Teaching Russian verbs of motion to Turkish students, considering national linguistic picture of the worlds

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Abstract


The article deals with Russian prefixed verbs of motion in the reflection of the Turkish language. The topic is relevant due to the fact that in recent years the role of Russian language learning in Turkey is increasing because of the expansion of economic and cultural relations between the two countries. The aim of the study is to create a linguodidactic basis for developing methodological recommendations for teaching Russian prefixed verbs of motion to Turkish students. Different methods have been used to realize the goal. The article is based on the dissertations, textbooks and manuals on the Russian language for foreigners, scientific works comparing the Russian and Turkish languages. The study of verbs of motion in the practical course of the Russian language for Turkish students has a special place. Russian and Turkish language speakers perceive the world and their identity differently. The differences between the pictures of the world are reflected in culture and language, its vocabulary and grammatical categories. Thus, while there are universals in the verb systems of the Russian and Turkish languages, there are also significant differences in the idea of action, state, change, movement, denoted by verb units in the two languages. Russian prefixed verbs of motion do not have exact equivalents in Turkish and are translated by means of verbs with different root or translation transformations. The results of the comparative description of Russian prefixed verbs of motion and transferring their meanings in Turkish, and the identified differences served as the basis for developing methodological recommendations for teaching Russian prefixed verbs of motion to Turkish students, taking into account their native language. Basing on the research, a system of teaching prefixed verbs of motion to Turkish students, including methods of verb presentation and consolidation in oral and written speech, was developed. The prospects of this work are to create a nationally-oriented textbook on the topic “Russian prefix verbs of motion”.


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Table 1. Verbs with prefix при- (pri-)

PERFECTIVE ASPECT
Прийти
(Yürüyerek) gelmek
To come
Приехать
(Araçla) gelmek
To arrive

IMPERFECTİVE ASPECT
Приходить
(Yürüyerek) gelmek
To come
Приезжать
(Araçla) gelmek
To arrive

Where? To whom? From where? From whom?
Accusative (in, at), Dative (to), Genitive (from)

The non-transitive verbs of motion with the prefix при- (pri-) correspond to the Turkish verb gelmek (прийти – to come), as well as the verbs varmak (добраться – to get to), uğramak (зайти –
to come in), dönmek
(вернуться – to return). The verb gelmek in Turkish means to approach, to arrive.

I came (приехал) to have some fun, but I am bored here, and I want to go home again (A. Chekhov, “Ivanov”). Sözüm ona eğlenmek için geldim buraya, işte burada da sikiliyorum, eve dönmek istiyorum.

 

Table 2. Prefixal verbs and their Turkish equivalents

Прийти
To come (perfective)

Приходить
To come (imperfective)

Мои новые друзья пришли ко мне в гости.
Benim yeni arkadaşlarım bana misafirliğe yürüyerek geldiler.
My new friends came to visit me. (Past)

Мои новые друзья придут ко мне в гости.)
Benim yeni arkadaşlarım bana misafirliğe yürüyerek gelecekler.
My new friends are coming to visit me. (Future)

 

Юсуф после уроков приходил домой.
Yusuf dersten sonra eve yürüyerek gelirdi.
Yusuf used to come home after school.

Юсуф после уроков приходит домой.
Yusuf dersten sonra eve yürüyerek gelir.
Yusuf comes home after school.

Юсуф после уроков будет приходить домой.
Yusuf dersten sonra eve yürüyerek gelecek.
Yusuf will come home after school.

Приехать
To arrive (perfective)

Приезжать
To arrive (imperfective)

Айше приехала в Стамбул в сентябре.
Ayşe Eylül’de İstanbul’a arabayla geldi.
Ayse came to Istanbul in September. (Past)

Айше приедет в Стамбул в сентябре.
Ayşe Eylül’de İstanbul’a arabayla gelecek.
Ayşe will come to Istanbul in September. (Future)

 

 

Ахмет приезжал в Стамбул каждое лето.
Ahmet her yıl İstanbul’a arabayla gelirdi.
Ahmet came to Istanbul every summer. (Past)

Ахмет приезжает в Стамбул каждое лето.
Ahmet her yil İstanbul’a arabayla gelir (gelir gider).
Ahmet comes to Istanbul every summer. (Present)

Ахмет будет приезжать в Стамбул каждое лето.
Ahmet her yil İstanbul’a arabayla gelecek (gelip gidecek).
Ahmet will come to Istanbul every summer. (Future)

 

 

Figure 1. Verbs of motion with prefix при- (pri-)

 

Table 3. Verbs with prefix под- (pod-)

PERFECTİVE
Подойти
(Yürüyerek) yanına gelmek, yaklaşmak
Come
Подъехать
(Arabayla) yaklaşmak, yanına gelmek
Drive up

IMPERFECTİVE
Подходить
(Yürüyerek) yanına gelmek, yaklaşmak
Come
Подъезжать
(Arabayla) yaklaşmak, yanına gelmek
Drive

To whom? To what?
Dative (preposition to)

Verbs with the prefix под- (pod-) are conveyed by the Turkish verb gelmek and the adverb yanına, if the movement is directed to an animate person (to approach someone); when the movement is directed to an object the verb yaklaşmak (to approach something) is used, and also the verb gelmek.

Metin approached (подошел к) the teacher and asked a question. Metin öğretmenin yanına geldi ve bir soru sordu. Nur walked up to (подошла к) the university and decided to wait for her friend.
Nur üniversiteye
yaklaştı ve orada arkadaşını beklemeye karar verdi.

 

Table 4. Prefixal verbs and their Turkish equivalents

Подойти
To come (Perfective)

Подходить
To come (Imperfective)

Мои новые друзья подошли ко мне.
Benim yeni arkadaşlarım yanıma geldiler.
My new friends came up to me. (Past)

Студенты подойдут к преподавателю.
Öğrenciler öğretmenin yanına gidecekler.
The students will come to the teacher. (Future)

 

 

 

 

Юсуф подходил к учителю каждый раз после уроков.
Yusuf her dersten sonra öğretmenin yanına gelir.
Yusuf approached the teacher every time after lessons. (Past)

Юсуф после уроков подходит ко мне.
Yusuf dersten sonra benim yanıma gelir.
Yusuf used to come to me after lessons. (Present)

Теперь Юсуф после уроков будет подходить к учителю за консультацией.
Yusuf artık derslerden sonra danışmak için öğretmenin yanına gidecek.
Now Yusuf will come to the teacher to get recommendations. (Gen.)

Подъехать
To drive up (Perfective)

Подъезжать
To come by car (Imperfective)

Айше подъехала к Стамбулу на машине.
Ayşe İstanbul’a (arabayla) yaklaştı.
Ayse drove up to Istanbul by car. (Past)

Айше подъедет на работу к 7 утра.
Ayşe yarın sabah işe arabayla gelecek.
Ayşe will drive up to work at 7 a.m. (Present)

 

 

 

Когда Ахмет работал у нас, он подъезжал
к офису ровно в 8 утра.
Ahmet bizde çalıştığında, ofise tam 8’de arabayla gelirdi.
When Ahmet worked with us, he used to drive up to the the office at 8:00 a.m. (Past)

Ахмет медленно подъезжает к зданию общежития.
Ahmet yavaşça yurt binasına arabayla yaklaşıyor.
Ahmet slowly drives up to the dormitory building. (Present)

Ахмет будет подъезжать к крыльцу.
Ahmet kapıya arabayla gelecek.
Ahmet will drive to the porch. (Future)

 

Figure 2. Verbs of motion with prefix под- (pod-)

About the authors

Serafima A. Khavronina

Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia (RUDN University)

Author for correspondence.
Email: khavronina@yandex.ru
6 Miklukho-Maklaya St, Moscow, 117198, Russian Federation

PhD, Professor of the Department of the Russian Language and Its Teaching Methods

Kasim Emrak

Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia (RUDN University)

Email: kasimemrak@gmail.com
6 Miklukho-Maklaya St, Moscow, 117198, Russian Federation

PhD student of the Department of the Russian Language and Its Teaching Methods

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Supplementary files

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Figure 1. Verbs of motion with prefix при- (pri-)

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Figure 2. Verbs of motion with prefix под- (pod-)

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