“Labor as freedom, labor as burden”: on the early period of women’s professional employment in Russia

Cover Page

Abstract


This article discusses the emergence of the Russian working woman employed in skilled labor from the second half 19th century until the 1930s. In Russia, educated women entered the sphere of socially significant labor during the Great Reforms. The subsequent development largely explains the position of the working woman in modern Russia - hence the topicality of the present paper. Sources for this article are record-keeping documents of tsarist and Soviet institutions, statistical information, press materials as well as memoirs. Among the factors that influenced the formation of the Russian female working class in the pre-revolutionary period were a social movement for the development of female education, the emergence of special vocational schools for women, the Zemstvo reforms, industrialization and, eventually, World War I. The article shows changes in the nature of the employment of women after the 1917 Revolution. The authors document the rapid growth of women’s participation in all spheres of the USSR’s national economy in the 1930s, in particular health care, education, and work in the apparatus of state, party and economic bodies. As a result, during this period the professional traits of the three main types of Soviet female workers were formed: the woman-doctor, the woman-teacher and the womanfunctionary. At the same time, the authors come to the conclusion that Soviet rule brought no fundamental changes in the conditions of everyday life, so that the Soviet woman-intellectual turned out to be a “fighter of two fronts” - labor and domestic.


About the authors

Olga M Morozova

Don State Technical University

Author for correspondence.
Email: olgafrost@gmail.com
1, pl. Gagarina, Rostov-on-Don, 344000, Russia

Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor at the Department of Public Relations of Don State Technical University

Tatyana I Troshina

Northern (Arctic) Federal University named after M. Lomonosov; Northern State Medical University

Email: tatr-arh@mail.ru
17, Severnaya Dvina Embankment, Arkhangelsk, 163004, Russia; 51, Troitsky Ave., Arkhangelsk, 163000, Russia

Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor of the Department of Social Work and Social Security of NArFU

Elena A Yalozina

Financial University under the Government of the Russian Federation

Email: EAYalozina@fa.ru
49, Leningradsky Prospect, Moscow, 125993, Russia

Candidate of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor of the Department of Sociology, History and Philosophy of the Financial University under the Government of the Russian Federation

References

  1. Artemov, S. “Zhizn’ i smert’ za kopeyku.” Lichnoye delo, no. 6 (2002). http://www.prpc.ru/gazeta/51/copeck.shtml (Accessed: 21.07.2016) (in Russian).
  2. Belova, N.A. Povsednevnaya zhizn’ uchiteley. Moscow: IEA RAN Publ., 2015 (in Russian).
  3. Dneprov, E.D., and Usacheva, R.F. Zhenskoe obrazovanie v Rossii. Moscow: Drofa Publ., 2009 (in Russian).
  4. Gruzdeva, E.B., and Chertihina, Eh.S. Trud i byt sovetskih zhenshchin. Moscow: Politizdat Publ., 1983 (in Russian).
  5. Holmes, L. “Shkol’naya reforma sverhu i snizu: kompleksnyy metod.” Sovetskaya pedagogika, no. 3 (1990): 118–124 (in Russian).
  6. Holmes, L. Social’naya istoriya Rossii: 1917–1941. Rostov n/D: RSU Publ., 1994 (in Russian).
  7. Iokhel’son, V. Gesya Mironovna Gel’fman. Biograficheskiy ocherk. http://saint-juste.narod.ru/Gelfman.htmlк_ftnrefXIII (Accessed: 14.04.2016) (in Russian).
  8. Koshel’, P. Istoriya syska v Rossii. Minsk: Literatura Publ., 1996, (in Russian). Kovaleva, M.D. Zhenshchiny v medicine. Volgograd: VolSU Publ., 2004 (in Russian).
  9. Kozlinina, Ye.I. Za polveka. 1862–1912 gg.: Vospominaniya, ocherki i kharakteristiki. Moscow: TD N. Berdonosov, F. Prigorin i Ko Press, 1913 (in Russian).
  10. Kizevetter, Ye.Ya. Dnevnik 1905–1907 gg. Rossiyskiy arkhiv. Vol. 5. Moscow: Studiya TRITE Publ., 1994 (in Russian).
  11. Lunacharskiy, A.V. O narodnom obrazovanii. Moscow: Academy of Pedagogical Sciences of the RSFSR Publ., 1958 (in Russian).
  12. Morozova, O.M., and Troshina, T.I. “Krasnye delegatki” kak variant sovetskogo feminizma.” Adam & Eva, Al’manakh gendernoy istorii, no. 22 (2014): 124–146 (in Russian).
  13. Pushkareva, N.L. “Russian Feminism. Two centuries of history in L’homme.” Übergänge. Ost-West-Feminismen 6, no. 1 (2006): 7−11.
  14. Pushkareva, N.L. “Clever but Poor” (Women-Scientists in Post-Soviet Folklore).” Българска етнология, no 2–3 (2007): 37–56.
  15. Pushkareva, N.L. “Privated and Public Aspects Daily Life of the First Russian Women Historians (1810– 1914).” Revue de l’Institut des Langues et Cultures d’Europe, Amerique, Afrique, Asie et Australie, no. 29 (2017): 3–13.
  16. Pushkareva, N.L. “Women’s History in Russia: Status and Perspective between Eastern Traditionalism and Western Feminism.” In Post-Communist Transition and Women’s Agency in Eastern Europe Central and East European Studies Series, 27–39. Dordrecht: Republic of Letters Publ., 2014.
  17. Pushkareva, N.L. “ ‘Women Scientists Resemble Guinea Pigs…’ Anecdotes about Women-Scientists in Soviet and Post-Soviet Russia.” Gender Forum, no. 33 (2011): 52−64.
  18. Pushkareva, N. L., and Mitsyuk, N.A. “Midwives in the history of medicine of Russia (XVIII − mid. XIX century).” Vestnik Smolenskoy gosudarstvennoy akademii, no. 1 (2018): 179–189 (in Russian).
  19. Pushkareva, N.L., and Mitsyuk, N.A. “The Origins of Medicalization: The Basis of Russian Social Policy in the Field of Reproductive Health (1760–1860).” The Journal of Social Policy Stadies 15 no. 4 (2017): 515–530 (in Russian).
  20. Ruane, C. Gender, Class, and the Professionalization of Russian City Teachers, 1860–1914. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1994.
  21. Stites, R. Zhenskoe osvoboditel’noe dvizhenie v Rossii: Feminizm, nigilizm i bol’shevizm, 1860–1930 − The Women’s Liberation Movement in Russia: Feminism, Nihilism and Bolshevism, 1860–1930. Moscow: ROSSPEN Publ., 2004 (in Russian).
  22. Solodiankina, O.Y. “Governesses in Russian Noble Families.”RUDN Journal of Russian History 2, no. 2 (2003): 38–44 (in Russian).
  23. Suslova, A.P. Gody blizosti s Dostoyevskim: Dnevnik – povest’ − pis’ma. Moscow: RUSSLIT Publ., 1991 (in Russian).
  24. Tevlina, V.V. “Formation of an Educational and Training System for Social Work in the Russian Empire, 1860s to the early 1900s.” Social History, no. 3 (2008): 299–316.
  25. Yalozina, E.A. Sotsial’no-ekonomicheskie problemy razvitiya otechestvennoi shkoly v 1920-e gg.: gosudarstvennaya politika i istoricheskaya real’nost’. Rostov n/D: South Federal University Publ., 2009 (in Russian).
  26. Yalozina, E.A. Povsednevnost’ sel’skogo uchitel’stva v 1920-e gg. Prepodavanie istorii v shkole, no. 1 (2011): 74–77 (in Russian).
  27. Zhbankov, D.N. “Russkaya zhenshchina-vrach. Prakticheskiy vrach.” 1913, no. 14 (1913): 216; no. 15 (1913): 233 (in Russian).
  28. Zelikson-Bobrovskaya, TS. Za pervyye 20 let: Zapiski ryadovogo podpol’shchika. Moscow: Staryy bol’shevik Publ., 1932 (in Russian).
  29. Zimin, I.V. Meditsinskoye obrazovaniye zhenshchin v Rossii (vtoraya polovina XVIII i nachalo XX vv.). PhD diss. St. Petersburg: [S.n.], 1999 (in Russian).

Statistics

Views

Abstract - 352

PDF (Mlt) - 214

Cited-By


PlumX

Dimensions


Copyright (c) 2019 Morozova O.M., Troshina T.I., Yalozina E.A.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

This website uses cookies

You consent to our cookies if you continue to use our website.

About Cookies