FUNCTIONAL AND COMPARATIVE SEMANTICS

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INTRODUCTION The offered articles belong to the thematic issue of the scientific journal “Bulletin of Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia. Series: Theory of Language. Semiotics. Semantics” and are devoted to the problems of functional and comparative semantics. The modern development of lexical semantics is characterized by the movement of scientific thought in the following directions: 1) the problem of interrelation between language and thinking, correlation of language and culture, synchronous state of diachronic development of the language represented by the works of N.N. Boldyreva [1], A. Vezhbitskaya [2], V.V. Kolesov [3], J. Lyons [4], V.A. Maslova [5] and many others; 2) theoretical questions of semantics, in particular, semantic processes in language, are considered in the works of Yu.D. Apresyan [6], V.G. Gak [7], Kobozeva [8], L.A. Novikov [9], Z.D. Popova [10], D.N. Shmelev [11] and their students; 3) studies of the functional development of the lexis of the language are presented in the works of L.P. Krysina [12], V.I. Telia [13] and many others; 4) the study of the organization of the linguistic picture of the world, its categorization - the subject of consideration of cognitive semantics - the works of V.I. Karasik [14], E.S. Cubreacova [15], J. Lakoff [16], Yu.S. Stepanova [17], I.A. Sternin [18] and many others; 5) the concept of linguistic consciousness E.F. Tarasova [19] and N.V. Ufimtseva [20]; 6) Russian author’s lexicography, in particular, the work of Yu.N. Karaulov [21; 22]. The articles offered to the reader in this issue of the journal continue the work in these directions. BRIEF REVIEW OF THE ARTICLES OF THE ISSUE Our issue begins with the work of M.N. Panova (Moscow, Russia) devoted to the problem of using the Russian language in the administrative and legal spheres. This study revealed the existence of certain canons of the functioning of the corporate language in the written form and contradictions between the recommendations of academic dictionaries and the speech practice of workers in the sphere of public administration, the solution of which is proposed by the author of the article. In her article E.Kh. Zhamaletdinova (Moscow, Russia) continues to study the everyday language public consciousness of the Russian language native speaker by the example of the representation of the value content - развитие. The work of N.V. Perfilieva (Moscow, Russia) in co-authorship with Hu Peipei (Shenzhen, China) is devoted to the description of neologisms-borrowings from English into Chinese and the ways to master them. S.N. Semenova (Krasnodar, Russia) considers the lexis of mountain ecosystems of the Russian and English languages and suggests the cognotype of a scientific article that takes into account the pragmatics of textual implementations and the filling of the thesaurus of a given subject area. The collective work of T.G. Orlova, A.A. Kolosova, Yu.S. Medvedev and S.A. Barov (Moscow, Russia) continues the topic of comparative analysis of the lexical level of languages and examines English and Russian paremiae with the concept of “happiness-unhappiness”. The conclusion about the specifics of thinking and the uniqueness of Russian and English linguocultures is made on the basis of structural and semantic analysis. S.V. Felixov (Moscow, Russia) describes the Church Slavonic lexis of the Orthodox doctrine and offers its semantic classification with the use of textual, lexicographical and extra-linguistic factors. Functional aspects of semantic research on the level of translation - the object of the work of E.S. Abaeva (Moscow, Russia), the author who proposes to change the general scheme of comparative analysis of texts with the humorous effect of the original and the translation with a basis for the general theory of verbal humour of S. Attardo. According to E.S. Abaeva, the observations and conclusions presented as results in the work may prove to be useful for the development of a general theory of the translation of humour and may serve as practical recommendations for translators of fiction. In their work, N.V. Alontseva and Y.A. Ermoshin (Moscow, Russia) consider the lexis of the Russian and English languages of legal discourse in the aspect of translating texts of international treaties. The authors consider systematic errors and problem areas of using equivalent contextual-semantic units. In the article of N. Dzhusupov (Zhetysay, Kazakhstan) on the material of the strophe of the poem “Aitys” by Olzhas Suleymanov there was conducted the analysis of the means of foregrounding. The central place of work is devoted to the consideration of the semantic-stylistic features of the used lexical units. The author concludes that the creation of a semantically saturated non-standard poetic microtext is generated by the bilingual artistic thinking of Olzhas Suleymanov. In the work of E.I. Seliverstova (Moscow, Russia) there are analyzed paremiae containing components of глаза and глазки in terms of their ability to reflect the psycho-emotional side of a person. The study was conducted on the material of literary texts. The section of the lexicography of our issue is opened with the article of E.A. Osokina (Moscow, Russia) which is dedicated to the author’s lexicography. The paper presents the comparison of dictionary articles in several author dictionaries of one model, which, in the author’s opinion, emphasizes creative features of the writer and forms a broad linguocultural context. In the study of N.M. Nesova (Moscow, Russia) and L.Ya. Bobritskikh (Voronezh, Russia) there are analyzed features of bilingual educational dictionaries on the basis of the authors’ theoretical and practical consideration of the macrostructure of dictionaries of this type. The works of young scientists Yu.D Rodina, N.Yu. Timofeeva, and G.N. Pudikova continue to study the topic and problematics of the issue. In the article of N.Yu. Timofeeva (Simferopol, Russia) on the material of fixations of the oral speech of Crimea inhabitants there was examined the realization of phatic and cognitive functions of the language game phenomenon. The author conducts discursive, word-formation and semantic research and concludes that the scope of the term “language game” is limited by the facts of a phatic focus. Yu.D. Rodina (Kolomna, Russia) considers the novel by Andrei Bely “Kotik Letaev” from the standpoint of conceptology. On the basis of the novel, syntactic schemes are identified and described with the focus on verbs of thinking, cognition and imagination. G.N. Pudikova (Moscow, Russia) proposes an algorithm for analyzing business letters primarily from the standpoint of their structural and semantic, and pragmatic features.

O V Lazareva

RUDN University

Author for correspondence.
Email: lazareva_ov@rudn.university
Miklukho-Maklaya st., 6, Moscow, Russia, 117198

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