Vol 17, No 2 (2018): JEWS IN RUSSIA

JEWS IN RUSSIA
IN THIS ISSUE
Vladimirski I.
Abstract
RUDN Journal of Russian History. 2018;17(2):231-233
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IN SEARCH OF SELF-IDENTITY: JEWS IN THE CONTEXT OF THE RUSSIAN CULTURE
Meyerovich A., Vladimirsky I.V.
Abstract
The article focuses on the formation of cultural and social self-identification of an ethnic minority within a multicultural society as well as on the establishment and functioning of a state as a conglomerate of various ethnic constituents. Nowadays this subject is vital, as many European countries have found themselves in a situation under which they have to host numerous migrants and assimilate them. It should be emphasized that minorities, their way of life, language they speak and education their children get always reflect general trends existing in the society as well as the official policy towards minorities, prejudices or lack of prejudices in the society. In this study, the authors investigate the possibility of integration and assimilation as well as the historical and social conditions necessary for assimilation in a society and for understanding its importance within a community. Integration means acceptance of a new culture, language and traditions, better understanding of a new religion and ethnic characteristics in order to be a part of a hosting society. It is the history of the Jewish community in Russia, which is analyzed in the article. Since the aim of the present study is the understanding of self-identification, i.e. personal self-perception of an individual in the society, of great value are the memoirs as sources of information and their textual analysis. The objectives of the research are to study the main aspects of social life: religion, education, language. Based on the exact results, the conclusion may be regarded as universal and generally applicable when forming ways of integration of minorities into a single public space.
RUDN Journal of Russian History. 2018;17(2):234-247
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TRADITIONAL JEWISH EDUCATION IN THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE: CONTINUITY AND MODERNIZATION
Lokshin A.E.
Abstract

The article deals with the traditional Jewish education in the Russian Empire of the 19th - early 20th centuries. The author pays great attention to the key Judaic Religious Academy - yeshiva of Volozhin (Belarussia-Lithuania) as it existed from 1802 to 1914. The study is based on the contemporary sources - documents, media articles, memoirs, literary sources, archival materials and the works of foreign historians. The main aim of the article is to present this yeshiva in its social and cultural context. The author pays particular attention to the founder of yeshiva Volozhin Rabbi Hayim of Volozhin (1740-1821). The first objective of the work is to understand the reasons for the foundation of this yeshiva. In this context the author touches upon the relations with Vilna Gaon, his attitude toward the Jewish Enlightenment (Haskala), the attitude to Hasidism, secular studies etc. It is this yeshiva that was marked by a novel structure - total independence of local community. In many aspects, it was the model for other Jewish Higher Traditional institutions. The Russian historian pays considerable attention to the Imperial Government policy toward the Jewish traditional education; mutual relations between parents and students of yeshiva, the role of some rectors, teachers and form-masters of yeshiva of Volozhin. The author deals with the every-day life of the yeshivas, traditional holidays, modernization and the reaction to the challenge of the time and especially to the values of traditional Jewish culture in general. The author considers that the closure of the Volozhin yeshiva in 1892 by the tsarist authorities was formal. In fact, the yeshiva continued working. The last students perished in the Holocaust.

RUDN Journal of Russian History. 2018;17(2):248-295
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EUROPEAN JEWS IN RUSSIAN TURKESTAN AT THE TURN OF THE 19-20TH CENTURIES
Gitlin S.I.
Abstract

The article is devoted to the important scientific problem of Jews’ adaptation in Turkestan. Its comprehension makes it possible to consider a specific example of the interaction of representatives of the two main religions in Russia - the Christian and the Muslim ones. The relevance of this topic is also determined by the persisting confrontation between Israel and the Arab world, Jews and Muslims. Moreover, Jews’ resettlement during the colonization of Central Asia allows understanding the contradictions of the national and migration policy of the tsarist Russia at the turn of the 20th century. Through the use of a wide range of sources, the author reveals the peculiarities of the life of Jews in the Russian Empire, various aspects of which were silenced or distorted in the Soviet historiography for a long time. The article contains data on the localization, number and social composition of the Jewish population on the territory of the Russian Empire. It is noted that the vast majority of the first European Jews were former military - privates and non-commissioned officers. The Ashkenazi Jews played an important role in the construction of railways in Russia and, above all, the Tashkent-Orenburg railway. The author concludes that the construction of railways in Europe was an important field of activity for Jewish bankers. In this area, it is the personal ties of the Jewish capitalists with the governments which played an important role, since railways were built mostly on the basis of special concessions and under the official control. Over a relatively short historical period, the Jews demonstrated their high social activity and made a significant contribution to the development of Central Asia territory.

RUDN Journal of Russian History. 2018;17(2):296-319
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SOVIET ALIYAH AS A PIVOTAL THEME OF RUSSIAN-LANGUAGE PERIODICALS IN ISRAEL: THE CASE OF “VREMYA I MI” AND “22” JOURNALS
Strovsky D.L., Antoshin A.V.
Abstract

The article considers the peculiar features of the Soviet Aliyah as one of the leading themes of the Russian-language periodicals in Israel. Special attention is paid to the articles published in the 1970-2000s in the most prominent “thick” literary-political journals - “Vremya i My” and “22” which covered the fate of the Russian and Soviet Jews, as well as the phenomenon of repatriation. The study of the topic makes it possible to resolve several scientific problems. First of all, the analysis of the publications enables the authors to identify the key problems that are reflected in their content: the historical prerequisites for the formation of repatriation ideas in the minds of the Soviet Jewish intelligentsia, the attitude of the Soviet authorities to this phenomenon, and the evolution of the perception of the migration process as such and its various stages by the Israeli society. The studying of the above journals allowed distinguishing the contents specificity of each of them. The “Vremya i Mi “ journal was characterized by demonstrative anti-Sovietism, based on the commitment to the concept of human rights and liberal values. In turn, the “22” journal was aimed at the development of Zionism ideas and strengthening of the position of those Jews who sought deep integration into the Israeli society. However, the both periodicals had similar content features: the articles published in them were of high analytical and artistic level. Both “Vremya i Mi” and “22” were characterized by a common desire to understand the problems of Jews’ repatriation and their adaptation in Israel. The both journals made a significant contribution to the history of Israel periodicals and to the formation of self-consciousness of the Russian-speaking population of this country. The article is presented in the historical context. It reveals the main stages of the emigration of Jews from the USSR and modern Russia and the evolution of the reflection of this process on the pages of the journals.

RUDN Journal of Russian History. 2018;17(2):320-356
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STATE AND CHURCH IN RUSSIA
ROLE OF THE ROMAN CATHOLIC CLERGY OF THE NORTHWESTERN KRAI OF THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE IN THE 1863 POLISH UPRISING
Bendin A.Y.
Abstract

The article considers the problems of forming the religious component of the Polish uprising in 1863 in the Northwestern Krai of the Russian Empire. The author analyzes the peculiarities of the relationship between the Roman Catholic clergy and its laity in the process of the religious mobilization of the participants in the uprising. The article reveals the methods of influence of the radically-minded clergy on the consciousness and political behavior of the laity. There is shown that the spiritual power of the Roman Catholic clergy was used to achieve the political goals of the liberation of Poland. There is established the relationship between the religious motivation of the participants in the uprising and the brutality towards the law-abiding population in various forms of insurgent terror and violence. The author comes to the conclusion that radically-minded Roman Catholic priests and monks managed to turn the church doctrine into a mobilizing ideology of the armed struggle. Religious legitimization, propaganda and organization of the armed uprising turned a part of the Roman Catholic clergy of the Northwestern Krai into a political enemy of the Russian Empire. The article deals with the retaliatory measures of punishment applied to the rebellious representatives of the clergy on the part of the administration of M.N. Muravyov, which were caused by the conditions of martial law, the necessity to protect the territorial integrity of the state, to protect the lives and property of law-abiding citizens. In this regard, the Russian government, army, society and the Orthodox population of Lithuania and Belarus perceived the uprising as an attempt on the part of the Polish separatists on the ancestral Russian territory. Therefore, for the Russian side, the goals of the armed struggle were not the return of the Polish land, but the morally justified protection of the Russian land and the Russian people living in the West who had the same faith. In this regard, the author comes to the conclusion that in the process of preparing and carrying out the uprising, some of the Roman Catholic clergy of the Northwestern Kraiacted as a political enemy of the Russian Empire.

RUDN Journal of Russian History. 2018;17(2):357-387
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SENIOR CHURCHMEN’S PERCEPTION OF THE AUTOCRAT AS THE HEAD OF THE RUSSIAN ORTHODOX CHURCH IN 1905-1917
Mishin I.O.
Abstract

The article considers the peculiarities of the Russian Orthodox episcopate’s perception of Emperor Nicholas II of Russia as the head of the Russian Orthodox Church in the early twentieth century. This issue has recently become the subject of heated discussions, inspired, on the one hand, by the 100th anniversary of the Russian Revolution of 1917, and, on the other hand, by the orthodox community and some politicians, manipulating the pro-monarchist and ultraconservative rhetoric. There have been used various sources in order to investigate this problem, such as the diary of Metropolitan Arsenius (Stadnitsky), the memoirs of Protopresbyter of the Military and Naval Clergy Georgy Shavelsky, the records of other prominent clerics, and some official documents, including the Holy Synod’s edicts. In addition, some sources used in the research come from the private archive of Archbishop Nikon (Rozhdestvensky), including his letters, diary records, and public appeals. Based on the analysis of the wide range of sources, it is established that at the beginning of the 20th century the Russian senior churchmen did not question the autocrat’s right to secular authority. However, alongside this, in view of the Manifesto of 17 October 1905, the desacralization of the autocracy led to the change of the perception of the autocrat’s right to ecclesiastical authority. Therefore, the discrepancy of views on these rights between the tsar and bishops turned the senior churchmen away from the monarchy in February 1917.

RUDN Journal of Russian History. 2018;17(2):388-407
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LIFE AND COMMUNITY MINISTRY OF JACOB (DOMSKY). THE EMINENT BISHOP OF YAKUTSK AND VILYUYSK
Aksenova G.V., Sokolnikov E.R.
Abstract

The article considers the peculiar features of the selfless service in the far regions of the Russian Empire. The analysis is carried out on the example of the life and ministry of missionary, educator, teacher, preacher, Bishop Jacob (Domsky). His participation in the process of improving spiritual schools, the conditions of teaching and mentoring, developing new and improving old educational programmes contributed to the solution to one of the most important tasks - the training of highly educated Ministers of the Church. These graduates were able to serve the Fatherland in Siberia, the Far East, the Russian mission in China and Japan, in the vast territory of the Aleutian and Alaska dioceses. The opening of rural parish and parochial schools, the establishment of women’s diocesan schools, public library and translation activities - all these facts are about the life of Jacob (Domsky). As the Bishop of one of the most distant and great foreign dioceses, he did much to establish Orthodoxy and raise the authority of the Orthodox priesthood. Based on the brief analysis of the main theological works, among which is “Russian preaching, historical review and contemporary perspective on its direction”, the article shows the importance of the heritage of the missionary in the development of the Church historiography. For example, the activities of Bishop of Jacob (Domsky) reveal the role of Russian spiritual warriors in the organization and development of librarianship, education and spiritual enlightenment of the indigenous peoples of Siberia and the Far East.

RUDN Journal of Russian History. 2018;17(2):408-439
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ACTIVITIES OF THE RUSSIAN BRANCHES OF THE INTERNATIONAL THEOSOPHICAL SOCIETY IN EMIGRATION (1926-1938)
Kriazheva-Kartseva E.V.
Abstract

The article is devoted to the history of origin and functioning of the national sections of the International Theosophical Society - the Russian Theosophical Society in emigration. It is shown that this organization ideologically and structurally continued in emigration the work of the Russian Theosophical Society, registered in Russia in 1908, created under the influence of the teachings of H.P.Blavatsky, Annie Besant. The author has reconstructed the general picture of the work of the departments of the organization in Europe, Asia and America in 1920-30 years. The article shows that the Russian National Section was one of 41 national sections. The connection between lodges and prominent representatives of the movement with the International Society is shown through a system of congresses, meetings, joint lectures, sponsorship. The author has shown the organization’s links with international inter-confessional organizations, the role of society in propaganda of theosophical teaching among emigrants and youth. It is proved that, on an ideological basis, it was an occult-mystical organization whose unconventional religiosity was a consequence of the spiritual crisis of the first third of the 20th century. Emigrant sections of the society were also places of meeting with compatriots for Russian emigrants, moral support, performed a compensatory function. It is established that the ideological views of the Theosophists were not Christian, although they positioned themselves as such. Theosophists proposed eclectic knowledge combining occultism, scientological (scientific-like) views and oriental cults, which is the basis of modern non-religious religiousness, the ideological basis for the activity of many new religious movements.

RUDN Journal of Russian History. 2018;17(2):440-461
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DISCUSSION
WEST AND RUSSIA IN THE SECOND PART OF THE 15TH-17TH CENTURIES: POLITICAL FORMS OF MUTUAL ACTION
Georgieva N.G., Chernikova T.V.
Abstract
Global History is one of the phenomena and a consequence of the process of globalization, stimulating intercultural dialog as the basis for improved mutual understanding between people. Numerous modern historians recognize that there is a need to abandon the construction ‘the West and the Rest’ that has dominated for a long time in the historiography. Global History should focus on the study of communication and interaction between governments and nations. Modern historiography refers the beginning of a process of globalization to the 15th century. In connection with this chronological milestone this essay considers the initial phase of the process establishing sustainable relationships between Western Europe and Russia. It began in the second half of the 15th century. In the 17th century all the contacts with Western Europe became a constant of Russian socio-cultural devices and one of the phenomena of Russian history. Despite the support provided to aliens by the Russian government, relationship of the foreigners with the Russian society was contradictory. However, by the end of the 17th century, in attitude of Russian society to everyone who had come from the West began to develop two parallel lines. A negative attitude to the innovation and commitment to old, spiritual and household traditions remained by the peasantry and part of the elite of society. The urban population and the other part of the noble elite of society showed tolerance and willingness to accept much of the new that had appeared in Russia thanks to its rapprochement with the West.
RUDN Journal of Russian History. 2018;17(2):462-481
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BOOK REVIEW
BOOK REVIEW: Mokshin, Gennadiy N., ed. N.K. Mikhaylovsky. Man. Thinker. Public Figure (To the 175th anniversary). Collection of scientific papers. Voronezh: Voronezh State University Publishing house, 2017. 299 p
Lachaeva M.Y.
Abstract
RUDN Journal of Russian History. 2018;17(2):482-492
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