Vol 15, No 1 (2016)

ARTICLES
CLASSIFICATION AND MULTIFUNCTIONALITY OF HISTORICAL SOURCES
Georgieva N.G.
Abstract
The article is oneof the researches, related to the study of the scientific problem of thehistorical sources classification. The purpose of this article is the analysis of the process of achieving the solution to the problem of the classification at the present stage of the domestic source studydevelopment. The object of the study is not only the sources but different proposals of historians solving the problem of the classification. This study focuses on the methodological proposals of a number of prominent Russian historians such as L.N. Pushkarev, I.D. Kovalchenko, O.M. Medushevskaya, A.G. Tartakovsky, etc. They developed fundamental approaches to the science-based solution to the problem of historical sources classification and created a new classification scheme. Rejecting the division of historical sources into documentaries (“residues”) and narrative (“tradition”) popular from the mid XIXth century, the author of the article supports the idea of Russian historians of the 1970-1980s of dividing all sources at two levels. On the first level-typology -there is taken into account the syntactic (signed) aspect of information historical sources that define the playback of certain groups (real, visual, phonic and written). The second level of the division of historical written sources into the “species” was based on the recognition of the leading role of their social functionality in the period of their existence in the past and, in general, on the pragmatic aspect of their information. The author identifies five kinds of historical written sources, stressing that each of them is created for one (basic) function, but may in some cases perform other (side) functions. Defining multifunctional sources as their immanent quality, the author stresses that, in addition to the social function, all of them implement an epistemological function, being the basis of historical knowledge.
RUDN Journal of Russian History. 2016;15(1):7-19
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ARMED CONFLICT IN CHECHNYA IN EUROPEAN (NON ENGLISH) HISTORIOGRAPHY
Malishevsky N.N.
Abstract
The article deals with the problems of historiography of the armed conflict in the Chechen Republic. The activephase of themilitary operationsofthe armed conflictin Chechnyawas completedin2001. At that timehistorians, analysts andjournalists created awide range of theoretical worksconcerningthe conflict.Inthese publications there were discussed a number of commonfeaturesofthe use ofbasicresources. The degree ofaccessibilityof the sourceswhichfocus onthe descriptionof the conflictand itssocio-political assessment is of great importance for researchersand their objectives. The author analyzes Western (European) historiography of the armed conflict in the Chechen Republic. It considers the publications and specialized monographs of European (French, German and Polish) authors on the subjects under research. There areput forward the ideas of the consequences of the armed conflict in the Chechen Republic, articulated in the works of European researchers.For the first time within the study of the Western historiography of the war in Chechnya the author analyzes the main blocks of the supposed and factual consequences of the conflict for both the Russian and Chechen sides. The European historiography, dedicated tothe armed conflictin Chechnya, is just being developedand thestate ofitsdocumentarycomplexis characterized bya number ofqualitative changes.
RUDN Journal of Russian History. 2016;15(1):20-28
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ECHO OF THE «MODEST CAUSES THEORY» IN EARLY XX CENTURY (THE CASE OF G.P. SAZONOV’S TRUSTEESHIP)
Zverev V.V.
Abstract
The «Modest causes theory», aimed at the gradual peaceful work for the people and among the people in order to facilitate its position in the difficult conditions of the market economy, lost its popularity among the Russian intelligentsia in the early twentieth century. The socio-economic and socio-political situation in the country had changed, so it became apparent that the growth of the capitalism required not just adaptation of the people to the new conditions, but the creation of a new program of fundamental transformation of the society. Under these conditions the enlightenment ideas did not cause any response from the radical members of the intellectual elite and remained the lotof that part of society, which traditionally stood for the former convictions. Nevertheless, the echoes of the «modest causes theory» could be heard at that time in the works of G.P. Sazonov, one of the famous journalists and economists, who is almost forgotten nowadays. The article analyzes his activities as the trustee of the St. Petersburg Peter and Paul municipal hospital which were aimed to improve the work of this medical institution.
RUDN Journal of Russian History. 2016;15(1):29-38
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PLACE AND ROLE OF FINANCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL GROUPS IN PRE-REVOLUTIONARY RUSSIA’S ECONOMY
Lutoshkin S.A.
Abstract
The article deals with the position of the financial - industrial groups (FIGs) in the late 19th- early 20th centuries in the Russian Empire by the example of two associations "Prodamet" and "Association of the Nobel brothers".There were considered the main stages and specificity of the formation of large industrial-financial groups in the pre-revolutionary period. The analysis enabled to reveal the formation mechanism of large trusts and syndicates in Russia. The author draws parallels with Western associations of that period. In addition, on the basis of the journal "Industry and commerce" there was analyzed the relationship between the state and big business.
RUDN Journal of Russian History. 2016;15(1):39-47
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PHENOMENON OF “SPECIALIST-BAITING” IN EARLY SOVIET SOCIETY (BASED ON LETTER MATERIAL TO THE «RABOCHAYA GAZETA» NEWSPAPER OFFICE IN 1922-1928)
Kim V.I.
Abstract
This article deals with the phenomenon of «specialist-baiting» that actively developed in the early history of the Soviet Union due to the difficult conditions of home politics. This phenomenon obtained its new meaning just after the October Revolution and reached the peak of its development between the 1920-1930s. The conflict between workers and specialists should be valued in the contest of the «revolutionary spirit» of the epoch of socialist transformations. The historically based phenomenon of «specialist-baiting» was one of the reasons that were driving the country to the processes of repressions that in the most cases are associated only with the despotism of power. Real industrial problems and conflicts between workers and “old” specialists and managers existed at all the enterprises and were exploited by the government. At the same time the objective existence of that kind of conflicts increased by 1928-1929 that is proved by the fact that workers wrote about it to the main newspaper editorial offices straight from the working place. This fact does demonstrate that the proletariat followed the political course of the All-Union Communist Party of Bolsheviks. Ultimately, the New Economic Policy, having used the NEP crisis and the workers and promoted bureaucratic apparatus appeals, gave the way to the politics of industrialization and collectivization.
RUDN Journal of Russian History. 2016;15(1):48-55
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ROLE OF JOINT VENTURE “SOVHISPAN” IN NORMALIZATION OF THE SOVIET-SPANISH BILATERAL RELATIONS
Moseykina M.N., Yanyshev Nesterova I.
Abstract
The object of this research is to support the statement about the prevalence of the economic interest over the political ones, taking as an example the reestablishment of the Soviet-Spanish bilateral relations. The historical context of the creation of the Soviet-Spanish joint venture “Sovhispan”is highlighted as the final outcome of the secret negotiations and previous business practices between Spain and the Soviet Union in the late 1960s. The Soviet-Spanish economic relations started ten years before their normalization in 1977, the Canary Islandsbeing one of the places of their development. The principal conclusions of the research are: the geostrategic position of Spain was appreciated by the USA, via installation of the military bases on the mainland, and the USSR, using the Canary Islands as an operational base for the Soviet Fishing Fleet. “Sovrybflot”, an internal structure of the Ministry of Fisheries of the USSR, managed the overseas activity of the Soviet Fishing fleet abroad. Thus, the arrival of avast Soviet fishing fleet in the Canary Islands and the creation of the joint venture “Sovhispan” was a result of its work. “Sovhispan” was a “bridge” in the normalization of the Soviet-Spanish bilateral relations, and bankrupted with the dissolution of the USSR.
RUDN Journal of Russian History. 2016;15(1):56-64
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ECONOMIC ASPECTS OF RUSSIAN-GERMAN RELATIONS IN 2000-2013
Puchinskaya J.O.
Abstract
The effective collaboration between the Russian Federation and Germany at the beginning of the 21st century would be impossible without mutually beneficial economic cooperation of the two countries. The analysis of basic stages in the economic relations, achievements and problems are considered by the author to be important for lining-up an all-round picture of the Russian-German relations in the period under review. The main purpose of this article is the consideration and analysis of the economic aspects in the Russian foreign policy towards Germany. The problem considered in the article is of current importance, because in 2000-2013 the economic collaboration of Russia and the German Federal Republic was brought to a high level, but at the same time some considerable potential of cooperation was not fulfilled. With regard to complementarity of the Russian and German economies and their centuries-old experience of collaboration and mutual financial interest, it is possible to suppose that the economic sphere in particular would be a basis of optimization of the Russian-German relations in the long term. In such a way, this article deals with the basic directions of the Russian-German economic cooperation in 2000-2013.The contractual legal base of financial relations is examined with the purpose to reveal strengths and weaknesses as well as perspective possibilities of the optimization in the Russian-German relations in the future.
RUDN Journal of Russian History. 2016;15(1):65-73
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EDUCATIONAL LEVEL OF OFFICIALS OF NOBLE BIRTH IN SECOND HALF OF XIX - EARLY XX CENTURIES (BASED ON MATERIALS OF THE RYAZAN PROVINCE)
Vlasova N.V.
Abstract
The article is devoted to the problems of the Russian provincial officialdom of the second half of the 19th - early 20th centuries. It analyzes the educational level of the officials of noble birth and shows the number of the officials with higher, secondary, elementary and home education. Attention is drawn to the changes in the training of the officials by the early 20th century. The paper is based on the archival materials (service records) foundinthe State Archives of the Ryazan region. The analysis of the sources shows that about 15% of the officials studied in the institutions of higher education, 31% got secondary education, 29% - elementary education. About 19% had home education. And only about 21% of the officials had systematic (that is finished higher and secondary) education. The author concludes that in comparison with early 19th century the educational level of the officials had an upward tendency but on the whole it continued to be low.
RUDN Journal of Russian History. 2016;15(1):74-82
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SEARCH OF NATIONAL STYLE IN RUSSIAN ARCHITECTURE IN XIX - EARLY XX CENTURIES
Semichevskaya T.S.
Abstract
This article deals with the process of establishment and development the Russian revival style in Russian Empire’s architecture of the 19th - early 20th centuries. During this period Russian society experienced intense changes that included innovations in technology, engineering and the art of building. Taking its origin from “Russian-byzantine” style in orthodox church building, the Russian revival style developed as a mixture of tradition and innovation. This eclectic style was inspired by the romantic revival movement of Western Europe and based on the interest in the historic monuments of the nation, especially in examples of pre-Peterine Russian architecture of the 17th century. The historicism of Russian Revival style resonated with the popular nationalism and pan-Slavism of the period. New style became a manifestation of the Russian national idea depicting in stone the specialty and uniqueness of our history and culture. Today the increasing interest to national cultural heritage actualizes the investigations of this extraordinary period of creativity represented by works of such famous architects as V. Stasov, K. Thon, V. Sherwood, I. Ropet and others. The appealing to “Russian-byzantine” style in modern church construction shows the power and vitality of its creative impulse.
RUDN Journal of Russian History. 2016;15(1):83-90
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PATRIOTIC ACTIVITY OF RUSSIAN MUSLIMS IN THE GREAT PATRIOTIC WAR (BASED ON MASTERIALS OF COUNCIL FOR THE AFFAIRS OF RELIGIOUS CULTS)
Akhmadullin V.A.
Abstract
The article analyzes the Muslims patriotic activity of Moscow, the Moscow Region and the Volga-Ural region during the Great Patriotic War. The author employs the following archival documents declassified in recent years: reports of commissioners and leaders of the Council for the Affairs of Religious Cults, as well as plenary sessions data and the Central Muslim Spiritual Board data (Ufa). The author demonstrativelyproves that in the recently released multivolume basic work “The Great Patriotic War of 1941-1945” there occurred serious errors regarding the participation of various confessions in the war. On the basis of the conducted research there are proposed recommendations to the Russian government authorities, including the introduction of amendments to the Federal Law of September 26, 1997 No. 125 “On freedom of Conscience and Religious Associations” and to the Constitution of the Russian Federation.
RUDN Journal of Russian History. 2016;15(1):91-100
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PATRIOTIC AND PEACE INITIATIVES AS A FACTOR OF STRENGTHENING ARMENIAN-RUSSIAN CHURCH RELATIONS IN MID-XX CENTURY
Blokhin V.S.
Abstract
The study aims to elucidate the role of the patriotic and peace-making initiatives of the Armenian and Russian Orthodox churches in the Great Patriotic war. It is revealed that in the years of the Great Patriotic war, the two churches united in the struggle of the people against the fascist aggression. In the appeals to the society of financial assistance to the front (raising funds for armored columns) there is clearly shownthepatriotic side ofthe both churchesactivities. The patriotic and peace initiatives taken by the Armenian Apostolic and Russian Orthodox churches in that period influenced the process of strengthening the Armenian-Russian confessional relations in the second half of the XXth - early XXIst centuries, which resulted in the holding of inter-Church dialogues, joint cultural, social and educational projects, including the protection of peace on Earth.
RUDN Journal of Russian History. 2016;15(1):101-107
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RUSSIA AS VIEWED BY FRENCH TRAVELLERS IN XV-XVIII CENTURIES
Aroutyunova J.M., Linkova E.V.
Abstract
The article considers the formation of Russia's image in the views of French travellers who visited Moskovia in the XV-XVIIIth centuries. In this period the French begin to “discover” for themselves the Russian lands, get acquainted with the traditions, culture, peculiarities of the state and society. The works of French travellers contain valuable information that allows modern scholars to trace the genesis and evolution of the image of the Russian state in the views of foreigners, to analyze the geography of the routes of European travellers, to detect the features of mental maps of Western Europe, the formation of which goes to the XV-XVIth centuries. The authors come to the conclusions that up to the middle of the XVIIIth century Europeans had stereotypes which had been formed in the XV-XVIth centuries from the negative assessments of Russia.
RUDN Journal of Russian History. 2016;15(1):108-116
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INCREASING IDEOLOGICAL CONFRONTATION BETWEEN THE WEST AND RUSSIA IN THE CONTEXT OF NEW GEOPOLITICAL REALITIES IN EARLY XXI CENTURY
Butorov A.S.
Abstract
The article analyzes the main myths, under cover of which the political leadership of the United States carries out its plans for the creation of objects and elements of a global missile defense system in close proximity to the borders of Russia, relying on the achievement of strategic military superiority over the Russian Federation. The author states that after the US unilateral withdrawal from the 2001 ABM Treaty in 1972 the American side started to deploy elements of the missile defense system in some European countries, posing a real threat to Russia's national security. The article reveals the utter failure of the imaginary threats that allegedly come from Russia and other countries - “rogue states” against the US. The final conclusion is that the US propaganda campaign, which is forming the image of Russia as an enemy and aggressor, does not contribute to the harmonization of the Russian-American relations. Moreover, it destroys everything positive that has been achieved by our people in previous years.
RUDN Journal of Russian History. 2016;15(1):117-125
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DISSERTATION COUNCIL D 212.203.03 IN PEOPLES’ FRIENDSHIP UNIVERSITY OF RUSSIA
Kozmenko V.M., Kryazheva-Kartseva E.V.
Abstract
RUDN Journal of Russian History. 2016;15(1):126-129
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INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS IN CENTRAL AND EAST ASIA: PAST AND PRESENT". Summation of the VII International scientific-practical conference "Diplomacy in the East" Krasnoyarsk, June 28-30, 2015
Nikulenkov V.V., Datsyshen V.G.
Abstract
RUDN Journal of Russian History. 2016;15(1):130-135
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OUR AUTHORS
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Abstract
RUDN Journal of Russian History. 2016;15(1):136-139
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