No 2 (2015)

ARTICLES
HISTORY OF THE LEGENDARY AIRWAY “ALASKA-SIBERIA-FRONT”
Borisov V.A.
Abstract
The article deals with the construction of the Alaskan-Siberian Railway by the USSR during the Second World War and its role in the delivery of aviation equipment from the USA factories in Fairbanks (Alaska) for the subsequent ferrying to the Soviet Union. In this regard, the author explores the little known facts of the development of the complex airway “Alaska-Siberia-front”, which played the crucial role in the history of the Great Patriotic War and enabled the Russian and American aviators to hasten the victory over Nazi Germany. The article also reveals the specific decisions of the Party and the Soviet government on coordinating efforts between Great Britain and the United States to supply combat aircraft under the Lend-Lease. On the basis of specific historical facts the author considers selfless and heroic efforts of Soviet pilots, engineers, technicians, junior aviation specialists in the preparation of mobile airfields and sites for aircrafts intermediate landing in the harsh Siberian climate.
RUDN Journal of Russian History. 2015;(2):7-16
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THEORY OF O.M. MEDUSHEVSKAYA’S COGNITIVE HISTORY: PRECISE KNOWLEDGE IN HUMANITIES AND PROFESSIONAL CHOICE OF ACADEMIC COMMUNITY
Sabennikova I.N.
Abstract
The theory of cognitive history elaborated by Olga M. Medushevskaia (1922-2007) has obviously been the most important and influential paradigm in Russian philosophy of history and historiography since the collapse of the official Soviet version of Marxist-Leninist methodology at the end of the 20 th century. In this regard the author analyzes the main intellectual roots of the paradigm, its structure and influence on inter-disciplinary debates on the possibility of the precise and verifiable reconstruction of historical past. The author emphasizes the fundamental role of the cognitive theory in the current process of paradigm-change in Russian historiography, in the creation of new research areas, pedagogical practices and the establishment of new professional ethics of academic community.
RUDN Journal of Russian History. 2015;(2):17-27
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IMAGE OF MUHAMMAD ALI OF EGYPT IN THE WORKS OF RUSSIAN TRAVELER OF THE 19 TH CENTURY
Aksenova A.A.
Abstract
In article works and traveling notes of travelers, pilgrims to Egypt in the period of Muhammad Ali of Egypt board for the purpose of definition of the developed image of a Khedive of Egypt in these works are considered. The author analyzes works of travelers to Egypt and the Holy Land within the XIX century and shows the factors which influenced emergence of certain estimates in an image of the governor of Egypt. The carried-out analysis allowed to establish that despite poverty of the population, the general negative attitude perception of Arabs, including the Ottoman Turk, Khedive Muhammad Ali was the secular, educated and hospitable governor in the opinion of travelers. Meanwhile, absolutely other perception developed at the European travelers to whom honors were also done. The Russian travelers preferred not to focus attention on “east despotism” of Muhammad Ali, considering that use of cruel methods the political situation demanded. Also thanks to notes of travelers it was created including an image of the Turkish oppressor, and Muhammad Ali was presented only from a positive side as the secular and fair governor. Intended creation of a negative image of the Ottoman Turk oppressing Egyptians justified continuous collisions with Porta on the international scene.
RUDN Journal of Russian History. 2015;(2):28-34
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THE NEWSPAPER “RECH" IN 1941-1944 AS A SOURCE OF THE RUSSIAN ORTHODOX CHURCH HISTORYDURING THE GREAT PATRIOTIC WAR
Tereshina O.V.
Abstract
The article analyzes the materials on religious themes, published in the collaborationist newspaper “Rech” on the occupied territory in 1941-1944. The main focus is on the classification of publications (there were selected factual, idiomatic, comparative, anti-Semitic and historical articles) and their propaganda component. The author considers the qualitative and quantitative evolution of the newspaper materials on religious life. The conclusion is drawn on their scientific potential and connection with military operations and changes in the policy of the Soviet state. The analysis of the central line of comparison of religious life during the pre-revolutionary period, the Soviet period and during the occupation in all publications enables to reveal the methods of invaders’ propaganda activities. The consideration of other thematic lines and their literary features helps to present the ideological potential of the newspaper in the creation of the collaborationist movement, and to characterize “Rech” as the information source for the population of the occupied territories.
RUDN Journal of Russian History. 2015;(2):35-46
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JOHN CAPODISTRIAS’ POLITICAL VIEWS
Chernov A.V.
Abstract
This article is devoted to the research of the political views of famous diplomat J. Capodistrias. Capodistrias’ political ideals were based on the ideas of the philosophers of the Age of Enlightenment (Locke, Montesquieu and others). He considered that any facts have their roots in the past. Consequently he thought that the causes of the actual political events were hidden in the events of the Napoleonic Wars period. In Capodistrias’ opinion, the principal consequence of the Napoleonic Wars was the rise of the public opinion authority. He considered public opinion as the principal factor of the political process. So policy that has no public support is doomed to failure. Capodistrias was a partisan of the autocratic governance. At the same time he was the partisan of the adoption of constitution in European states. Such political views were popular among the Russian political elite. His ideas were close to the views of Emperor Alexander I, his teacher La Harpe, S. S. Uvarov, D. N. Bludov, N. M. Karamzin and many others.
RUDN Journal of Russian History. 2015;(2):47-56
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INGUSHETIA UNDER THE “WHITE” POWER: PECULIARITIES OF STATE BUILDING IN 1919 - EARLY 1920
Oreshin S.A.
Abstract
The article is devoted to the state building on the territory of Ingushetia in 1919 - early 1920 in order to find out the essence of the national state policy of White Guards in the mountain regions of the North Caucasus.The article analyzes the relations of White Guard administration with representatives of the Ingush society, considers the reasons which induced general A.I. Denikin for the first time in the history of Russia to grant autonomy to Ingushetia, the essence of the Ingush autonomy which existed less than a year. The author examines the nature of the political regime functioning in Ingushetia during the described period, offers the explanation for the failures and crash of White Guard policy in this region. The carried-out analysis allows establishing that the heads of the “White” movement in the south of Russia sought to consider the interests of the mountain people, in particular, Ingush, providing them with broad internal self-government. However, inconsistency of the policy conducted by the Denikinets didn't allow creating a wide social base in the region that led to the crisis and falling of White Guard model of statehood in the region.
RUDN Journal of Russian History. 2015;(2):57-65
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“WHITE TERROR” OF IZHEVSK REBELS: MYTHS AND REALITIES
Renev E.G.
Abstract
The article deals with the issue of the so-called “white” terror during the Izhevsk workers' revolt that was the most powerful rebellion against the Bolsheviks in 1918. The author examines the key points, which originally composed this myth, analyzing the number of the arrested and shot people and examining the main episode, which for many decades proved the terrorist nature of the uprising, and is connected with the fate of peasants Bannikovs from Bolgury village. The significance of the article is that conducting a historiographical analysis, the author bases the study of controversial issues on a solid source base, consisting of materials of central and local archives. The author comes to the conclusion that some of the well-established claims in the national historiography are exaggeration or distortion and others are pure fiction that was created by the Soviet historiography. And these exaggerations, distortions and fictions still exist in modern historiography. The article examines the problem of the origin of these statements and their validity.
RUDN Journal of Russian History. 2015;(2):66-76
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ISSUE OF ESTABLISHMENT OF PERSONAL PENSIONS INSTITUTE IN THE USSR
Kapustina O.V.
Abstract
One of the most important types of the Soviet pension was personal pension provision, which was intended for persons who contributed greatly to the construction of socialism and it was extremely prestigious. The article analyzes the pension case of ZinaidaVengerova, an employee of the People's Commissariat for Education of the Russian Federation and Ermioni Bervi-Flerov, the widow of Wilhelm Bervi-Flerov, the author of the widely acclaimed book “The Condition of the Working Class in Russia”. On the basis of the documents confirming their disability and harassment by the tsarist authorities, the author considers the first pension assignments deserved by Soviet citizens. The conclusion is that personal pensions of the most prominent public figures and their dependents in the conditions of the Civil war and the subsequent destruction arose as the reaction to their plight.
RUDN Journal of Russian History. 2015;(2):77-85
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CULTURE AND MUSIC EDUCATION IN RUSSIA AT THE TURN OF XX-XXI ST CENTURIES
Kozmenko O.P., Nemykina I.N.
Abstract
The article is devoted to the main problems and perspectives in modern culture and musical education in Russia on the threshold of the 20-21 st centuries, emphasizing visible contradictions and connection between them, ways of their solution and practical realization in the sphere of musical education. The content of education is constantly updated thanks to the cultural heritage of different countries and peoples; industries are constantly evolving science, as well as life and the practical experience of the person. Thorough theoretical analysis pointed out the necessity of structural and contents reconstruction in the work of institutions of musical education, both professional and non-professional. The focus should be on preserving the long-time cultivation and experience of Russian classic academic musical tradition, on the one hand. On the other hand, musical education in the present-day Russia should develop in accordance with the main trends of the social-cultural realities and cultural policy. Musical education is the inseparable part of general education, and institutions of musical education feel responsibility in training a new generation of teachers who can cope with the task of educating a new generation within the changing realities of the contemporary world.
RUDN Journal of Russian History. 2015;(2):86-96
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RELIGIOUS SUBJECTS IN RUSSIAN LITERATURE COURSE FOR FOREIGN STUDENTS AT THE PREPARATORY DEPARTMENT OF PFUR
Sidorova I.N.
Abstract
The author shares the experience of teaching Russian literature to foreign students at the beginning of the Russian language studying. The specificity of students in PFUR consists in the fact that there are taught students who belong to cultures with different religious backgrounds.The article considers one of the teaching aspects - the introduction of the concepts of the Orthodox religion, required for the understanding of the literary process in Russia, the works by Russian writers according to the curriculum of the preparatory course in Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia. The author analyzes the religious paradigm in the Russian literature at different stages - beginning from Old Russian literature up to the second part of the XIXth century including the explanation of such notions as “hell” and “paradise”, the system of Christian mythology and «theomachy». Besides, the author offers the analyses of works by Russian writes citing some examples. The article will help the teacher to better explain the significance of the religious phenomena in literature in particular and in art in general.
RUDN Journal of Russian History. 2015;(2):97-103
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THE EMPEROR PAUL'S I PERSONALITY ASSESSED BY FRENCH AND RUSSIAN MEMOIRISTS
Konkova O.Y.
Abstract
В сообщении рассматриваются взгляды французских и русских мемуаристов на личность императора Павла I. Выявляются общие и черты и различия в их восприятии облика Павла Петровича. Особенное внимание уделяется позиции французских авторов, анализируются факторы, определявшие специфику их отношения к русскому императору.
RUDN Journal of Russian History. 2015;(2):104-108
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RUSSIA’S RESETTLEMENT POLICY IN CENTRAL ASIA IN LATE XIX TH CENTURY IN DOMESTIC JOURNALISM
Klimashin A.L.
Abstract
В сообщении рассматривается отношение русских публицистов к переселенческому движению в Средней Азии в конце XIX в. Выявляются взгляды на ход колонизации представителей различных течений общественного движения России, их отношение к деятельности местной администрации по устройству переселенцев и решению земельного вопроса.
RUDN Journal of Russian History. 2015;(2):109-112
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TEACHER OF HISTORY AND LIFE (TO THE MEMORY OF V.F. ANTONOV)
Zverev V.V., Arslanov R.A.
Abstract
RUDN Journal of Russian History. 2015;(2):113-118
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ONSET OF THE OTHER RUSSIA (Review of E.M. Mironova’s Work “Diplomacy of Non-Bolshevik Russia. From Pevchesky Bridge to Grenel street. 1917-1918”. M.: IVI RAN, 2013. 253 p.)
Krotova M.V.
Abstract
RUDN Journal of Russian History. 2015;(2):119-123
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PRINCIPAL SCIENTIFIC WORKS OF THE LECTURERS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF RUSSIAN HISTORY OF PEOPLES’ FRIENDSHIP UNIVERSITY OF RUSSIA IN 2014
- -.
Abstract
RUDN Journal of Russian History. 2015;(2):124-128
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OUR AUTHORS
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Abstract
RUDN Journal of Russian History. 2015;(2):129-131
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