Gypsies of the Urals in the National Economic Policy of the Soviet State of the 1920-1930s

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Abstract


The article is devoted to the analysis of the state policy on Ural Gypsies in the 1920-30s. Historiographical experience allows to undertake micro-level studies including examples of certain regions taking into account their specificity. The article observes the history of Ural Gypsies. Despite a great amount of works devoted to the history of Russian Gypsies the authors are sure that a differentiated approach to the study is the most appropriate taking into account the peculiarities of certain ethnic groups each of them having its own historical specificities. Available published sources and documents that are introduced into scientific circulation for the first time allow to undertake such studies inside one region on the example of two ethnic groups of Gypsies - Russian Roma and the Kalderash Gypsies. The authors have a hypothesis that the number of Ural Gypsies could be much bigger because in official documents they were named Russians or the citizens of certain European countries (Romanians, Bulgarians, Austrians, Serbs, and others). The article analyses the effectiveness of Ural authorities’ policies aimed at organizing Gypsy collective farms (kolkhoz), industrial artels as well as cultural policies on Gypsies. Despite several successful examples in the country in general Ural attempts of organizing Gypsy collective farms were not that successful though there were all the necessary conditions and regional authorities were making a lot of efforts to maintain those farms that were organized. The sources give information on the activities of Gypsy industrial artels which unlike collective farms were functioning well.


About the authors

Alexander V. Chernykh

Perm Federal Research Center Ural Branch Russian Academy of Sciences

Author for correspondence.
Email: atschernych@yandex.ru
13 a, Lenina St., Perm, 614001, Russia

Doktor Istoricheskikh Nauk [Dr. habil. hist.], Corresponding Member of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Head of the Ethnological Research Sector of the Department of History, Archeology and Ethnography

Mikhail S. Kamenskikh

Perm Federal Research Center Ural Branch Russian Academy of Sciences

Email: pomidorrr@mail.ru
13 a, Lenina St., Perm, 614001, Russia

Kandidat Istoricheskikh Nauk [Ph.D. in History], Senior Researcher, Head of the Ethnological Research Sector, Department of History, Archeology and Ethnography

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