Dynamics and Causes of Violations of Labor Discipline during the Great Patriotic War (on the Materials of the City of Kovrov)

Cover Page

Abstract


This article explores the causes of labor discipline violations and their dynamics during the Great Patriotic War by the example of a compact rear industrial center - the city of Kovrov, which became part of the Vladimir Region, which stood out from Ivanovo in 1944. Based on the analysis of the documents of the city committee of the city party, including the minutes of the city committee meetings, memoranda from party instructors, plans and reports on the work of industrial enterprises, the author concludes that there is some dynamics in the violation of harsh labor laws at the city enterprises. Studying the stated problem, it was possible not only to identify the causes of numerous violations of labor legislation by workers and employees, but also to find out the attitude and reaction of the Kovrov city committee of the CPSU (b) to these processes. In the course of the study, a fact was confirmed in many respects, which was repeatedly indicated in both domestic and foreign historiography about the continuity of processes in industrial enterprises of the prewar and war years. Moreover, it would hardly be worthwhile to reduce all complex life phenomena and contradictions exclusively to system errors and manifestations of Stalinism. In each specific case described in the sources, there was a human factor and, accordingly, the choice of officials. The revealed historical sources allow us to ascertain the presence of a certain dynamics in the number of violations of labor discipline at the level of the city and individual large enterprises, but which was not observed across the region. If large enterprises were characterized by wave-like dynamics of violations with a tendency to increase sharply at the beginning of the war, then small factories and artels showed a permanent decrease in such cases. An analysis of the labor practice of the war years forces, at least partially, to revise the thesis of Soviet historiography on the exceptional cohesion of the rear, but at the same time confirms the versatility and complexity of the daily lives of rear workers, emphasizes the harsh conditions in which workers and employees had to work during the war years and at the same time proves that the war years society was not monolithic.


About the authors

Ilya S. Tryakhov

Vladimir State University named after Alexander and Nikolay Stoletovs

Author for correspondence.
Email: ilja.tryahoff@yandex.ru
87, Gorky St., Vladimir, 600000, Russia

Kandidat Istoricheskikh Nauk [Ph.D. in History], Associate Professor of the Department of Russian History

References

  1. Anikin, A.S. Trudovoy podvig rabochikh Vladimirskoy i Ivanovskoy oblastey v gody Velikoy Otechestvennoy voyny: ocherki, esse. Vladimir: Prizyv Publ., 1969 (in Russian).
  2. Belonogov, Yu.G., and Mazuka, A.A. “Violators of Labour discipline on the Krasnokamsk pulp and paper mill, 1940–1946: evolution of the sociological portrait.” Perm National Research Polytechnic University, no. 1 (2017): 106–112 (in Russian).
  3. Churikov, A.V. “Labor relations at evacuated heavy industry enterprises in the Chelyabinsk region (1941–1946).” Bulletin of Udmurt University. History and Philology Series, no. 3 (2011): 125–129 (in Russian).
  4. Fitspatrik, Sh. Povsednevnyy stalinizm. Sotsial'naya istoriya Sovetskoy Rossii v 30-ye gody. Moscow: ROSSPEN Publ., 2008 (in Russian).
  5. Frolov, N.V. Kovrovchane v Velikoy Otechestvennoy: k 55-letiyu Velikoy Pobedy. Kovrov: Mashteks Publ., 2000 (in Russian).
  6. Gantsenmyuller, Y. Osazhdennyy Leningrad. Gorod v strategicheskikh raschotakh agressorov i zashchitnikov. 1941–1944. Moscow: Tsentrpoligraf Publ., 2019 (in Russian).
  7. Kabirova A.Sh. “The influence of legal and socio-economic factors on the labor behavior of workers in the industry of the Tatar Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic during the Great Patriotic War (1941–1945).” Pushkin Leningrad State University Journal, no. 3 (2014): 169–180 (in Russian).
  8. Kladov, V.Yu. “Desertion from the defense enterprises of the Penza region in 1942–1944.” Almanac of Modern Science and Education, no. 10 (100) (2015): 55–59 (in Russian).
  9. Komarova, N.Ye., and Monyakova, O.A. Put' k Pobede: Kovrov v 1941 – 1945: sbornik materialov o Velikoy Otechestvennoy voyne. Kovrov: Krasnoye znamya Publ., 2005 (in Russian).
  10. Khlevniuk, O.V., and Hale-Dorell, A. “Deserters from the Labor Front: The limits of coercion in the Soviet war economy.” Kritika: Explorations in Russian and Eurasian History. Slavica Publishers 20, no. 3 (2019): 481–504.
  11. Medvedev, R. O Staline i stalinizme. Moscow: Progress Publ., 1990 (in Russian).
  12. Ponomarov, D.I. “Vladimirskiy kray v gody Veliko Otechestvennoy voyny.” In Velikaya Otechestvennaya voyna i sovremennost', 56–80. Vladimir: Nauka Publ., 1995 (in Russian).
  13. Pykhalov, I.V. Velikaya obolgannaya voyna. Moscow: Yauza Publ., Eksmo Publ., 2006 (in Russian).
  14. Romanov, R.Ye. Rabochaya molodezh' oboronnykh predpriyatiy v Zapadnoy Sibiri v gody Velikoy Otechestvennoy voyny (1941–1945). Novosibirsk: NGU Publ., 2009 (in Russian).
  15. Romanov, R.Ye. “Labor incentives for workers of the defense enterprises of Siberia during the Great Patriotic War (on the example of the Sibmetallstroy plant).” Economic History and History of Economics 15, no. 2 (2014): 309–332 (in Russian).
  16. Shalak, A.V. “The motivation system in the distribution system during the Great Patriotic War (1941–1945).” Economic History and History of Economics 12, no. 2 (2011): 20–40 (in Russian).
  17. Somov, V.A. Po zakonu voyennogo vremeni. Ocherki istorii trudovoy politiki SSSR v gody Velikoy Otechestvennoy voyny (1941–1945 gg.). N. Novgorod: Nizhegorodskiy gosuniversitet Publ., 2001 (in Russian).
  18. Somov, V.A. “Labor and duty: material and everyday aspects of labor motivation during the Great Patriotic War of 1941–1945. (based on materials from the Volga-Vyatka region).” Economic History and History of Economics 12, no. 2 (2011): 5–19 (in Russian).
  19. Shubin, A.V. 10 mifov sovetskoy strany. Moscow: Yauza Publ., Eksmo Publ., 2006 (in Russian).
  20. Shubin, A.V. Start strany Sovetov. Revolyutsiya. Oktyabr' 1917–mart 1918 g. St. Petersburg: Piter Publ., 2017 (in Russian).
  21. Togoyeva, S.I. “Faktory vliyaniya na motivatsiyu truda (na materialakh Tverskogo vagonostroitel'nogo zavoda v 1941–1951 gg.).” In Ekonomicheskaya istoriya. Obozreniye, 39–56. Moscow: [S.n.], 2002 (in Russian).
  22. Tryakhov, I.S. “Labor discipline at enterprises of Vladimir region during great patriotic war.” RUDN Journal of Russian History 14, no. 3 (2015): 71–80 (in Russian).
  23. Volkogonov, D.A. Triumf i tragediya. Politicheskiy portret I.V. Stalina. Moscow: APN Publ., 1989 (in Russian).
  24. Volodarskiy, L.M. “Sovetskiy tyl v gody Velikoy Otechestvennoy voyny.” Voprosy istorii, no. 7 (1985): 14–34 (in Russian).
  25. Zagvozdkin, G.G. Tsena Pobedy. Sotsial'naya politika voyennykh let. Kirov: Volga-Vyatka Book Publ., 1990 (in Russian).
  26. Zinich, M.S. Trudovoy podvig rabochego klassa v 1941–1945 gg. (po materialam otrasley mashinostroyeniya). Moscow: Nauka Publ., 1984 (in Russian).
  27. Zhelayeva, S.G. “Working youth during the Great Patriotic War (based on the materials of the Republic of Buryatia).” Bulletin of the Buryat State University, no. 7 (2015): 24–29 (in Russian).
  28. Zemskov, V.N. “Organization of the workforce and tightening of labor legislation during the Great Patriotic War.” International Relations, no. 1 (2014): 104–114 (in Russian).

Statistics

Views

Abstract - 70

PDF (Russian) - 23

Cited-By


PlumX

Dimensions


Copyright (c) 2020 Tryakhov I.S.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

This website uses cookies

You consent to our cookies if you continue to use our website.

About Cookies