The Gypsies and Military Service in the Russian Empire in the Second Half of the 18th - First Half of the 19th Century

Cover Page

Abstract


The complication of the national composition of the population due to new ethnic groups as well as incorporation of new territories into the Russian Empire were ones of the consequences of an active foreign policy in the XVIII - XIX century. The Poles, Jews, Gypsies, Finns, and many others needed to be incorporated into existing state, public, social institutions. Most of the activities carried out against, for example, the Jews or Gypsies, aimed at their violent adaptation. The tsarist administration made repeated attempts to persuade various groups of the gypsy population to a settled way of life under the aegis of combating vagrancy in the 1770s - 1820s. Their incorporation in the taxable urban and rural estates implied the imposition of state and district taxes and duties on them. This fully related to recruitment service in its natural or monetary form. But, the Gypsies, unlike Ashkenazi Jews, was not a united nation. This fact forced the government to take different approaches to their recruiting duties in different regions. In Crimea and Bessarabia, the Gypsies were an integral part of local communities. The authorities found it impossible to separate them, for example, from the Crimean Tatar Muslim societies. On this basis they were freed from recruitment same as the Tatars. But some militarized and military institutions (correctional troops of the engineering department, battalions of military cantonists) were used in a repressively educational spirit. If the first were supposed to stop the vagrancy of the Gypsies and promote their sedentary, the second were to contribute to the socialization of young Gypsies and make them ‘useful members of society’. This article for the first time in historiography raises the question of the attitude of the state towards the Gypsies of Russia from the point of view of military service. The article is written on the basis of published sources and unpublished documents from the central and regional archives, which are first introduced into scientific circulation.


About the authors

Vladimir N. Shaidurov

Pushkin Leningrad State University

Author for correspondence.
Email: s-w-n@mail.ru
10, Peterburgskoye Sh., Pushkin, Saint Petersburg, 196605, Russia

Doktor Istoricheskikh Nauk [Dr. habil. hist.], Associate Professor, head of the Scientific and educational center for historical research and analysis, Professor of the Department of Russian history

Tadeush A. Novogrodsky

Belarusian State University

Email: tadeush_minsk@mail.ru
6, Krasnoarmeyskaya St., Minsk, 220030, Republic of Belarus

Doktor Istoricheskikh Nauk [Dr. habil. hist.], Professor, Head of the department of ethnology, museology and art history of the historical faculty

References

  1. Caban, W. Służba rekrutów z Królestwa Polskiego w armii carskiej w latach 1831–1873. Warszawa: DiG Publ., 2001 (in Polish).
  2. Gel'man, B. “Kantonisty: put' preodoleniya cherty osedlosti (na primere Sevastopolya).” In Problemy yevreyskoy istorii Materialy nauchnykh konferentsiy Tsentra «Sefer» po iudaike 2007 goda: pamyati professora Dzhona Doyla Klira, 194–206. Moscow: Knizhniki Publ., 2008 (in Russian).
  3. Glavatskaya, Ye.M., and Zabolotnykh, Ye.A. “Jewish Religious Community of Yekaterinburg in the Second Half of the 19th – early 20th centuries: number and institutions.” Izvestia. Ural Federal University Journal. Series 2. Humanities and Arts 19, no. 14 (2017): 206–221. doi: 10.15826/izv2.2017.19.4.074 (in Russian).
  4. Gorelov, V.N. Karatel'naya funktsiya rekrutchiny v Rossii 1705–1874 gg. Sevastopol': Teleskop Publ., 2015 (in Russian).
  5. Ivanov, N.F. Istoriya rekrutskoy povinnosti v Rossii (1699–1874 gg.): uchebnoye posobiye. Moscow: Pero Publ., 2017 (in Russian).
  6. Kandaurova, T.N. “Russian military settlements in the cultural dimension: new educational projects and institutions.” Issues of Cultural Studies, no. 4 (2010): 43–48 (in Russian).
  7. Klier, J. Rossiya sobirayet svoikh yevreyev. Moscow, Iyerusalim: Mosty kul'tury Publ., 2000 (in Russian).
  8. Natans, B. Za chertoy. Yevrei vstrechayutsya pozdneimperskoy Rossiyey. Moscow: ROSSPEN Publ., 2007 (in Russian).
  9. Nikitin, V. “Mnogostradal'nyye. Ocherki byta kantonistov.” Otechestvennyye zapiski, no. 8–10 (1871): 120–132 (in Russian).
  10. Nutrikhin, R.V., and Savchenko, S.P. Yevreyskiye soldaty-kantonisty. Yevrei na Stavropol'ye: s drevneyshikh vremen do 1917 goda. Stavropol': Tesera Publ., 2016 (in Russian).
  11. Petrovskiy-Shtern, Y. Yevrei v russkoy armii. Moscow: Novoye literaturnoye obozreniye Publ., 2003 (in Russian).
  12. Sidorenko, G. Rekrutskaya povinnost': Znacheniye yeye v ryadu sistem formirovaniya i komplektovaniya voysk i istoricheskoye razvitiye yeye v Rossii. Znacheniye rekrutskoy povinnosti v ryadu sistem formirovaniya i komplektovaniya voysk. St. Petersburg: SPGU Publ., 1869 (in Russian).
  13. Shaydurov, V.N. “The Jews and their Place in the Economic Life of Western Siberiain the second half of the 19th century.” The New Historical Bulletin, no. 39 (2014): 21–35 (in Russian).
  14. Shakirzyanov, E.M. “Formation of the system of training non-commissioned officers of the Russian army in the first half of the 19th century.” Military University Bulletin, no. 1 (2010): 46–51 (in Russian).
  15. Shaidurov, V.N. “Jews and their social status in the society of Siberia in XIX century.” Bylye gody, no. 32 (2014): 239–244.
  16. Shpilevskiy, P.M. Puteshestviye po Poles'yu i Belorusskomu krayu. St. Petersburg: [S.n.], 1858 (in Russian).
  17. Yachmenikhin, V.K. Voyenniye kantonisty Russkoy armii (1797–1836 gg.). Moscow: MGU Publ., 2000 (in Russian).
  18. Yachmenikhin, K.M. Voyennyye poseleniya v Rossii (Istoriya sotsial'no-ekonomicheskogo eksperimenta). Ufa: [S.n.], 1984 (in Russian).

Statistics

Views

Abstract - 116

PDF (Russian) - 60

Cited-By


PlumX

Dimensions


Copyright (c) 2020 Shaidurov V.N., Novogrodsky T.A.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

This website uses cookies

You consent to our cookies if you continue to use our website.

About Cookies