METAPHOR OF FORM IN “LILY” (architectonics of Icelandic Fourteenth century Christian Drapa)

Cover Page

Abstract


Aim of the study is explication of the narrative technique of the person who composed “Lily”; research demands attention to the following aspects of the drapa: 1) its architectonics, i.e. correlation between the form and the content including topoi, symbolism and narrative strands; 2) the language of “Lily” and forms of narration in the text; 3) correlation between language and meter in “Lily”. The first of the three mentioned aspects of the text constitutes the subject matter of the paper, attention is also given to the value of the text in skaldic poetics and verbal culture of Iceland. Materials and methods. The first section presents information on the surviving manuscripts and shows the value of “Lily” in the culture of Iceland; references to Icelandic folklore and modern recordings help realize importance of the text. In the second section technique of the author(s) is studied with regard to both, medieval Christian literature and verbal culture of medieval Iceland. The study is carried out on the basis of edition [8] and all available Russian translations of medieval Latin literature. Analysis of the latter enables to identify the literary topoi and corresponding archetypes of medieval consciousness reflected in “Lily”. The third section is devoted to semantics of the title and to other textual symbols. The fourth section considers the mode of text existence and addresses authorship. Results. Analysis shows that the content of “Lily” does not go beyond few archetypes of medieval Icelandic and European Christian consciousness. Specificity of “Lily” is described as metaphor of form; the collocation denotes all semantic processes entailed by the transfer of the form of drapa into the sphere of traditional Christian culture. Metaphor of form is treated as a natural consequence of the main achievement of Icelandic skalds - involution of poetic form and turning it into artistic device [5], - a prerequisite to versatility of poetic content. Conclusion. “Lily” is finally classified as a text which highlights semantic and functional potential of the skaldic form and on the whole complies with the canon of skaldic poetics. Assumption is made that the author of “Lily” did not realise himself as the author of the text, though the surviving text is, no doubt, result of his individual effort. Working with traditional material, the author of “Lily” most probably created his text in accordance with principles of Icelandic Oral Tradition.


About the authors

Nataliya L Ogurechnikova

RUDN University

Author for correspondence.
Email: ogurechnikowa@mail.ru
Miklukho-Maklaja 6, Moscow, Russia, 117198

Doctor of Philology, Professor of the Department of Theory and Practice of Foreign Languages at „RUDN University“; scientific interests: the language and culture of Iceland; historical poetics, history of the English Language, theory of grammar

References

  1. Ólason, Vésteinn (2006). Old Icelandic Poetry. In: A History of Icelandic Literature. Ed. by Daisy Neijmann. Lincoln & London: Nebraska Press. pр. 1—64.
  2. Chase, Martin L. (2014). Devotional Poetry at the End of the Middle Ages in Iceland. In: Eddic, Scaldic and Beyond. Ed. by Martin Chase. Oxford: University Press. pp. 136—149.
  3. Gurevich, E.A. & Matjushina, I.G. (2000). Poetry of skalds. Moscow: Publishing house of the Russian State University for Humanities. (In Russ.)
  4. Averincev, S.S. (1996). Retoric and the origins of the European literary tradition. Moscow: Shkola “Jazyki russkoj kul'tury” publ. (In Russ.)
  5. Smirnickaja, O.A. (2005). Old Germanic Poetry. Moscow: Jazyki slavjanskih kul'tur publ. (In Russ.)
  6. Sturluson, Snorri (1999). Edda. Háttatal. Ed. By Anthony Faulkes (Viking Society for Northern Research). London: University Colledge.
  7. Poole, Russel G. (1991). Viking Poems on War and Peace. A Study in Skaldic Narrative. Toronto, Buffalo, London: University of Toronto Press.
  8. Chase, Martin L. (2007). Anonymous, Lilja. In: Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages. Volume VII. Part 2: The Fourteenth Century. Edited by Margaret Clunies Ross. Belgium: Brepols Publishers. pp. 554—677.
  9. Finnbogason, Gunnar (cand. mag.). (1974). Formáli. In: Eysteinn Ásgrímsson. Lilja. Útgáfu annaðist. Reykjavík, Stafafell. Bls. 5—13.
  10. Helgason, Jón (1953). Norges og Islands digtning. In: Nordisk kultur. Litteraturhistorie. B. Norge og Island. Uppsala.
  11. Lilja: Krists konungs drápa tíræð eftir Eystein munk. (1992). Ed. by Jónsson, Guðbrandur. Preface by Pétur Már Ólafsson. Reykjavík: Vaka-Helgafell.
  12. Meissner, Rudolf (1921). Die Kenningar der Skalden: Ein Beitrag zur skaldischen Poetik. Bonn, Leipzig.
  13. Schottmann, Hans (1973). Die isländische Mariendichtung: Untersuchungen zur volkssprachigen Mariendichtung des Mittelalters. Münchener germanistische Beiträge 9. Munich: Fink.
  14. Lindblad, Gustaf (ed.) (1963). Bergsbók: Perg. fol. nr. 1 in the Royal Library, Stockholm. EIM 5. Copenhagen: Rosenkilde & Bagger.
  15. Jónsson, Finnur (1772—8). Historia ecclesiastica Islandiæ. 4 Vols. Copenhagen.
  16. Árnason, Jón (1954). Íslenskar þjóðsögur og æfintýri. Ný útg. Árni Böðvarsson og Bjarni Vilhjálmsson (útg.). Bindar I—V. Reykjavík: Önnuðust útgafa. Reykjavík: Bókaútgáfan Þjóðsaga.
  17. Íslenskt þjóðsagna safn. (2000). Ólafur Ragnarsson, Sverrir Jakobsson og Margrét Guðmundsdóttir (útg). Bindar I—V. Reykjavík: Vaka-Helgafell.
  18. Skúli Gíslason (1947). Sagnakver Skúla Gíslasonar. Sigurður Nordal (útg.). Reykjavík: Helgafell. (2. útg. 1984).
  19. Þorkelsson, Jón (1956). Þjóðsögur og munnmæli. Önnur útgáfa. Reykjavík: Bókfellsútgáfan, (Fyrsta útgáfa 1899).
  20. Guðjónsson, Sverrir (executive recording producer) (2012). Epitaph “Medieval Iceland”. Digital recording of Artcentrum AC001.
  21. Lotman, Ju.M. (2010). Unpredictable mechanisms of culture. Tallin: TLU Press. (In Russ.)
  22. Steblin-Kamenskij, M.I. (1979). Poetry of skalds. Moscow: Nauka publ. (In Russ.)
  23. Meletinskij, Je.M. (1968). Edda and forms of early epic texts. Moscow: Nauka publ. (In Russ.)
  24. Stepin, V.S., Gusejnov, A.A., Semigin, G.Ju. & Ogurcov, A.P. (2010). New encyclopedia of philosophy. Vol. IV. Moscow: Mysl' publ. (In Russ.)
  25. Paasche, Fredrik (1914). Kristendon og kvad. En studie i norrøn middelalder. Kristiania: Forlag av H. Aschehoug &Co. (W. Nygaard).
  26. Latin literature of X—XII centuries. (1972). Ed. by Grabar'-Passek, M.E. & Gasparov, M.L. at Russian Academy of Sciences, A.M. Gorky’s Institute of World Literature. Moscow: Nauka publ. (In Russ.)
  27. Father Aleksandr (Golicyn) (2016/03/11). Dionysius the Areopagite: Christian Mysticism? (In Russ.) URL: http://www.bogoslov.ru/text/4870531.html. (accessed: 15.04.2018)
  28. Dionysius the Areopagite (2017). Corpus dionysiacum. With commentary by the Venerable Maxim the Confessor. Translation and introduction by G.M. Prohorov. Sixth edition. SaintPetersburg: Oleg Abyshko publ. (In Russ.)
  29. The Holy Bible with Commentary, or Commentary to all the books of Holy Scripture including Old and New Testaments. (1987). Published by successors of A.P. Lopuhin. Second edition. Stokholm: Publishing House of the Institute for Bible translation. (In Russ.)
  30. Paasche, Fredrik (1924). Lilja. Et kvad til Guds Moder. Andet oplag. Kristiania: H. Aschehoug & Co. (W. Nygaard).
  31. Golubcov, A.P. (2014). Liturgy during the first centuries of Christianity (from lectures). Part 3. Moscow: Lan' publ. (In Russ.)
  32. Italian Poetry of XIII—XIX centuries in Russian translations. (1992). Compiled by R. Dubrovkin. Parallel texts in Russian and Italian. Moscow: Raduga publ. (In Russ.)
  33. Kristjánsson, Jónas & Ólason, Vésteinn (útg.) (2014). Eddukvæði. Bindar I—II. Fyrsti Bindi: Goðakvæði. Reykjavík: Hið íslenska fornritafélag.
  34. Stepin, V.S., Gusejnov, A.A., Semigin, G.Ju. & Ogurcov, A.P. (2010). New encyclopedia of philosophy. Vol. III. Moscow: Mysl' publ. (In Russ.)
  35. Knowles, David (1973). The Evolution of Medieval Thought. New York: Vintage Books.
  36. Zababurova, N.V. French medieval “Novel about Rose”. History and destiny. (In Russ.) URL: http://svr-lit.niv.ru/svr-lit/articles/zababurova-roman-o-roze.htm. (accessed: 12.05.2018).
  37. Dante, Alighieri (1967). The New Life. Divine Comedy. Translation from Italian by M. Lozinskij. Moscow: Hudozhestvennaja literature publ. (In Russ.).
  38. Tynjanov, Ju.N. (1924). The problem of poetic language. Moskva: Academia publ. (In Russ.).
  39. Solonicyna, M.N. Lily as a symbol in European art and culture. Koncept. 2015. Special issue № 18. (In Russ.). URL: http: e-koncept.ru/2015/75262.html. (accessed: 12.02.2018).
  40. Gurevich, A.Ja. (1976). Popular theology and piety in Middle Ages. From the history of culture in Middle Ages and Renaissance. Moscow: Nauka publ. рp. 65—91. (In Russ.)
  41. Hill, Thomas (1970). Number and Pattern in Lilja. Journal of English and Germanic Philology, 69 (4). 561—567. URL: http:// www.jstor.org/stable/27705928.
  42. Isländische Mariendichtung aus dem 14. Jahrhundert. (1884). Übersetzt und mit Einleitung versehen von Alexander Baumgartner. Freiburg im Breisgau: Herder.
  43. Parshin, A.N. (2012/06/08). Cycles in Orthodoxy and natural science. (In Russ.) URL: http://www.bogoslov.ru/text/2609572.html. (accessed: 09.05.2018).
  44. Gajdenko, P.P. (2007). Time. Duration. Eternity. The problem of time in European philosophy and science. Moscow: Progress-Tradicija publ. (In Russ.)
  45. Gordon, Ida L. (1961). Oral Tradition in the Sagas of Poets. In: Studia contenalia in honorem memoriæ Benedikt S. Þórarinsson. Ed. B.S. Benedikz. Reykjavík. pp. 69—76.

Statistics

Views

Abstract - 480

PDF (Russian) - 206

Cited-By


PlumX

Dimensions


Copyright (c) 2018 Ogurechnikova N.L.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

This website uses cookies

You consent to our cookies if you continue to use our website.

About Cookies