No 4 (2014)

ARTICLES
STEP TO CIVIL SOCIETY (ON HISTORICAL ROLE OF JUDICIAL REFORM OF 1864)
Popova A.D.
Abstract
The article deals with the importance of the judicial reform of 1864 for the course of Alexander's modernization and analyzes the role of the judicial reforms for various aspects of life in the post-reform Russia. There is used a wide range of sources - archival materials, memoirs of contemporaries of that period, publications of periodicals. The author concludes that the judicial reform of 1864 should be considered as a significant step towards civil society. The analysis of the sources shows that the judicial reform of 1864 contributed to the increase in the protection of human rights and freedoms. The activities of new courts changed the public consciousness - in the society there was growing representation of rule of law, necessity to respect the rights and freedoms of others, to meet obligations. The judicial reform played a major role in the process of merging classes, the development of market relations. Thus, the introduction of the controversial independent public trial not only improved the justice, but was also an important step in the formation of civil society in Russia.
RUDN Journal of Russian History. 2014;(4):5-15
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"ZEMSTVO STATE AFFAIR": UNIT OF ZEMSTVO IN STATE CONTROL SYSTEM
Azamatova G.B.
Abstract
Local self-government in the Russian Empire (1864-1918) arose as a result of the bourgeois reforms and had a diversified character. This article reviews the role of zemstvo in the implementation of individual bourgeois reforms, local self-government relations with the justice of the peace, peasant authorities, the system of taxation and management of national education. The author concludes that district and executive councils complemented the administrative-bureaucratic system of local government through the district and provincial levels and human resources structure. At the same time, local authorities increased the scope of decentralization and democratization of local administration through election of magistrates, civil servants of peasant bodies as well as via representation in collegial bodies. The independent status of zemstvo promoted to emergence of a new level in the administrative and political management culture. The government used zemstvo to create a modernized system of taxation. Through district councils the Russian Empire established the valuation area of taxation and professional human resources. Thus, district councils helped to improve state administration and became the tool of implementation of the government reform programs in the late 19 th and early 20 th centuries.
RUDN Journal of Russian History. 2014;(4):16-24
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AUTHORITIES AND UPPER CLASS OF RUSSIAN EMPIRE DURING REFORM PERIOD: PROBLEMS OF INTERACTION
Seliverstova N.M.
Abstract
The article reveals the problems of interaction between the authorities and the upper class of the Russian Empire during the period of the 60-70s of the XIXth century. The author considers the changing attitude of the nobility to the government policy from the emancipation of serfs till the end of Alexander II’s reign, examines the way of the government reacting to the signals of the upper class. Actively involving the nobility in the implementation of the reforms in the regions, the authorities for a long time refused to consider the issue of its participation in the establishment and functioning of the central representative authority. At the same time, the nobility couldn’t rely on its own independent efforts to remain in the position of the first class. It asked the authorities for support and help. From then on, the nobility no longer played the role of an active subject of policy in its relations with the supreme power, and soon became an object of government action and care.
RUDN Journal of Russian History. 2014;(4):25-35
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SOME CHURCH MANAGEMENT IN THE PRINCIPALITY SOUTHEAST RUSSIA IN XI-XII CENTURIES
Logacheva N.V.
Abstract
This paper shows that the joint cooperation of church and state in the principalities of South-Eastern XI-XII centuries. Emphasizes that the problem is not only scientific but also of practical interest for the modern Russian society. This experience is for national history an invaluable contribution to the field, both secular and ecclesiastical administration in feudal principalities and Old Russian state as a whole. Particular attention is paid to the analysis of the process of establishing the relationship between church and state, which were formed, changed and improved over the centuries. In particular, the article says that the medieval relations between church and state were more active and expressed that the church served a number of public functions and is thus, a special part of government agencies and their authorities. At the same time, the author notes that the church was in this historical financial content of the state apparatus. In view of this church-state relations in ancient Russia, primarily in the South-East of Russia, wore a special character - the church was interested in the state, and the state - in the church.
RUDN Journal of Russian History. 2014;(4):36-45
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WELFARE OF CATEGORIES OF RUSSIAN STATE-FARM SOCIETY IN 1930-1950S (ON MATERIALS OF EUROPEAN NORTH OF RSFSR)
Trofimova A.I.
Abstract
This article deals with the welfare of members of the Russian state-farm society as representatives of the state system of agriculture. There are considered such problems as material support of employees of state farms, property differentiation, theft. The author shows that during that period the welfare of employees of Russian state farms considerably changed for the better. In the early 1930s employees of state farms had great financial problems, whereas in the 1950s state farms showed rather high welfare of members of the state-farm society. In the state-farm community there was differentiation on welfare which generally depended on belonging of workers to this or that professional category. Thanks to high level of the social mobility provided with social promotion (education, also at the expense of state farms, party joining, hard work), everyone had a real possibility of achievement of higher financial level.
RUDN Journal of Russian History. 2014;(4):46-60
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RUSSIAN FOREIGN POLICY AND CONGRESSES OF TROPPAU AND LAIBACH
Chernov A.V.
Abstract
The article describes the process of preparation and holding of congresses in Troppau and Laibach. At the beginning of 1820 there was a revolution of Spain. The Russian diplomats headed by Emperor Alexander I and J. Capodistria offered to convene the congress to develop the measures to combat the Spanish revolution. But the British and Austrians opposed that. However when Naples revolution started, Metternich requested permission for the suppression of the rebellion from Alexander I, but Russians insisted on the convocation of the conference. On the congress of Troppau the Russian delegation insisted on the development of the universal measures to the struggle against revolutions that had to be hold in a peaceful manner. The Austrians, who sought to the carrying out of one-sided armed intervention in Naples, were forced to agree with the Russian project. The Preliminary protocol was based on this project. On the congress J. Capodistria offered the new version of his project of the “universal union”. When the king of Neapolitan Ferdinand IV arrived to Laibach he immediately demanded the intervention in Naples. The Russian plan failed. Alexander I was forced to agree to the armed intervention.
RUDN Journal of Russian History. 2014;(4):61-71
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REPRESENTATIVES OF MOSCOW LAND SURVEYING SCHOOL IN FIGHT AGAINST NAPOLEON’S INVASION
Grebenichenko S.F., Shirokorad I.I.
Abstract
The article was written for the 235 th anniversary of the State University of Land Use Planning and the 200th anniversary of the entry of Russian troops into Paris. The first Russian special land measuring educational institution was created in 1779 - it was Konstantinovsky land measuring school, later it was called Emperor Constantine land measuring institute. At present the State University of Land Use Planning is the oldest university in Russia after Lomonosov MSU and it marks its 235 th anniversary. In the history of every nation there are events and dates, which nurture the feeling of national pride. Obviously such great events were the Patriotic war of 1812 and following foreign campaigns of Russian troops which ended in 1814 by capturing of Paris and overthrow of Emperor Napoleon I Bonaparte. The important role in the final victory over Napoleon, which occurred 200 years ago, was played by outstanding representatives of the Moscow land surveying school. Many of them took an active part in the battles against the enemy from Borodino to Paris. This is the subject of the article.
RUDN Journal of Russian History. 2014;(4):72-86
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PECULIARITIES OF KAZAKHSTAN-RUSSIA COOPERATION IN 1990S: EXPERIENCE AND PROBLEMS
Sagindikov R.E.
Abstract
The article deals with the understudied issue of the formation and development of the Kazakhstan-Russia relations, which began to be established just after the collapse of the Soviet Union and the formation of the Commonwealth of Independent States, where the Russian Federation and the Republic of Kazakhstan held a special place. The analysis reveals that in their mutual relations both states gave priority to the development of cooperation in the field of economy as the most pressing issue after the collapse of the Soviet national economy. At the same time, as it is shown in the article, special attention was paid to the development of the two countries' political, defense, and other relations, which currently have crucial significance.
RUDN Journal of Russian History. 2014;(4):87-99
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HISTORICAL FEATURES LEGAL EDUCATION IN RUSSIA AT THE TURN XIX-XX СENTURIES
Rubinstein D.V.
Abstract
The article examines the main directions of development of legal education in Russian and foreign universities and legal departments of the Russian Empire. Particular attention is paid to the analysis of the "educational immigration" when, due to various reasons from Russia traveled thousands of young men and women to study at European universities. In this regard, the author analyzes the four streams of student immigration to Europe, which cover the period from the beginning of the 1860s until 1914. The author emphasizes that the outflow of young people in the universities of Europe was so great that in the European countries have begun to express concern about "dominance" of immigrants from the Russian Empire. In this regard, the article shows the introduction of the Russian youth stringent restrictive measures. Next to specific material creates in Russian and foreign universities in various legal organizations of Russian students and proved that a considerable part of Russian students, educated in European universities, intellectually bound intellectuals Russia and Europe.
RUDN Journal of Russian History. 2014;(4):100-109
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NAVAL AVIATION PERSONNEL TRAINING
Borisov V.A.
Abstract
The article provides in-depth consideration into insufficiently explored issues of naval air forces history and namely of Yeisky Naval Air School. Case studies based on decisive data have traced out its important educational attainments in naval staff training. The article has pinned out some urgent issues of retrieval in educational service (though certainly, it has some specific characteristics) which has demonstrated its value in practice. Archival materials, veteran-pilots and Yeisky Naval School graduates reminiscences have been used as well.
RUDN Journal of Russian History. 2014;(4):110-118
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NATIONAL MODEL OF HIGHER EDUCATION IN GERMAN AUTONOMY
Gartvig B.V.
Abstract
The article analyzes the process of the higher education system in the Volga German Autonomous SSR in 1920-1930. The main aim of the work is to examine the basic assumptions and key moments of opening higher education institutions for the training of professional managerial personnel for the party apparatus of the republic, teaching staff for schools, professionals in the field of agriculture as well as places of compact settlement of Germans in the Soviet Union. Among other things are the difficulties faced by the universities of German autonomy in the period of its activity, namely the lack of funding, facilities and premises for training, lack of qualified personnel to teach in their native language, lack of students. This study led to the conclusion that most of all the described processes were characteristic of the education system throughout the country. And the Soviet government, taking into account national peculiarities and economic needs of the republic, acted aggressively to set up a clear structure of the Soviet educational institutions by expanding the network of national institutions with instruction in the native language.
RUDN Journal of Russian History. 2014;(4):119-132
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INTERETHNIC MARRIAGES IN UDMURT ASSR IN 1930S
Uvarov S.N.
Abstract
The article gives the results of the statistic analysis of interethnic marriages in the Udmurt ASSR in the 1930s. The author considers the marriages of the largest nations of the republic and the share of the interethnic marriages. There were analyzed marriages among Russians, Udmurts and Tatars living in the cities and rural areas of the Udmurt ASSR. As for Mari and Chuvash, the information is sketchy, so it is hard to make any conclusions on inter-ethnic marriages among them. The situation with interethnic marriages in the 1930s is compared with that in the previous decade. The conclusion is that while in the 1920s the process of assimilation in the republic was not very active, by the end of the 1930s the situation had changed, as evidenced by the frequent interethnic marriages. The variants of combinations of nationalities show that the most active assimilation processes followed the line of the «Udmurt man - Russian woman». The article is written on the basis of previously unpublished materials.
RUDN Journal of Russian History. 2014;(4):133-144
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SOCIAL ACTIVITIES OF PARISH CLERGY IN CIRCUMSTANCES OF GOVERNMENTALIZING OF ORTHODOX CHURCH IN RUSSIAN EMPIRE OF 19 TH CENTURY
Zubanova S.G.
Abstract
The article deals with the experience of the Russian empire of the 19 th century in creating the conditions for social activities of the Russian Orthodox Church. The author describes such types of the Russian Orthodox Church activities aimed at helping those in need as helping the poor, coordinating the work of poor-houses, collecting donations, supporting parochial schools, poor houses, orphanages, hospitals, construction and reconstruction of churches. The author analyzes the role of the parochial patronages in the charity and social service activities, as well as in the moral and spiritual education of the population. The work of the well-known members of the clergy which forms a part of the Russian Orthodox Church and Russian history in general is given as an example of the above mentioned activities. The article extensively covers the responsibilities of parish priests, the difficulties which they come across, and highlights the reasons for the negative attitude towards the clergy in the late 19 th - early 20 th centuries. The author summarizes the historical lessons of the social activity of the Russian Orthodox Church. The article provides grounds for the opinion that the social activities of the Church should not interfere with its main religious functions, and the partnership of the state and the Russian Orthodox Church in the social projects should contribute to the improvement of people’s life and their moral and spiritual growth.
RUDN Journal of Russian History. 2014;(4):145-156
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SOCIAL ACTIVITY OF RUSSIAN ORTHODOX CHURCH IN 1990-2000S: CONCEPTUAL FOUNDATIONS AND EXPERIENCE OF REALIZATION
Simonova M.A.
Abstract
This article deals with the essential characteristics of the social activities of the Russian Orthodox Church in the 1990-2000s. There are characterized priorities, shape, effective practice of social work and examined the conceptual foundations of the social activities of the Russian Orthodox Church. The analysis enables to establish the conceptual framework and the specifics of the social activities implementation of the Russian Orthodox Church. Particular attention is paid to the study of the status of the Russian Orthodox Church in the state and society. The specificity of the Social Concept of the church was active development, determined by social practices. In this regard, special attention is paid to the activities of the spiritual and educational centers, which are formed into a single system connected to various forms of ecclesiastical education and social service. In the analyzed period the Church clarified its position towards the state and civil society institutions and identified the principles and promising areas of cooperation. The Russian Orthodox Church has become one of the key social institutions that implement the function of the spiritual care of the moral state of society.
RUDN Journal of Russian History. 2014;(4):157-165
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CLASSIFICATION OF SOURCES ON HISTORY OF ARMED CONFLICT IN CHECHEN REPUBLIC IN LATE 20 TH CENTURY
Malishevsky N.N.
Abstract
The article deals with the problems of historiography of the armed conflict in the Chechen Republic. The analysis enabled to classify available sources on this subject by the functional-specific criterion -a source and a data carrier, that is the way of its fixing, comprising three principal types of sources: written (text), cartographical and audiovisual. The information potential of available sources on the armed conflict history in Chechen Republic is not limited to certain subjects and promotes disclosing of such aspects of the conflict as: - stages (the first campaign, the second campaign, the counterterrorism operation); - opposition methods (active and passive); - opposition forms (collective and individual); - system of military-political management of territory; - scale and intensity of clashes; - a complex of actions of the state peace-making policy and feature of its realization; - specificity of participation of separate groups of the population; - regional aspect of events (on the scale of separate settlement, area etc.) - conflict history in persons; - problems of the thematic literature.
RUDN Journal of Russian History. 2014;(4):166-175
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RECONSTRUCTION OF THE DOCUMENTARY BASIS OF RUSSIAN HISTORY. On the book: Sabennikova I.V., Gentshke V.L. "Foreign archival Rossika: geography of placement, identification, publication of sources". - M.: New Chronograph, 2014. 408 p.
Lovtsov A.S.
Abstract
RUDN Journal of Russian History. 2014;(4):176-181
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EUROPEAN VECTOR OF FOREIGN POLICY OF VATICAN. On the book: Bykova G.I. Vatican Foreign Policy in the European region in the 1990-2012 period. From the history of modern international relations. - Moscow.: Econ-Inform, 2014. - 315 p.
Linkova E.V.
Abstract
RUDN Journal of Russian History. 2014;(4):182-184
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OUR AUTHORS
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Abstract
RUDN Journal of Russian History. 2014;(4):185-188
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