No 3 (2014)

ARTICLES
KARL JASPERS’ INTELLECTUAL BIOGRAPHY OR EXPERIENCE OF HISTORICAL RESEARCH OF PHILISOPHER’S LIFE AND WORK
Ktsoeva S.G.
Abstract
The article is devoted to a such genre of historical research as intellectual biography. In it in practice (with reference to the person of outstanding German scientist Karl Jaspers) are considered the basic methods, applied during the process of preparation of the intellectual biography, the circle of research problem is defined, typical for the given direction and their specific character is explained. Special attention is given to interdisciplinary as the basic condition of a successful scientific work on the given direction of intellectual history. A number of problems is listed in the article with which the historian, making the intellectual biography, anyway faces. The necessity of overcoming highly specialized scientific frames during the preparation of the intellectual biography becomes abundantly clear as it is impossible to understand the historical determinates of foldings of the whole system of scientific outlook of the intellectual without the reference to the system analysis of its scientific views, without immersing to the sphere of his professional interests which, as is known, can be far from history. The specified fact is the main reason for criticism of the direction of intellectual history from the adherents of “pure” history. The author defines a circle of research problems, among which are: definition of a circle of the research problems, objectively rising before the historian-intellectualist, realization of the selection of methods of research, relevant to the solution of objectives, demonstration of a bright example of practical application of methods of interdisciplinary research within writing of the intellectual biography of Jaspers.
RUDN Journal of Russian History. 2014;(3):5-13
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MARXIST IDEAS IN INTERPRETATION OF "CAPITAL"‘S TRANSLATOR INTO RUSSIAN
Zverev V.V.
Abstract
The article is a case study of interpretation of Marxsit ideas proposed by N.F. Danielson, who was a translator of the first, second and third volumes of «Capital» into Russian. The main attention is concentrated on the problems of criterion of social progress and assessment of Marxist methodology. Despite the certain influence of Marxist theory on Danielson latter remained on the position of narodnichestvo in his conceptual approaches. The author reviled us that Danielson unlike Marx didn’t devise society into many confrontational parts and thought it ought to have a common goal. Also the Russian scholar didn’t accept a thesis upon class struggle as an engine of social progress. In this discourse Danielson gave to intelligentsia the crucial role in the evolution of society which expressed urgent needs of one. Danielson’s ideas directed at reasoning the role of advanced persons as creator of history and scientific knowledge as instrument of perfecting of society. In sum the understanding of Marxist methodology of research by Danielson intersected in many points with ideas of Positivism.
RUDN Journal of Russian History. 2014;(3):14-24
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WEAPONS COMPLEX OF RUSSIAN SERVING TATARS IN XV-XVII TH CENTURIES
Ilyushin B.A.
Abstract
The article considers the issue of the offensive and defensive armament of the serving Tatars of the Moscow state in the XV-XVIIth centuries, its research degree in the national historiography, the opportunities and prospects of its enhanced studying. The serving Tatars were one of the categories of the Moscow state nobility, which is reflected, first of all, in written sources. The weapons complex of Russian serving Tatars included minimal armour. European sources do not mention armour and helms or shield. But noble Tatars could have costly armour of many types that were used in that epoch by peoples of Eastern Europe and Middle East - Russians, Persians, Turks. The basic weapons of the serving Tatars were bows and arrows. In the close combat they were using sabres, and (rarely) spears. The fire weapon was not used by the serving Tatars (or they used it very rarely and it was not characteristic for their weapons complex), because it was ineffective in their tactics. The serving Tatars were light mobile horse archers that preferred battles of long-distance.
RUDN Journal of Russian History. 2014;(3):25-36
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THE MATERIAL FOUNDATIONS AND FINANCIAL SOURSES OF THE SCHOOL OF HIGER SCIENCES IN YAROSLAVL IN THE FIRST THIRD OF THE 19 TH CENTURY
Ierusalimskaya S.J.
Abstract
This article due to economic conditions of the School of Higher Sciences in Yaroslavl in the first third of the 19 th century. It analyzed the complex of historical sources of the economic activities the School, Technical-Material Base, the staff salaries, scholarship grants. It considered the main problems of the budgeting and financial expenses. It was P.G. Demidov who laid the material basis of the School of Higher Sciences in Yaroslavl in 1803 and sponsored it till his death in 1821. Demidov started the formation of the library funds of the School of Higher Sciences in Yaroslavl by presenting hundreds of books on different languages to it. The budget of the School of Higher Sciences in Yaroslavl was about 55 thousands roubles in the year1836 and income was about 49 thousands roubles. The main financial sources of the School of Higher Sciences in Yaroslavl were: quit-rents from the peasants, investments of the ministry of public education, interest rate from the school's 100-thousand budget, private investments and charity, fees for the studying and lodging.
RUDN Journal of Russian History. 2014;(3):37-46
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"CLASS APPROACH" AND "PROLETARIAN CHARACTER" OF RUSSIAN REVOLUTION OF 1917
Shults E.E.
Abstract
Study of the problem of “class character” of 1917’ revolution and competency of the term “proletarian revolution”. The author considers questions of participation of various social groups in the Russian revolution, draws analogies of social composition of previous revolutions, considers the principle of “proletarian revolution”, as an ideology element for positioning of Bolsheviks and power capture. It is necessary to consider that an age, gender and national factor played much bigger role un Russian revolution than class factor. Revolution in Russia in many respects leaned on young generations which made more than a third of the population of the Russian Empire by 1917. In fight against tsarism separate calculation was based on the non-russian population and national suburbs of the empire. The special role in the Russian revolution was played by the peasantry. Revolution happened in the capital (in two capitals in Russia), the peasantry remained indifferent to revolution while Bolsheviks didn't begin to take away from them the food violently. This period:(summer - fall of 1919) became the time of peak of the Civil war. However return of landowners and their claim for property of the land forced peasants to turn bayonets for revolution and the earth and, eventually, to provide to Bolsheviks a victory in the Civil war.
RUDN Journal of Russian History. 2014;(3):47-61
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PERCEPTION OF IMAGE OF GERMAN AND AUSTRO-HUNGARIAN PRISONERS OF WAR BY PEASANT COMMUNITIES IN 1914 (ON DOCUMENTS OF KAZAN PROVINCE)
Abdrashitov E.E.
Abstract
The author analyzed the public discourse of the peasant community of Kazan province of the Russian Empire, revealed common nationwide universe model of perception, as well as have a number of unique features for the specified region of perception of the enemy. Farmers relied on the opinion of local authorities misunderstand the nuances of ethnic and religious situation of prisoners of war, so the image of the "alien" could not be formed integral and monolithic. Archetypes of consciousness transformation of rural inhabitants from neutral to hostile perception of prisoners was deformed contradictory attitude of the royal family and the higher ranks to them, as well as the dissonance between personal experiences with prisoners, feelings and mood soldiers. Great importance was the province of the national structure. Foreigners treated prisoners qualitatively different, rather than Russian Orthodox subjects. The negative attitude of the Russian government to the prisoners caused only compassion and understanding their plight. While praising - alarmed. As a result of the transformation of the image of the "other" in the image of the "enemy" in the village suffered a complete fiasco.
RUDN Journal of Russian History. 2014;(3):62-69
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SANITARY AND EPIDEMIOLOGICAL SITUATION IN VLADIMIR REGION DURING GREAT PATRIOTIC WAR OF 1941-1945
Tryakhov I.S.
Abstract
The article deals with the characteristic of the sanitary and epidemiological conditions of the Vladimir region during the Great Patriotic War. The author considers the activities of the sanitary services in the sphere of public health care during the Great Patriotic War, analyzes the difficulties which emerged in the health care system in that period. Besides, the author traces the dynamics of fertility and general sanitary conditions in the region. There is pointed out selfless labour of medical staff in the hard circumstances of the war years. The author emphasizes that the problems of the health authorities were divided into two categories. The first category of the problems had been before the war, the second category was caused by the war. These were specific health problems - increased incidence of people pediculosis, unsanitary living and working conditions, deteriorating health care. The author concludes that the health workers made a great contribution to the victory over the enemy.
RUDN Journal of Russian History. 2014;(3):70-80
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CLOTHING AS COMPONENT OF RED ARMY EVERYDAY LIFE IN 1941-1945
Larionov A.E.
Abstract
This article is devoted to the creature comforts of a field army during the Great Patriotic War. Clothing is characterized and analyzed from the perspective of everyday life forces. Observed dynamic changes uniforms, unlike the formal statutory requirements and frontline realities concluded the dialectical character of the material faces everyday life forces that combined formal- organized and spontaneous moments. The article as a description of the material combines facets of everyday front of the Red Army and its analysis based on the use of sources of personal origin and archival documents, including previously unpublished. During the analysis, the amount of historical facts, the author comes to the conclusion that the relationship that face the front of her everyday life with other parties, as well as macro-historical processes in the Great Patriotic War. While wearing military uniforms realities often reflected not so much the statutory requirements as the need to adapt to society representatives militarnogo harsh conditions of total war. Simultaneously change the appearance of the Red Army soldiers on the basis of the directives of the military and political leadership of the Soviet Union reflected the dynamics of ideological and political power fluctuations official rate.
RUDN Journal of Russian History. 2014;(3):81-90
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RUSSIAN GOVERNMENT POLICY TOWARDS MONGOLIAN AND KAZAKH NATIONS IN LATE XVII-XVIII TH CENTURIES
Kabanova E.V.
Abstract
The article analyzes the relationships between Russia (later the Russian Empire) and Central Asia countries, in particular with the Kazakh and Mongolian nations in the period of late XVII-XVIII th centuries. The research shows the features of mutual relationships, the purposes and tasks of the Russian policy in this region, and it also reveals the competition for supremacy there between Russia and China ruled by Qing dynasty. The author considers the advantages and drawbacks of the Russian political course developted by Peter I towards the Kazakh and Monogolians. Besides, the article considers the models of the relations between Russia and Central Asia nations, which enable to assess the results of the pursued foreign police of the country in this region.
RUDN Journal of Russian History. 2014;(3):91-101
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SOVIET FISHING FLEET AND USSR FOREIGN POLICY IN 1960-1970S
Yanyshev Nesterova I.
Abstract
The article deals with the development of the Soviet fishing fleet in the context of the expansion of the Soviet influence in the world of the 1960-1970s. The object of the study is “Sovrybflot”, a state-owned company, established to coordinate the economic activity of the Soviet fishing fleet abroad. The author concludes that the high technological level of the Soviet fishing vessels enabled the development of industrial ocean fishing. In the early 1970s the USSR became the first naval power, which enabled Soviet vessels, including the fishing ones, to navigate in various parts of the World Ocean. “Sovrybflot” defended the interests of the Soviet fishing, created joint enterprises and signed agreements on mutual cooperation in the area of fishing.
RUDN Journal of Russian History. 2014;(3):102-116
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MISSIONARY ACTIVITIES OF RUSSIAN ORTHODOX CHURCH IN YAKUTIA (XVII - EARLY XX TH CENTURIES)
Yurganova I.I.
Abstract
The article is devoted the history of the missionary work in one of the northern parts of the Russian state. The author analyzes the major directions of the state-church policy in the Yakutsk region, points out the main stages of the missionary activity (preachers, hiking church mission) and considers the relationship of religion and state representatives of local civil authorities and shamans. There are emphasized the objective and subjective difficulties of the missionary service in Yakutia, including the severe climate, considerable territorial space, low population density with a different mentality within the most nomadic or semi-nomadic lifestyle.Main attention is paid to the Christianization of the Chukchi. The author concludes that the missionary in the Yakut region has come a long way of development, its most effective solutions were worked out during the practical activity and at the beginning of the XXth century there was developed a unified nation-wide integrated system. In the conditions of Yakutia the missionary activity of the spiritual department became one of the integrators of incorporation into the Russian state.
RUDN Journal of Russian History. 2014;(3):117-128
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RUSSIAN ORTHODOX CHURCH AND PUBLIC ORGANIZATIONS IN 1990-2000S: MAIN DIRECTIONS AND RESULTS OF INTERACTION
Grigoryeva N.A., Simonova M.A.
Abstract
This article discusses the main directions of cooperation between the Russian Orthodox Church and civil society organizations in 1990-2000-ies. Characterized by basic forms of cooperation churches and public organizations in the spiritual and moral education of children and youth, as well as in coordinating the activities of public organizations and the ROC. Treated prisoners in the 2000s. contracts (agreements) on the interaction between the ROC and public organizations of religious and secular focus on the implementation of joint social projects and programs. Updated key issues and trends in the interaction between the state, the church and society, the mechanisms of interaction between government and NGOs in addressing socially significant problems. The analysis revealed that in the 1990-2000-ies conditions have been created to ensure access of NGOs and church social services to the market. Combined resources of the church and community organizations were used primarily for social support of the poor, especially orphans and children left without parental care, programs that protect the constitutional rights and freedoms of youth, child and youth participation in socially significant events.
RUDN Journal of Russian History. 2014;(3):129-137
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COMPLEX EXAMINATION FOR FOREIGN CITIZENS IN RUSSIAN LANGUAGE AND HISTORY AND FUNDAMENTALS OF RF LEGISLATION AS AN IMPORTANT FACTOR OF THEIR SOCIAL AND CULTURAL ADAPTATION
Kozmenko V.M.
Abstract
The article considers the educational strategy of Russian history, Russian language and basics of the Russian legislation, implemented among labour migrants in terms of their work permit, citizenship of the Russian Federation after the positive exams. The analysis showed that this important work is conducted in the Russian University of friendship of peoples, which is one of the developers of modules for all the above disciplines and Creator of test tasks, unique methods of teaching foreigners, etc. that will start to be implemented in full since January 2015, This work is connected with the fact that currently the Russian Federation and, in particular, the Moscow region are experiencing difficulties in the field of migration policy. In this situation the state authorities tried to provide possible assistance to people in difficult life situation. In particular, migrants were allocated premises for permanent and temporary residence, land for construction of housing, provided medical care, conducted training and education of children in schools and kindergartens, for seniors and low-income issues were resolved on payment of pensions and allowances, etc. But at the same time, financial opportunities of the Russian regions for solution of all problems of migrants did not increase. Such problems are standing before the authorities practically all subjects of the Russian Federation. With this in mind, the article suggests ways of solving these problems.
RUDN Journal of Russian History. 2014;(3):138-146
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FORMING OF EUROPEAN HIGHER EDUCATION AREA UNDER MODERNIZATION
Wagner M.-., Ovezova U.A.
Abstract
This article is devoted to a problem of forming of European Higher Education Area. Russia’s entry into EHEA gives real benefits to higher education schools and students. These benefits include bringing educational programs and curricula into line with European standards; recognition of Russian qualifications and academic degrees; ensuring academic mobility of students and teachers; adoption of educational credits of Russian students in foreign universities; implementation of two-diploma education programs; convertibility of Russian higher education diplomas in the euro area, the right of graduates for employment in any of the countries participating in the Bologna process, etc. This is modernization as the continuous progress of innovative development, during which some solvable problems stimulate the formulation of new more complex, during which certain achievements become the starting point for the next round of innovation, must lead to the formation of "perspective of effective education” model. From this perspective, the modernization of Russian education is a unique form of competition of national education system, which has rich classical traditions, great creative potential, with other advanced educational systems in the world for a worthy place in the education of our future.
RUDN Journal of Russian History. 2014;(3):147-154
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OUTSIDE VIEWPOINT: FRENCH RESEARCHERS ABOUT MODERN RUSSIA: Review of: La Russie contemporaine. Sous la direction de Gilles Favarel-Garrigues et Kathy Rousselet, Paris, Fayard, 2010, 501 p.
Arslanov R.A., Tolstova T.S.
Abstract
RUDN Journal of Russian History. 2014;(3):155-161
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MAJOR SCIENTIFIC PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS OF LECTURERS OF DEPARTMENT OF RUSSIAN HISTORY OF PFUR AT SCIENTIFIC CONFERENCES IN 2013
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Abstract
RUDN Journal of Russian History. 2014;(3):162-164
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OUR AUTHORS
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Abstract
RUDN Journal of Russian History. 2014;(3):165-167
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