ROLE OF THE ROMAN CATHOLIC CLERGY OF THE NORTHWESTERN KRAI OF THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE IN THE 1863 POLISH UPRISING

Abstract


The article considers the problems of forming the religious component of the Polish uprising in 1863 in the Northwestern Krai of the Russian Empire. The author analyzes the peculiarities of the relationship between the Roman Catholic clergy and its laity in the process of the religious mobilization of the participants in the uprising. The article reveals the methods of influence of the radically-minded clergy on the consciousness and political behavior of the laity. There is shown that the spiritual power of the Roman Catholic clergy was used to achieve the political goals of the liberation of Poland. There is established the relationship between the religious motivation of the participants in the uprising and the brutality towards the law-abiding population in various forms of insurgent terror and violence. The author comes to the conclusion that radically-minded Roman Catholic priests and monks managed to turn the church doctrine into a mobilizing ideology of the armed struggle. Religious legitimization, propaganda and organization of the armed uprising turned a part of the Roman Catholic clergy of the Northwestern Krai into a political enemy of the Russian Empire. The article deals with the retaliatory measures of punishment applied to the rebellious representatives of the clergy on the part of the administration of M.N. Muravyov, which were caused by the conditions of martial law, the necessity to protect the territorial integrity of the state, to protect the lives and property of law-abiding citizens. In this regard, the Russian government, army, society and the Orthodox population of Lithuania and Belarus perceived the uprising as an attempt on the part of the Polish separatists on the ancestral Russian territory. Therefore, for the Russian side, the goals of the armed struggle were not the return of the Polish land, but the morally justified protection of the Russian land and the Russian people living in the West who had the same faith. In this regard, the author comes to the conclusion that in the process of preparing and carrying out the uprising, some of the Roman Catholic clergy of the Northwestern Kraiacted as a political enemy of the Russian Empire.


About the authors

Alexandre Yu Bendin

Institute of theology Belarusian state University

Author for correspondence.
Email: bendin26256@yandex.ru
24, Nezavisimosti Av., Minsk, 220030, Republic of Belarus

References

  1. “Iz zapisok episkopa Krasinskogo.” [From the notes of Bishop Krasinsky] Istoricheskiy vestnik, no. LXXXVI, (1901): 646−653 (in Russian).
  2. Pyatidesyatiletie (1839−1889) vossoedineniya s Pravoslavnoy cerkov’yu zapadno-russkih uniatov: sobornye dejanija i torzhestvennye sluzheniya v 1839 godu [The fiftieth anniversary (1839−1889) of reunification with the Orthodox Church of the Western Russian Uniates: conciliar acts and solemn services in 1839]. St. Peterburg: [S.n.], 1889 (in Russian).
  3. “Vsepoddannejshiy otchet grafa M. N. Murav’eva po upravleniju Severo-Zapadnym kraem (s 1 maya 1963 g. po 17 aprelya 1865 g.).” [Report of count M. N. Muravyov management North-West region (from 1 May 1963 till 17 April 1865)] Russkaya starina [Russian olden time], no. 6 (1902): 487−510 (in Russian).
  4. Ayrapetov, O.R. “Carstvo Pol’skoe v politike imperii v 1863−1864 gg.” [Kingdom of Poland in the politics of the Empire in 1863−1864] In Russkiy sbornik: Issledovaniya po istorii Rossii [Russian collection: Research on the history of Russia], 505−509. Vol. 14. Moscow: Modest Kolerov Publ., 2013 (in Russian).
  5. Antanovich, Z.V. “U barac’be za veru: Paўstanne 1863–1864 gg. u ljose ksjandza Antonija Pshyjalgoўskaga.” [Fighting for the faith: the Uprising of 1863−1864 in the fate of the priest Anthony Prialgauskas] Arche, no. 12 (2010): 95–98 (in Belarusian).
  6. Antanovіch, Z., and Garbachova, V. “Paўstanne 1863–1864 gg. u ljose rymska-katalіckaga svjatarstva Belarusі.” [The uprising of 1863−1864 the fate of the Roman Catholic priesthood Belarus] Arche, no. 12 (2010): 186−202 (in Belarusian).
  7. Baykova, S.M. “O dvizhushhih silah vosstanija 1863 g. na territorii Belorussii.” [On the driving forces of the uprising in 1863 in Belarus] Istoriko-sociologicheskie issledovanija (na materialah slavyanskih stran) [Historical and sociological research (on the materials of Slavic countries)], 224−237. Moscow: Nauka Publ., 1970 (in Russian).
  8. Beleckiy, A.V. Rimsko-katolicheskie eparhial’nye seminarii: Vilenskaja i Tel’shevskaja [Roman Catholic diocesan Seminary, Vilna and Telishevska]. Vilna: Svyato-duhovnogo pravoslavnogo bratstva Press, 1887 (in Russian).
  9. Bendin, A.Yu. Mihail Murav’ev-Vilenskij: usmiritel’ i reformator Severo-Zapadnogo kraya Rossiyskoy imperii [Mikhail Muravyov-Vilensky: pacifier and reformer of the North-Western region of the Russian Empire]. Moscow: Knizhnyy Mir Publ., 2017 (in Russian).
  10. Bryancev, P.D. Pol’skiy myatezh 1863 g. [The Polish revolt of 1863]. Vilna: A.G. Syrkina’s Press, 1892 (in Russian).
  11. Gilferding, A.F. “V chem iskat’ razreshenie pol’skomu voprosu.” [What to look for a solution to the Polish issue] Sbornik statej, razjasnjajushhih pol’skoe delo po otnosheniju k Zapadnoj Rossii [Collection of articles explaining the Polish case in relation to Western Russia], 29−36. Vol. 1. Vilna: S. Sholkovich, 1885 (in Russian).
  12. Iz bumag grafa M.N. Murav’eva [From papers of count M. N. Muravyov]. St. Peterburg: M.M. Stasyulevich Press, 1898 (in Russian).
  13. Janoўskaja, V.V. Hryscіjanskaja carkva ў Belarusі. 1863–1914 gg. Mіnsk: Belarusian state University Publ., 2002 (in Вelarusian).
  14. Janoўskaja, V. “Hryscіyanskae duhavenstva Belarusі ў paўstannі 1863–1864 gg.: gіstaryjagrafіja prablemy.” [Christian clergy of Belarus in the uprising of 1863−1864: historiography of the problem] Arche, no. 12, (2010): 269−283 (in Вelarusian).
  15. Karpovich, O.V. “Repressii v otnoshenii uchastnikov vosstanija 1863–1864 gg.: pravda i vymysly.” [Repressions against the participants of the uprising of 1863−1864: truth and fiction] Vestnik Brestskogo gosudarstvennogo tehnicheskogo universiteta, no. 6, (2011): 33–35 (in Russian).
  16. Karpovich, O.V. “Uchastie duhovenstva v povstancheskom dvizhenii na belorusskih zemljah v 1863 g.” [Participation of the clergy in the insurgency in the Belarusian lands in 1863] In Hryscijanstva w gistarychnym lese belaruskaga naroda: zb. navuk. art. [Christianity in the historical fate of the Belarusian people], 116–119. Belarusssia: State University of Grodno Press, 2008 (in Russian).
  17. Katehizis Katolicheskoj cerkvi. Kompedium [Catechism of the Catholic Church. Compedium]. Moscow: Kul’turny centr “Duhovnaya biblioteka” Publ., 2007 (in Russian).
  18. Komzolova, A.A. Politika samoderzhavija v Severo-Zapadnom krae v jepohu Velikih reform [Autocracy Policy in the North-Western region in the era of Great reforms]. Moscow: Nauka Publ., 2005 (in Russian).
  19. Lyaskovskiy, A.I. Litva i Belorussija v vosstanii 1863 g. (po novym arhivnym materialam) [Lithuania and Belarus in the uprising of 1863 (new archival materials)]. Berlin: Arzamas Publ., 1939 (in Russian).
  20. Milovidov, A.I., ed. Arhivnye materialy Murav’evskogo muzeya, otnosyashhiesya k pol’skomu vosstaniyu 1863−1864 gg. v predelah Severo-Zapadnogo kraja [Archival materials of the Muravyov Museum related to the Polish uprising of 1863−1864 in the NorthWestern region]. Vol. 1. Vilna: Murav’yovskiy muzey Publ., 1913 (in Russian).
  21. Milovidov, A.I., ed. Arhivnye materialy Murav’evskogo muzeja, otnosjashhiesja k pol’skomu vosstaniju 1863−1864 gg. v predelah Severo-Zapadnogo kraya [Archival materials of the Muravyov Museum related to the Polish uprising of 1863−1864 in the NorthWestern region]. Vol. 2. Vilna: Murav’yovskiy muzey, 1915 (in Russian).
  22. Mosolov, A.N. Vilenskie ocherki. 1863−1865 gg.: (Murav’evskoe vremja) [Vilna essays. 1863−1865 gg.: (Ant time)]. St. Peterburg: A.S. Suvorin Press, 1898 (in Russian).
  23. Murav’ev, M.N. “Zapiski ego ob upravlenii Severo-Zapadnym kraem i ob usmirenii v nem myatezha. 1863−1866 gg.” [His notes on the management of the North-Western region and the pacification of the rebellion in it. 1863−1866] Russkaya starina [Russian antiquity], no. 11, (1882): 387−432 (in Russian).
  24. Murav’ev, M.N. Sbornik rasporyazheniy grafa M.N. Murav’eva po usmireniju pol’skogo myatezha v Severo-Zapadnyh guberniyah [A collection of the orders of the count Mikhail Nikolayevich Muraviev in the pacification of the Polish rebellion in the NorthWestern provinces 1863−1964]. Vilna: A.K. Kirkora i br. Rommov Press, 1866 (in Russian).
  25. Narys gіstoryі Pol’skaj Dzjarzhavy і Naroda [Essay on the history of the Polish State and Nation]. Worsow: Demart Sp., 2005 (in Polish).
  26. Nikulina, I.N. Religiya i politicheskie ssyl’nye v Zapadnoy Sibiri v XIX v.: 20-e – pervaya polovina 70-h gg. Ph.D. diss., Altai state university, 2006 (in Russian).
  27. Orlovskiy, E. Graf M.N. Murav’ev kak deyatel’ nad ukrepleniem prav russkoy narodnosti v Grodnenskoy gubernii 1831−1835 i 1863−1865 gg. [Count M.N. Murav’ev as a figure on strengthening the rights of the Russian people in the Grodno province 1831−1835 and 1863−1865]. Grodno: Grodnenskoe pravoslavnoe Sofiyskoye bratstvo Publ., 1898 (in Russian).
  28. “Osnovnye gosudarstvennye zakony.” [Basic state laws]. Svod zakonov Rossiyskoy imperii [Code of laws of the Russian Empire]. Vol. 1. St. Peterburg: Pechat’ graficheskogo instituta Br. Lukshevic Publ., 1857 (in Russian).
  29. Prudon, P. “O pol’skom voprose.” [About the Polish question] Sbornik statey, razyasnyayushhih pol’skoe delo po otnosheniju k Zapadnoj Rossii [Collection of articles explaining the Polish case in relation to Western Russia], 115−127. Vol. 1. Vilno: S. Sholkovich, 1885 (in Russian).
  30. Ratch, V.F. Svedeniya o pol’skom myatezhe v Severo-Zapadnoy Rossii [Information about the Polish rebellion in North-Western Russia]. Vol. 1. Vilno: Guburnskoe pravlenie’s Press, 1867 (in Russian).
  31. Revolyucionnyy podem v Litve i Belorussii [Revolutionary rise in Lithuania and Belarus]. Moscow, Wroclav: Nauka Publ., 1964 (in Russian).
  32. Ronin, V.K. “Russkaya publicistika v Bel’gii v seredine XIX veka.” [Russian journalism in Belgium in the mid-19th century] Slavyanovedenie, no 4, (1993): 4−13 (in Russian).
  33. Rusin. “Golos Russkogo. Otvet «ksendzu-rusinu».” [The Voice of the Russian. The answer is ‘the priest-Rusin’] In Vestnik Jugo-Zapadnoj i Zapadnoy Rossii, 25−31. Vol. 4. Kiev: [S.n], 1864 (in Russian).
  34. Shheglov, G. (deacon). “Zhertvy pol’skogo vosstaniya 1863−1864 godov.” [Victims of the Polish uprising of 1863−1864] In Ayrapetov, O.R., Jovanovich, Miroslav, Kolerov, M.A., Menning Bryus, and Cheysti, Pol, eds. Russkiy sbornik: Issledovaniya po istorii Rossii [Russian collection: Research on the history of Russia], 224−246. Vol. 15. Moscow: Modest Kolerov Publ., 2013 (in Russian).
  35. Shirokorad, A.B. Rossiya – Angliya: neizvestnaja vojna, 1857–1907 [Russia-England: unknown war, 1857−1907]. Mosсow: AST Publ., 2003 (in Russian).
  36. Sidorov, A.A. Pol’skoe vosstanie 1863 goda. Istoricheskiy ocherk [The Polish uprising of 1863. Historical essay]. St. Peterburg: Nobel’ Press, 1903 (in Russian).
  37. Staliunas, D. “Imperial Government and Mass Confessional Change in the Western Borderlands of the Russian Empire.” In Imperial Victims, 227−236. Warsaw: Instytut Historii RAN Publ., 2010.
  38. Teslya, A.A. “«Pol’skiy vopros» v peredovicah M.N. Katkova v «Moskovskih vedomostyah» v 1863 g.” [‘Polish question’ in the editorials Mn. Katkova in the ‘Moskovskie vedomosti’ in 1863] Uchenye zametki TOGU, no. 2, (2011): 92−93 (in Russian).
  39. Turcevich, Ar. Kratkiy ocherk zhizni i deyatel’nosti grafa M.N. Murav’eva [A brief sketch of the life and work of count M.N. Muravyov]. Vilna: [S.n.], 1898 (in Russian).
  40. Vilenski Vestnik, 12 February, 1863. Vilenski Vestnik, May 11, 1863.
  41. Vilenski Vestnik, May 23, 1863.
  42. Vilenski Vestnik, June 20, 1863.
  43. Vilenski Vestnik, June 8, 1863.
  44. Vilenski Vestnik, August 24, 1863.
  45. Vilenski Vestnik, August 29, 1863.
  46. Vilenski Vestnik, September 10, 1863.
  47. Vilenski Vestnik, September 12, 1863.
  48. Vilenski Vestnik, September 19, 1863.
  49. Vilenski Vestnik, September 24, 1863.
  50. Zaycev, V.M. Social’no-soslovnyy sostav uchastnikov vosstaniya 1863 g. (opyt statisticheskogo analiza) [Social class composition of the participants of the uprising of 1863 (experience of statistical analysis)]. Moscow: Nauka Publ., 1973 (in Russian).
  51. Zapiski Iosifa mitropolita Litovskogo, izdannye Imperatorskoy Akademiej nauk po zaveshhaniju avtora [Notes of Joseph the Metropolitan of Lithuania, published by the Imperial Academy of Sciences under the will of the author]. Vol. 1. St. Peterburg: Akademiya nauk Press, 1883 (in Russian).
  52. Gosudarstvennyy arhiv Rossiyskoy Federacii [State archive of the Russian Federation], f. 811, op. 1, d. 67.
  53. Litovskiy gosudarstvennyy istoricheskiy arhiv [Lithuanian state historical archive] (thereafter − LGIA), f. 378 (Politicheskoe otdelenie), op. 1869, d. 946.
  54. LGIA, f. 378, op. 1866, d. 46. LGIA, f. 439, op. 1, d. 12.
  55. LGIA, f. 604, op. 5, d. 310.
  56. Rossiyskiy gosudarstvenny istoricheskiy arhiv [Russian state historical archive], f. 821, op. 10, d. 64.

Statistics

Views

Abstract - 273

PDF (Russian) - 152

Cited-By


PlumX

Dimensions


Copyright (c) 2018 Bendin A.Y.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

This website uses cookies

You consent to our cookies if you continue to use our website.

About Cookies