The civilizational role of Russian people in the development of the Russia’s southern regions through the prism of ethno-demographic dynamics

Cover Page

Abstract


The article examines the share of the Russian ethnos in the ethnodemographic structure of the south of Russia for a period of 300 years, and investigates changes in the relative proportion of Russians and representatives of the titular peoples in the respective administrative units over time. The geographical scope of the study covers the North Caucasus region as well as some adjacent territories, taking into consideration the changes that occurred in Russia’s administrative division. In particular, the article is based on the materials of audits and population censuses in the Russian Empire (1897) and the USSR (1926, 1939, 1959, 1970, 1979, 1989) as well as in the Russian Federation (2002, 2010). Methodologically, the present study correlates civilizational approach theory with an empirical study of ethno-demographic processes. The authors advance the theory that civilizational ups and downs correlate with the dynamics of migration by the civilization-forming people, and with their settling in the ethnic periphery. The article argues that in the regional ethnic make-up, the share of Russians, as the civilization-forming people, reflects the region’s degree of integration in the Russian civilizational system. In particular, a clear correlation is visible between the descending phase of the Soviet project and the decrease of representatives of the Russian ethnos in the national and administrative entities of the region. Given that over centuries Russia developed as a multinational state - as a state-civilization kept together by the Russian people at its center - the authors emphasize the need to strengthen Russia’s statehood.


About the authors

Vardan E Bagdasaryan

Moscow State Regional University

Author for correspondence.
Email: vardanb@mail.ru
10A Radio St., Moscow, 105005, Russia

-

Sergey I Resnyansky

RUDN University

Email: s-r44@yandex.ru
6 Miklukho-Maklaya St., Moscow, 117198, Russia

-

References

  1. Avtorkhanov, A. K osnovnym voprosam istori i Chechni [To the main issues of history and Chechnya]. Groznyy: Serlo Publ., 1930 (in Russian).
  2. Bagdasaryan, V.E. “Russkoyazychnaya diaspora stran blizhnego zarubezhia v postsovetskiy period: istoriko-demograficheskiye protsessy.” [Russian-speaking diaspora of the countries of the near abroad in the post-Soviet period: historical and demographic processes] Politika i Obshchestvo, no. 10 (2015): 1363−1374 (in Russian).
  3. Bagdasaryan, V.E. “Russkoyazychnoye naseleniye stran blizhnego zarubezhia: demografi cheskoye vydavlivaniye cherez prizmu postimperskogo tranzita.” [Russian-speaking diaspora of the near abroad countries: demographic extrusion through the prism of post-imperial transit] In Politicheskiye protsessy na postsovetskom prostranstve. Materialy IV Mezhdunarodnoy konferentsii. Moscow: IIUMGOU Publ., 2015: 23−46 (in Russian).
  4. Bagirov, M.D. “K voprosu o kharaktere dvizheniya myuridizmai Shamilya.” [To the question of the character of the movement of muridism and Shamil] Bolshevik, no. 13 (1950): 22−31(in Russian).
  5. Barsenkov, A.S., and Vdovin, A.I. Istoriya Rossii. 1917−2009. Moscow: Aspekt Press Publ., 2010 (in Russian).
  6. Bokov, F.P. “Po povodu kontseptsii dobrovolnogo vkhozhdeniya Checheno-Ingushetii v sostav Rossii: Teoretiko-metodologicheskiy aspect.” [Concerning the concept of voluntary entering of Checheno-Ingushetia into Russia: The Theoretical and Methodological Aspect] In F.P. Bokov. Grozny. Kniga, 1990 (in Russian).
  7. Brodel, F. Vremya mira. Materialnaya tsivilizatsiya, ekonomika i kapitalizm. XV−XVIII [Time of peace. Material civilization, economics and capitalism. XV−XVIII]. Moscow: Vesmir Publ., 2007 (in Russian).
  8. Bruk, S.I. “KabuzanV.M. Dinamika chislennosti i rasseleniya russkogo etnosa (1678–1917).” [Kabuzan V.M. Dynamics of the number and settlement of the Russian ethnos (1678−1917)] Sovetskaya etnografi ya, no. 4 (1982): 9−25 (in Russian).
  9. Bruk, S.I., and Kabuzan, V.M. “Etnicheskiy sostav naseleniya Rossii (1719–1917).” [Ethnic composition of the population of Russia (1719−1917)] Sovetskaya etnografi ya, no. 6 (1980): 24−34 (in Russian).
  10. Bushuyev, S.K. Izistorii vneshnepoliticheskikh otnosheniy v period prisoyedineniya Kavkaza k Rossii (20-e − 70-e gody XIX veka) [History of foreign policy relations during the period of the accession of the Caucasus to Russia]. Moscow: MGU Publ., 1955 (in Russian).
  11. Danilevskiy, N.Ya. Kavkaz i ego gorskiye zhiteli v nyneshnem ikh polozhenii: s obyasneniyem istorii, religii, yazyka, oblika, odezhdy, stroyeniy, vospitaniy, pravleniya, zakonov, korennykh obychayev, nravov, obraza zhizni, pishchi, obrazovaniya i torgovli gortsev Kavkaza [The Caucasus and its mountain inhabitants in their current situation: with the explanation of history, religion, language, appearance, clothing, buildings, education, government, laws, indigenous customs, customs, lifestyle, food, education and trade of the Caucasus mountaineers]. Moscow: Universitetskaya tipografi ya Publ., 1846 (in Russian).
  12. Dubrovin, N.F. Istoriya voyny i vladychestva russkikh na Kavkaze [History of the war and dominance of the Russians in the Caucasus]. Vol. 1, book 1. St-Peterburg: Tipografi ya Departamenta udelov Publ., 1871 (in Russian).
  13. Fadeyev, A.V. “Myuridizm kak orudie agressivnoy politiki Turtsii i Anglii na SeveroZapadnom Kavkaze v XIX stolety.” [Muridism as an instrument of the aggressive policy of Turkey and England in the North-Western Caucasus in the 19th century]. Voprosy istorii, no. 9 (1951): 76−96 (in Russian).
  14. Fadeyev, R.A. Shestdesyat let Kavkazskoy voyny [Sixty years of the Caucasian War]. Tifl is: Voyenno-pokhodnaya tipografi ya Glavnogo shtaba Press, 1860 (in Russian).
  15. Gritsenko, N.P. Istoki druzhby checheno-ingushskogo naroda s velikim russkim narodom [The origins of the friendship of the Chechen-Ingush people with the great Russian people]. Groznyy: Checheno-Ingushskoye knizhnoye izdatelstvo Publ., 1962 (in Russian).
  16. Isupov, V.A. Demografi cheskiye katastrofy i krizisy v Rossii v pervoy polovine XX v.:
  17. istoriko-demografi cheskie ocherki [Demographic disasters and crises in Russia in the fi rst half of the twentieth century: historical and demographic essays]. Novosibirsk: Sibirskiy khronograf Publ., 2000 (in Russian).
  18. Kabuzan, V.M. Formirovaniye mnogonatsionalnogo naseleniya Pribaltiki (Estonii, Latvii, Litvy, Kaliningradskoy oblasti Rossii) v XIX−XX vv. (1795−2000 gg.) [Formation of the multinational population of the Baltic states (Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Kaliningrad region of Russia) in XIX−XX centuries. (1795−2000)]. Moscow: IRI RAN Publ., 2009 (in Russian).
  19. Kabuzan, V.M. Narody Rossii v pervoy polovine XIX v.: Chislennost i etnicheskiy sostav [Peoples of Russia in the fi rst half of the 19th century: Number and ethnic composition]. Moscow: Nauka Publ., 1992 (in Russian).
  20. Kabuzan, V.M. Narody Rossii v XVIII veke: Chislennost i etnicheskiy sostav [Peoples of Russia in the 18th century: Number and ethnic composition]. Moscow: Nauka Publ., 1990 (in Russian).
  21. Kabuzan, V.M. Naseleniye Severnogo Kavkaza v XIX–XX vekakh: Etnostatisticheskoye issledovaniye [The population of the North Caucasus in the XIX–XX centuries: Ethnostatic research]. St-Peterburg: BLITs Publ., 1996 (in Russian).
  22. Kabuzan, V.M. Russkiye v mire: Dinamika chislennosti i rasseleniya (1719−1989). Formirovanie etnicheskikh i politicheskikh granits russkogo naroda [Russians in the world: Dynamics of numbers and resettlement (1719−1989). Formation of ethnic and political boundaries of the Russian people]. St-Peterburg: BLITs Publ., 1996 (in Russian).
  23. Kabuzan, V.M. Narodonaseleniye Rossii v XVIII – pervoy polovine XIX v: (Po materialam reviziy) [Population of Russia in ХVIII − the fi rst half of the XIX century: (Based on audit evidence)]. Moscow: Akademiya Nauk SSSR Publ., 1963 (in Russian).
  24. Kinyapina, N.S., Bliyev, M.M., and Degoyev, V.V. Kavkaz i Srednyaya Aziya vo vneshney politike Rossii. Vtoraya polovina XVIII – 80-e gody XIX v. [Caucasus and Central Asia in Russia’s Foreign Policy. The second half of the XVIIII − 80th years of the 19th century]. Moscow: MGU Publ., 1984 (in Russian).
  25. Kobrin, V.B. “Pod pressom ideologii.” [Under the pressure of ideology] Izvestiya AN SSSR, no. 12 (1990): 25−40 (in Russian).
  26. Kokiyev, G. “Voyenno-kolonizatsionnaya politika tsarizma na Severnom Kavkaze.” [Military-colonial policy of tsarism in the North Caucasus] Revolyutsiya i gorets, no. 4 (1929): 30–35; no. 5 (1929): 33–38 (in Russian).
  27. Kots, A., and Steshin, D. Vernutsya li russkiye na Kavkaz? [Will the Russians return to the Caucasus?]. https://www.kp.ru/daily/23718/53778/ (in Russian).
  28. Kovalevskiy, P.I. Kavkaz. Istoriya zavoyevaniya Kavkaza [Caucasus. History of the conquest of the Caucasus]. Vol. 2. St-Peterburg, 1915 (in Russian).
  29. Narochnitskaya, N. A. Rossiya i russkiye v sovremennom mire [Russia and the Russians in the Modern World]. Moscow: Algoritm Publ., 2009 (in Russian).
  30. Polyakov, Yu.A., ed. Naseleniye Rossii v XX veke. Istoricheskiye ocherki [The population of Russia in the 19th century. Historical essays]. Vol. 1. Moscow: Rossiyskaya politicheskaya entsiklopediya Publ., 2000 (in Russian).
  31. Ocherki istorii Checheno-Ingushskoy ASSR [Essays on the history of the ChechenIngush ASSR]. Vol. 1. Grozny: Checheno-Ingushskoe Publ., 1967; Vol. 2, 1972 (in Russian).
  32. Ocherki istorii Dagestana [Essays on the history of Dagestan]. Vol. 2. Makhachkala: Dagknigoizdat Publ., 1957 (in Russian).
  33. Ocherki istorii Kalmytskoy ASSR [Essays on the history of the Kalmyk ASSR]. Vol. 1. Moscow: Nauka Publ., 1967; Vol. 2, 1970 (in Russian).
  34. Ocherki istorii Karachayevo-Cherkesii [Essays on the history of Karachayevo-Cherkessia]. Stavropol: Stavropolskoye Publ., 1967−1972 (in Russian).
  35. Ocherki istorii Sovetskoy Kabardino-Balkarii [Essays on the history of Soviet KabardinoBalkaria]. Moscow: Gospolitizdat Publ., 1958 (in Russian).
  36. Pervaya vseobshchaya perepis naseleniya Rossiyskoy Imperii 1897 g. Raspredelenie naseleniya po rodnomu yazyku i uyezdam Rossiyskoy Imperii krome guberniy Evropeyskoy Rossii [The fi rst general census of the population of the Russian Empire in 1897. Distribution of the population by the native language and regions of the Russian Empire except for the provinces of European Russia]. http://www. demoscope.ru/weekly/ssp/emp_lan_97_uezd.php (in Russian).
  37. Pokorennyy Kavkaz: Ocherki istoricheskogo proshlogo i solvremennogo polozheniya Kavkaza [The conquered Caucasus: Essays on the historical past and the plight of the Caucasus]. St-Peterburg: Rodina Publ, 1904 (in Russian).
  38. Pokrovskiy, M.N. Diplomatiya i voyny tsarskoy Rossii v XIX stoletii [Diplomacy and wars of tsarist Russia in the 19th century]. Moscow: Krasnaya nov’ Publ., 1924 (in Russian).
  39. Potto, V. Kavkazskaya voyna v otdelnykh ocherkakh, epizodakh, legendakh i biografi yakh [The Caucasian War in selected essays, episodes, legends and biographies]. 5 vols. St-Peterburg: E. Evdokimov’s Publ., 1887−1890 (in Russian).
  40. Prepodavanie istorii v Rossii i politika (Materialy kruglogo stola) [Teaching history in Russia and politics (Roundtable materials)]. Moscow: Nauchny ekspert. 2010 (in Russian).
  41. Putin, V.V. Rossiya: Natsionalniy vopros [Russia: The National Question]. http://www. ng.ru/politics/2012-01-23/1_national.html (in Russian).
  42. Rashin, A.G. Naseleniye Rossii za 100 let (1811−1913): Statisticheskiye ocherki [Population of Russia for 100 years (1811−1913): Statistical essays]. Moscow: Gosudarstvennoye statisticheskoye izdatelstvo Publ., 1956 (in Russian).
  43. Tsagareyshvili, Sh. V., ed. Shamil – stavlennik sultanskoy Turtsii i angliyskikh kolonizatorov [Shamil – protege of the Sultan Turkey and the British colonialists]. Tbilisi: Gosizdat Gruzinskoy SSR Publ., 1953 (in Russian).
  44. Smirnov, N.A. “Sheykh Mansur i ego turetskiye vdokhnoviteli.” [Sheikh Mansour and his Turkish inspirers] Voprosy istorii, no. 10 (1950): 19−39(in Russian).
  45. Sukhopleshchenko, K.Yu. Etnokratii na Severnom Kavkaze: institutesionalizatsiya i legitimatsiya [Ethnocracy in the North Caucasus: institutionalization and legitimization]. Ph.D. diss., Yuzhiy federalniy universitet. Rostov-na-Donu, 2010 (in Russian).
  46. Troitskiy, E.S. Russkaya etnopolitologiya [Russian e thnopolitology]. 3 vols. Moscow: Granitsa Publ., 2003 (in Russian).
  47. Vdovin, A.I. Russkiye v XX veke. Tragedii i triumfy velikogo naroda [Russians in the 20th century. Tragedies and triumphs of the great people]. Moscow: Veche Publ., 2013 (in Russian).
  48. Vserossiyskaya perepis naseleniya 2002 goda. Natsionalnyy sostav naseleniya po regionam Rossii [The 2002 All-Russia Population Census. National composition of the population by regions of Russia]. http://www.demoscope.ru/weekly/ssp/rus_nac_02.php (in Russian).
  49. Vserossiyskaya perepis naseleniya 2010 g. Naseleniye po natsionalnosti. Po subyektam Rossiyskoy Federatsii [All-Russia population census 2010 Population by nationality.
  50. By Subjects of the Russian Federation]. http://www.demoscope.ru/weekly/ssp/rus_ etn_10.php (in Russian).
  51. Vsesoyuznaya perepis naseleniya 1926 goda. Natsionalnyy sostav naseleniya po regionam RSFSR [All-Union Population Census of 1926. National composition of the population by regions of the RSFSR]. http://www.demoscope.ru/weekly/ssp/rus_nac_26.php (in Russian).
  52. Vsesoyuznaya perepis naseleniya 1939 goda. Natsionalnyy sostav naseleniya po regionam Rossii [All-Union Population Census of 1939. National composition of the population by regions of Russia]. http://www.demoscope.ru/weekly/ssp/rus_nac_39.php (in Russian).
  53. Vsesoyuznaya perepis naseleniya 1959 goda. Natsionalnyy sostavnaseleniya po regionam Rossii [All-Union Population Census of 1959. National Population by Region of Russia]. http://www.demoscope.ru/weekly/ssp/rus_nac_59.php (in Russian).
  54. Vsesoyuznaya perepis naseleniya 1970 goda. Natsionalnyy sostav naseleniya po regionam Rossii [All-Union Population Census of 1970. National composition of the population by regions of Russia]. http://www.demoscope.ru/weekly/ssp/rus_nac_70.php (in Russian).
  55. Vsesoyuznaya perepis naseleniya 1979 goda. Natsionalnyy sostav naseleniya po regionam Rossii [All-Union Population Census of 1979. National composition of the population by regions of Russia]. http://www.demoscope.ru/weekly/ssp/rus_nac_79.php (in Russian).
  56. Vsesoyuznaya perepis naseleniya 1989 goda. Natsionalnyy sostav naseleniya po regionam Rossii [All-Union Population Census of 1989. National composition of the population by regions of Russia]. http://www.demoscope.ru/weekly/ssp/rus_nac_89.php (in Russian).
  57. Yakunin, V. I., Sulakshin, S.S., and Bagdasaryan, V.E. Gosudarstvennaya politika vyvoda Rossii iz demografi cheskogo krizisa [State policy of Russia’s withdrawal from the demographic crisis]. Moscow: Ekonomika; Nauchnyy ekspert Publ., 2007 (in Russian).
  58. Yandarov, A.D. Sufi zm i ideologiya natsionalno-osvoboditelnogo dvizheniya [Sufi sm and the ideology of the national liberation movement]. Alma-Ata: Nauka Publ., 1975 (in Russian).
  59. Yanova, M.V. Istoriya Kalmykii: problemy istoriografi i kontsa XVIII − nachala XXI vv. [History of Kalmykia: problems of historiography of the late 18th – early 21st centuries]. Ph.D. diss., RUDN University, 2013 (in Russian).
  60. Zhiromskaya, V.B. Kiselev, I.N., and Polyakov, Yu.A. Polveka pod grifom «sekretno». Vsesoyuznaya perepis 1937 goda [Half a century, classifi ed as “secret.” All-Union Census of 1937]. Moscow: Nauka Publ., 1996 (in Russian).
  61. Zhiromskaya, V.B. Kiselev, I.N., and Polyakov, Yu.A. Osnovnyye tendentsii demografi cheskogo razvitiya Rossii v ХХ v. [The main trends of the demographic development of Russia in the twentieth century]. Moscow: Kuchkovo pole Publ., 2012 (in Russian).
  62. Zisserman, A.L. Dvadtsat pyat let na Kavkaze (1842−1867) [Twenty-five years in the Caucasus (1842−1867)]. 2 parts. St-Petersburg: A.S. Suvorin’s Publ., 1879 (in Russian).

Statistics

Views

Abstract - 332

PDF (Russian) - 200

Cited-By


PlumX

Dimensions


Copyright (c) 2018 Bagdasaryana V.E., Resnyanskyb S.I.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

This website uses cookies

You consent to our cookies if you continue to use our website.

About Cookies