetová kavárna ‘internet cafe’, internetové podnikání ‘internet business’, internetová stránka ‘web page’, etc., but there are also calques in accordance with the Czech tradition: obchodování na internet ‘Internet trading’. PART 2 It’s not only lexical units, phrasemes, whole word-forming nests, but also affixal morphemes of foreign origin that are formed. High productivity is demonstrated by such prefixes as супер-, мега-, экс/super-/, /mega-/, /eks-/: экс-губернатор /eksguernator/ (“ex-governor”), экс-премьер /eks-prem’er/ (“ex-premier”), экс-мэр /eks-me`r/ (“ex-mayor”), экс-музыкант /eks-musy`kant/ (“ex-musician”), экс-милиционер /eks-milicioner/ (“ex-militiaman”), экс-сотрудник /eks-sotrudnik/ (“exemployee”), экс-солист /eks-solist/ (“ex-soloist”), экс-супруг /eks-suprug/ (“exhusband”), etc. / Czech exministr ‘ex-minister’, expremiér ‘ex-premier’, exposlanec ‘ex-deputy’, exkomunista ‘ex-communist’ etc. However, it is the -инг /-ing/ suffix that beats all records by the number of borrowed language units containing it and by its own word-forming activity in the adopting language: Rus. банкинг /banking/ (“banking”); заппинг /zapping/, which recorded a modern “disease” of TV viewers - ‘quick switching from one TV program to another, in order not to watch ads’ (from the English zapping ‘inclusion’); каршеринг /karshering/ (‘car lease for a short time to get there somewhere in the city’) and others. The influence of English language is also manifested in the impact of its typical word-formation models. While more three decades ago, one could state with confidence that the Slavic languages differ in the frequency of use of various derivation methods, it is now impossible to speak confidently about the derivation priorities. Currently, one can argue that, in addition to the suffixes, traditionally characteristic of Slavic wordformation, analytical design and semantic derivation, univerbation expressed in different kinds of contractions, abbreviations, apocopes, is becoming a productive derivational way of word formation in Slavic languages, e.g., Rus. инфа /infa/ from информация /informaciya/ (“information”); Czech poč from počítač ‘computer’; Rus. мерс /mers/, Czech mergl instead of мерседес /mersedes/ (“Mercedes”), Rus. макдак /makdak/ and Czech. mekáč - from Макдональдс /Makdonal'ds/ (“McDonald’s”), etc. Derivation with zero affixation, especially correlated with verbs, belongs to universals of the Slavic word formation, but now there is a steady trend towards the intensification of this process, for example, прокол /prokol/ from the verb проколоться /prokolot'sya/ in the meaning ‘to make a mistake, to commit an act that reveals the true intentions of smb.’, Czech, Slovak. kiks (from kiksnout - ‘to lay an egg’) etc. Univerbation may be accompanied by suffixation: наличка /nalichka/ (from наличные деньги /nalichny`e den’gi) “cash”, Rus. тусовка /tusovka/ “get-together” (along with the even shorter туса /tusa/ from тусоваться /tusovat’sya/ “to hang out”), порнуха /pornuha/ “porn”, чернуха /chernuha/ “black humor”, висяк /visyak/ “cold case”, бесполезняк /bespoleznyak/ “no good”, голяк /golyak/ “nada” (from голый /golyj/ (‘zero’) result), ездун /ezdun/ “rider”, летун /letun/ “job hopper”, замкадье /zamkadje/ (‘area, located outside Moscow - outside the Moscow ring road, MKAD’, as well as ‘people living in that territory’), Slov. bakalarka ‘Bachelor work’, mobilka ‘mobile phone’, běžky (from běhať) ‘skis, used for running’ (as opposed to those for going downhill - zjazdové lyže), etc... In line with the expansion of word formation by univerbation, combined with ekspressivization and axiologisation of meaning is the increase in formation of semantically compact denominative verbs formed on the basis of phrases - Rus. романить /romanit’/ (from иметь роман /imet’ roman/ “to have an affair”) with the meaning ‘to have a loving relationship, to date smb.’ Rus. мейлить /mejlit’/, Czech, Slov. mailovat - from to exchange mail, Rus. тусоваться /tusovat’sya/, тусить /tusit’/, Czech mejdanovat ‘to hang out’ from mejdan ‘get-together, usually in the apartment of one of its members’, Slov. žurovať ‘to hang out’ from žur ‘get-together’. Along with the form compression, the hallmark of any univerbation, including verbal, is the condensation of semantics in a more compact, contracted form, in which the semantics of the entire phrase can be expressed implicitly. The research of uncodified speech gives many examples of the formation of verbs from English sources. Thus, the youth slang marks such units (comp.) as дефейсить /defeisit’/ ‘to change the look’ from the English deface, лукать /lukat’/ from the English look, токать /tokat’/ from the English talk, сфрендиться /sfrenditsya/ - from the English friend - the aspective pair for френдить /frendit’/ ‘to be friends with smb.’ Slovak neological verbs related to communication on the Internet, have not yet fully adapted, as evidenced by the variant graphic forms: facebookovať, fejsbúkova’ ‘chat on Facebook’, googlovať, gúglovať ‘to google’, gamifikovať, gejmifikovať ‘to game’, skypovať, skejpovať ‘to skype’, likovať, lajkovať ‘to like’, aploadovať, uploadovať ‘to download’ and others. In Slovak, word creation as part of verbal derivation led to the creation of such words as dovolenkovať ‘to be on vacation’ from dovolenka ‘vacation’, prazdninovať ‘to be on vacation’ from prazdniny ‘vacation’, letovať ‘to spend the summer’, vidličkovať ‘to whisk with a fork’ from vidlička ‘fork’, zaškatulovať ‘to break it all down, to organize’ (from škatule ‘box’), premierovať ‘to conduct a performance, film premiere’, hraniť sa (‘scratch the back of the door frame’ from pošuchať sa o hrani), gumovať ‘to erase’ (from guma ‘eraser’), bodovať ‘to score points’ (from body ‘points’), etc. A lot of verbal innovations are found in the advertising slogans, e.g.: S kým bankujete? (Literally, ‘Who are you banking with?’, i.e., ‘Which bank will you be working with?’). Parallel word formation in Slavic languages becomes a source of new facts of interlingual homonyms, for example, in the case with the Czech bankovať (s niekým) ‘to enter into a relationship with a bank’, and Rus. банковать /bankovat'/ ‘to put money on the line’; the Czech. mejdanovat ‘to hang out’ from mejdan ‘get-together’ and Rus. майданить /majdanit'/ ‘to protest against the government, to hold a meeting’; the Slov. guľať ‘to roll, fool’ and Rus. гулять /gulyat’/ ‘to wander, stroll aimlessly’ (and more recently in the expression гулять по интернету /gulyat’ po internetu/ ‘to surf the Internet’). Verbs from the nouns with a borrowed productive suffix -инг /-ing/, which is an indication of their further development in the Russian language, are actively formed on the Russian soil: шопинговать /shopingovat’/ ‘to do shopping’, прессинговать ‘pressingovat’/ ‘to put pressure’, демпинговать /dempingovat’/ ‘to dump, drastically reduce prices’, рейтинговать /reitingovat’/ ‘to rate’, тюнинговать /tyuningovat’/ (from тюнинг /tyuning/) ‘to alter, decorate the exterior of a car, as well as (fig.) the appearance of the person’. The suffixes -ирова, -ова, -и /-irova, -ova, -i/ are also utilized in the formation of denominative verbs - брендировать /brendirovat’/ (to present as a brand), продюсировать /produsirovat’/ (to act as a producer), офшорить /ofshorit’/ (to provide the territorial right to be an offshore zone), мониторить /monitorit’/ (to exercise monitoring, control, inspection). This trend is also observed in the Slovak language, but the verb forms are formed from nouns with the -ing suffix on the Slovak word-formation models without this suffix: dabing ‘dubbing’ - dabovať, lobing ‘lobbying’ - lobovať, koučing ‘coaching’ - koučovať, forčeking ‘forcheking’ - forčekovať, doping’ ‘doping’ - dopovať, kemping ‘camping’ - kempovať, dribling ‘dribbling’ - driblovať, monitoring ‘monitoring’ - monitorovať, karavaning ‘caravanning’ - karavanovať, banking ‘banking’ - the form bankovať appeared thanks to advertising. Many -ing borrowings have not yet acquired the appropriate verb forms, but their successful adaptation in the lexical system of the Slovak language is indicated by the appearance of adjectival forms - modeling - modelingový, klíring - klíringový, brífing - brífingový, džoging - džogingový and others. RESEARCH RESULTS Active derivational processes in modern Slavic languages, having the same type in their essence, are a testament to their convergence (symmetry), both in the explicit expression that leads to the formation of new interlanguage homonyms, and in the implicit context, in the aspect of internal development trends. The leading role is played by the English language, which is manifested in the form of direct borrowing from it, lexical, phraseological and semantic calques from English sources, in the assimilation and adaptation of English word-building elements and derivational models, in the import of formative ways of reality conceptualization.

About the authors

Elena M Markova

Kosygin state university of Russian; Katolik university in Ruzhomberok

Author for correspondence.
33, p.1, ul. Sadovnicheskaya, Moscow, Russia, 117997; 1A, Hrabovská cesta, Ružomberok, Slovakia, 034 01

Doctor of Philology, Professor of the Department of Russian Studies, Katolik university (Ružomberok), Kosygin state university of Russian


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