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Abstract



2019 is an important anniversary for both China and Russian-Chinese relations. 70 years ago, on October 1, 1949, the People’s Republic of China was founded. The next day the Soviet Union recognized the new Chinese state, laying the foundation for future bilateral relations. At the same time, the history of Russian and Chinese relations goes back more than four centuries. It is ironic that the oldest section of the state border of the Russian Federation is the border with China in Transbaikalia; the most remote and sparsely populated portion of Russia’s border with China. The relations between the two states and peoples is complex and has involved a wide range of political, economic and cultural ties. This fact determines the unique place of China in Russia’s foreign policy. Relations between states are primarily relations between people, and it is migrants who are the part of society most affected by bilateral relations. An interesting page in our history was the ‘migrational exchange,’ the adaptation of Chinese migrants in Russia and the development of the Russian community in China. The first three articles of the proposed issue of our journal are devoted to this topic. The problems of Chinese migration in Russia has traditionally attracted the attention of the scientific community. In recent years, in Russian historiography there has been major research projects on the topic. However, the specificity of Chinese migration in the USSR was that it was mainly conducted by men of working age, and due to the gender imbalance in Russia caused by the long-lasting wars of the first half of the 20th century, and migration led to the emergence of a large number of mixed RussianChinese families. In the article of Siberian historians V.G. Datsyshen and L.A. Kutilova, have reconstructed the history of the emergence of Russian-Chinese families in Soviet Russia and the USSR. The authors show their composition and specificity, analyze the problems of everyday life of members of such families in the socio-cultural and political space of Russia during the 20th century. The Russian diaspora played an important role in the history of the 20th century. In China, this diaspora occupies a special place, as immigrants from Russia temporarily or permanently lived there throughout the history of modern Russian-Chinese relations. The most significant communities of immigrants from Russia were formed in Northeast China (Manchuria) and Xinjiang. The article of E.N. Nazemtseva, a famous specialist in the history of the Russian expatriate community in China, is primarily focused on on the activities of Russian public organizations in this country during the Russian revolution of 1917. Drawing on a wide source base, the author explores a little-known page of the revolutionary processes in the Russian Diaspora in China in 1917-20 with the materials of Manchuria and Xinjiang. Thanks to the documents found in the Russian Foreign Policy Archive, the author was able to restore the historical picture of the social and political life of immigrants from the Russian Empire in the Republic of China during the difficult and controversial years of the Revolution and the Civil War. The article shows the regional peculiarities of the social and political life of the Russian community, and the influence of the revolutionary events on the character of Russian/Soviet-Chinese relations in general. Famous Russian emigration researchers Z.S. Bocharova and M.V. Krotova devoted their article to another important and interesting page in the history of Russian-Chinese relations - Harbin Polytechnic Institute. The history of the Institute as a center of Russian science and education in China in the 1920s - 1950s is considered an important element of Russian/Soviet-Chinese interaction in Northeast China. The authors introduced new archival documents into scientific discourse, revealing the role and importance of the Russian-Chinese Institute in the development of Sino-Russian bilateral relations. Three articles included in the thematic issue ‘Russia and China’ are devoted to the contemporary problems of Russian-Chinese relations. In the post-Soviet period, since 1995, the relations between Russia and China have been based on the principles of ‘strategic partnership.’ The proclamation of the Belt and Road Initiative by the Chinese President in 2013 determined global geopolitical changes in Eurasia and became the most important factor in Russia’s future development. The new realities of RussianChinese relations and serious changes in the global geopolitical system have increase the importance of the humanitarianism in international relations, and the use of soft power in Russian-Chinese relations. The article of V.F. Ershov, Doctor of Historical Sciences, is devoted to the problems of the implementation of the principles of ‘strategic partnership’ in the relations between Russia and China in the modern conditions of globalization. Based on the international legal documents and information materials of the Foreign Ministries of the two countries, the author reveals the mechanisms of state-political, financial, economic and humanitarian interaction and cooperation between Russia and China at the present stage of bilateral relations. One cannot but agree with the author’s conclusions that the strategic partnership between Russia and China is an important factor in ensuring the global political and economic system. In their article, S.E. Martynenko and N.P. Parkhitko, RUDN University historians, consider Russian-Chinese cooperation in the context of the Belt and Road Initiative. The article points out that Russia and China have a number of common interests in Central Asia, and the authors focus on Russian security interests in the context of the Belt and Road Initiative and the challenges associated with the new Chinese initiative. According to the authors, under the initiative of Xi Jinping, the projects already implemented within its framework in Russia will have a positive impact on the development of Russia and Russian-Chinese relations. Based on the historical experience of the interaction between the two countries, O.A. Vorkunova and K.P. Kurylev in their article, analyze the impact of Russian-Chinese relations on the Eurasian states and prospects of the Eurasian continental development. The article reveals specific examples of the nature of relations between the emerging Eurasian economy and the national economies of the countries included in the Eurasian space. At the same time, the authors investigate this problem in the context of the organization of global and regional security spaces. St. Petersburg researchers V.I. Fokin and E.E. Elts, in their article, considered the contribution of Russian and Chinese museums to the development of bilateral relations through the theory of ‘soft power.’ The authors analyzed the content of cultural diplomacy, various forms and tools of cooperation between the museums of the two countries, including in connection with the Belt and Road Initiative. Of scientific interest are the forms of cooperation between the leading metropolitan museums of the Russian Federation and China, as well as the main aspects of cooperation in the field of museology along border regions of the two countries. At the same time, the authors note that the documentary basis of bilateral cultural relations does not reflect the modern development of international activities of Russian and Chinese museums. We can assume that this direction of Russian-Chinese cooperation in modern realities can provide serious moral and material support to Russian museums. Thus, the presented articles consider important and topical problems of Russian history in connection with China and Russian-Chinese relations in the 20th - early 21st century. Through the introduction of new sources into scientific discourse and the use of new principles and approaches in historical researches, the authors have raised to a new level the study of the Russo-Chinese ‘migrational exchange’ and modern relations between Russia and China.

Vladimir G Datsyshen

Siberian Federal University

Email: generalhistory2005@yandex.ru
82 A, Svobodny Av., Krasnoyarsk, 660041, Russia Doktor istoricheskikh nauk [Dr. habil. hist.], Professor and Head of the Department of World History, Siberian Federal University, Professor of the Department of World History, Krasnoyarsk State Pedagogical University.

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