Vol 18, No 3 (2020): RUSSIAN AS WE SPEAK IT: FOR THE ANNIVERSARY OF S.A. KHAVRONINA

The Name in Science
Serafima Alekseevna Khavronina: researcher, methodologist, teacher
Vokhmina L.L., Klobukova L.P.
Abstract

The article highlights the main milestones of the scientific and methodological activities of the professor of Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia Serafima Alekseevna Khavronina, the outstanding specialist in the theory and methodology of teaching Russian as a foreign language, who made a significant contribution to the formation and development of Russian linguodidactics. S.A. Khavronina is the author of numerous scientific publications, as well as textbooks and teaching aids, normative-methodological and test materials, which have been actively used for many decades in Russia and abroad. Her textbook “Russian in Exercises” is unparalleled in popularity and the number of reprints in dozens of countries. The importance of S.A. Khavronina’s scientific works lies in scientific and methodological description of such complex aspects in the practice of teaching Russian as the word order, ways of expressing time, prefixes, etc. She has also the developed scientific and methodological foundations of teaching Russian as a way of business communication. For her professional achievements, S.A. Khavronina has been awarded the Order of Friendship, Pushkin and Motina medals.

Russian Language Studies. 2020;18(3):257-270
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Scientific Review
The history of teaching the Russian language in Lebanon: a chronological overview starting with the “Moscow school” of the Imperial Orthodox Palestine Society until present times
Semaan N.V., Demesheva E.N., Baher T.V.
Abstract

The article is dedicated to the history of teaching the Russian language in Lebanon from the end of the XIX century to present times. The authors tried to analyze how the pivotal historical moments of Russian-Lebanese relations influenced the conditions for teaching the Russian language in Lebanon. The article provides a brief description of the programs and methods used in various educational institutions for teaching Russian in Lebanon, depending on the form in which it was in demand for its functioning (at one stage or another). First as a language taught in some “Moscow schools” of the Imperial Orthodox Palestine Society, then as a language for preserving the Russian culture of the Diaspora initially formed by first wave immigrants and finally at the present stage, Russian as a foreign language or as a native language for bilingual children of compatriots living in Lebanon.

Russian Language Studies. 2020;18(3):271-294
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Methods of teaching russian as a foreign language
Development of ideas about the teaching method in didactics and linguodidactics
Moskovkin L.V.
Abstract

It is crucial for teachers of Russian as a foreign language to investigate the way of development of the ideas about the teaching method in didactics and linguodidactics. Thereby, they can better understand the process of evolution of the scientific thought, its current state and define its prospects. It helps to build a modern theory of teaching that has a practical value. The purpose of this research is to describe the development of the ideas about the teaching method in didactics and linguodidactics, to identify its stages and to analyze the future prospects for the development of the theory of teaching, including the methods of teaching Russian as a foreign language. The research was based on about 80 theoretical works devoted to didactics and linguodidactics and practical guides for teachers, including manuals for teachers of Russian as a foreign language. The author used the methods of conceptual and contextual analysis, and the historical and descriptive research method. Analyzing the sources, the researcher identified three stages of the development of the ideas about the teaching method in didactics and linguodidactics. When the ideas about the teaching method originated (17th-19th centuries), this concept was not defined. However, the term “teaching method” was actively used, as it referred both to the teaching process and to the teacher’s actions in the classroom. At the stage of formation of scientific ideas about the teaching method (20th century), researchers compiled and analyzed empirical data. Different definitions and classifications of the teaching methods were proposed and various theories of teaching methods were developed. At the stage of critical rethinking (21th century), a new theory of teaching was introduced. It included the description of the main features of teaching methods, their functional classification, and recommendations on how to choose and develop a teaching method. The term “teaching method” is polysemantic, which causes a number of problems. If researchers manage to clearly define this term, a great contribution will be made not only to didactics and linguodidactics, but also to the theory of teaching Russian as a foreign language.

Russian Language Studies. 2020;18(3):295-314
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A сoursebook on linguocultural studies for foreigners studying the Russian language: concept and content
Senatorova O.A.
Abstract

The article continues studying interconnected teaching of Russian language and culture in linguistic and сultural aspect of the methodology of teaching Russian as a foreign language (RFL) from the perspective of communicative and active learning. The relevance of this study is associated with the need to develop a system of theoretical and practical recommendations on using cultural potential of language environment in teaching and learning RFL as part of communicative and active approach to teaching. The research attempts to develop the concept and content of a coursebook on linguocultural studies, aimed at extending knowledge of Russian culture and developing communicative competence of foreigners studying the Russian language. This is an important condition for linguocultural adaptation. The research was carried out on the basis of traditional folk culture realities, which most vividly reflect the peculiarities of national mentality and provide opportunities for both theoretical and practical cultural activities in teaching/learning RFL: decorative and applied art and folk crafts, traditional folk dolls, and cuisine. The methods of the research are analysis, generalization and forecasting. The research resulted in developing the concept of a coursebook on linguocultural studies and determining its content. The author makes conclusion about effectiveness of the communicative-activity approach in teaching and learning aimed at extending foreigners’ knowledge about Russian culture and Russian national mentality, forming their communicative competence and providing successful linguistic and cultural adaptation. The conclusion is based on the materials of a coursebook on linguistic and cultural studies for foreigners learning Russian.

Russian Language Studies. 2020;18(3):315-327
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Virtual reality as a tech tool for students studying Russian in China
Qiu X.
Abstract

The article analyses the experience of implementing virtual reality (VR) in foreign language teaching, particularly teaching the Russian language in Chinese universities. Basing on different approaches and the results of applying VR in practical classes at the Russian Language Faculty of Sichuan University, the research on the effectiveness of VR technologies has been done in terms of stimulating Russian language learners’ motivation, enhancing their knowledge, strengthening their language capability, developing basic oral Russian, as well as improving the quality of teaching Russian in a non-native environment. The research subject is determined by the transformation of the educational process among students with a relatively good language capability. The novelty and actuality of the topic are due to the following factors. Firstly, it is modelling situations with real-world samples when the organizer of educational process makes it immersive by using computer and recordings. Secondly, auto-reading module can be used. Thirdly, the system can check the consistency between the original text and the one recognized by voice recognition module. The author reviews indicators of the experiment, aimed at assessing teaching results and summarizing the changes in knowledge acquiring with using VR technologies at the Russian Language Faculty of Sichuan University. According to the results of the survey, the author studies the pros and cons of the changes brought by VR and concludes the opinions of the tested students and teachers participating in the experiment. The results of the experiment illustrate changing roles of teachers and students. To be specific, the teacher is no longer a simple organizer, but a supervisor, assistant and consultant, playing a supporting role. Students gradually master the functions of training systems. It stimulates them to work independently under VR. This has been proved by the students’ results in the semester exam and the state accreditation test of translators. Besides, the statistical data are presented on the differences between the traditional model of language teaching and the one under VR.

Russian Language Studies. 2020;18(3):328-341
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First Steps in Science
Implementing the principle of considering native language in Russian language textbooks for foreigners
Krasnokutskaya N.V.
Abstract

Modern educational trends, including individualization of learning, shifting the focus from the teacher to the student, taking into account the characteristics of the student's personality, including his native language and culture, arouse interest to national-oriented methodology. The objective of this article is to determine the relevance and prospects of this methodological direction in modern teaching of Russian as a foreign language. To realize the objective set out in the article, we used methods of analyzing scientific literature, scientific observation and synthesis of pedagogical experience, conversations with students and teachers. The article is based on scientific research on the methodology of teaching foreign languages, including Russian as a foreign language, textbooks and manuals, both national-oriented and of general type. The article considers the traditions of applying students’ native language in teaching Russian as a foreign language. We clarify the concepts of “native language accounting” and “reliance on native language”, consider the historical formation of the mentioned principle as one of the leading methodological principles, analyze its implementation in textbooks on Russian as a foreign language. The most attention is paid to the analysis of national-oriented manuals. As an example, the textbook “Le russe à votre rythme. Cours pratique pour francophones” by S.A. Khavronina, A.I. Chirotchenskaïa, and L. Bron-Tchitchagova is considered. The peculiarities of its orientation to French-speaking audience, ways and means of preventing interlanguage interference and achieving a positive transfer of skills from the native language to the studied one are noted. The prospects for creating such textbooks based on previous experience and methodological traditions are outlined. The scientific novelty of the research consists in the analysis of the results of the national-oriented methodology out of a specific educational situation, limited by certain learning conditions. The theoretical significance of the work consists in generalization and analysis of the accumulated methodological experience in this area. The practical significance is determined by the systematization of methods used in a national-oriented textbook for implementing the principle of native language accounting and identifying the prospects for developing new educational materials of this type.

Russian Language Studies. 2020;18(3):342-358
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Teaching Russian in Turkish universities: modern trends
Kulsha D.N., Ryabokoneva O.V.
Abstract

Monitoring the interest in Russian language learning constitutes a significant direction regarding supporting and promoting the Russian language abroad. The relevance of the study is attributed to the scarce amount of contemporary research on the status of Russian in the academic realm of the Republic of Turkey. This study aims to explore the dynamics and trends regarding teaching Russian as a foreign language in undergraduate programmes in Turkey over the last 5 years and identify the primary factors determining the choice of Russian as a major or as an additional skill. Within the scope of this study we have obtained quantitative information regarding Russian undergraduate programme quotas from governmental Internet resources (Council of Higher Education); additionally, evidence was collected via an anonymous questionnaire targeting L1 Turkish L2 Russian learners. The data were analyzed using statistical methods. The obtained results suggest steady and positive dynamics on the state level: the number of quotas for Russian undergraduate programmes in Turkey is gradually increasing; and on the individual level: a genuinely positive attitude towards Russian language and culture is observed among university students. The crucial factors determining the students’ choices are mainly related to instrumental motivation (job opportunities, etc.), whereas integral motivation also plays considerable importance (interest towards Russian language and culture, etc.). The results of the study may prove useful in developing educational materials and setting new directions in intercultural policies.

Russian Language Studies. 2020;18(3):359-370
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On Cultural Heritage of Russian Philology
“Russian as we speak it” (about Serafima A. Khavronina and the book of her life)
Nikitin O.V.
Abstract

The article analyzes one of the most famous textbooks by S.A. Khavronina for studying Russian as a foreign language “Russian as we speak it”. The book has become a hallmark of the Russian methodology and culture of teaching a non-native language abroad. The author examines the structure of the book, emphasizes the innovative findings of S.A. Khavronina, speaks about the features of presenting and explaining the material. Special attention is paid to the communicative orientation of the textbook, which for the first time offered a clear, simple and at the same time methodologically based strategy for teaching Russian as a foreign language. According to the author of the article, the book by S.A. Khavronina is an example of a balanced approach to the analysis of how the live speech influences on foreigners. It solves the key tasks of modern methodology of Russian as a foreign language: grammar-translated, personal-practical and audio-linguistic. The article draws readers’ attention to the problem of creating a modern textbook on Russian and intercultural communication, taking into account the best achievements in the history of these disciplines, using traditional approaches proven over the years and the latest methods of studying language as a cultural phenomenon.

Russian Language Studies. 2020;18(3):371-376
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