FOODPOLICY OF THE MINISTRY OF AGRICULTURE IN WORLD WAR I (JULY 1914 - FEBRUARY 1917)

Cover Page

Abstract


The article deals with the food policy of Russia in the First World War period. The main purpose of this policy was to supply food and fodder to the front. But gradually an integral part of this policy became ensuring food to the entire country. In 1914-1915 the Food and Agriculture Organization of Russia was actually responsible for supplying food to the army. In 1915 there were introduced fix prices for various products, and the government had to considerer consumers. In 1916 the food situation drastically worsened, which forced the government to supply not only the front but also the rear. The authorities were trying to compensate the objective shortcomings of the state system by organizing food supply. From the beginning of the war it was the Ministry of Agriculture which was responsible for solving the food problem and supplying the front and the rear. The Ministry created a ramified organization, which was rather successful in the wartime. The organization covered all the regions of Russia, where was established the institution of commissioners. The institution had two levels: commissioners of the Ministry of Agriculture, who were responsible for supplying products to the army, and commissioners of the Special Meeting on the food business, who supplied food to the rear. Each new minister of agriculture tried to improve the structure in order to achieve the set goals. In the hard conditions of the war the Ministry of Agriculture successfully supplied food to the army, and prevented famine in the rear. Temporary shortages of food on the front were quickly overcome. The growing food crisis in 1916 posed new challenges to the food organization, which it failed to solve. The last major event was the surplus bread appropriation both for the front and the rear. Its failure triggered protests across the country. The food crisis of 1917 became thereason for the February Revolution. The food policy of the empire was a compromise and didn’t achieve all the tasks set by the supreme authority of the state.


About the authors

Maxim V Os’kin

Institute of Jurisprudence and Managementof all-Russian Police Association

Author for correspondence.
Email: maxozv@yandex.ru
Postal addres of the organization: 2, Su-rikov Str., Tula, 300028, Russia

Associate Professor of the Department of General Humanitarian and Socio-Legal Disciplines at Institute of jurisprudence and mana-gementof all-Russian police Association

References

  1. Buldakov VP. Krasnaya smuta: Priroda i posledstviya revolyutsionnogo nasiliya [Red Troubles: Nature and Consequences of Revolutionary Violence]. Moscow: ROSSPEN, 2010 (in Russian).
  2. Bukharaev VM., Lyukshin DI. Rossiiskaya smuta nachala XX veka kak obshchinnaya revolyutsiya [The Russian Troubles of the Early 20th Century as a Community Revolution]. Istoricheskaya nauka v menyayushchemsya mire [Historical science in a changing world]. Kazan, 1994; Vyp. 2. P. 154-157.
  3. Bukharaev VM., Lyukshin DI. Krest'yane Rossii v 1917 godu. Pirrova pobeda «ob-shchinnoi revolyutsii» [The peasants of Russia in 1917. Pyrrhic victory of the «communal revolution»]. 1917 god v sud’bakh Rossii i mira. Oktyabr ’skaya revolyutsiya: ot novykh istochnikov k novomu osmysleniyu [1917 in the destinies of Russia and the world. The October revolution: from new sources to new thinking]. Moscow; 1998. P. 131-142.
  4. Zemskii fenomen: politologicheskii podkhod [Zemstvo’s phenomenon: political approach]. Sapporo; 2001.
  5. Mironov BN. Rossiiskaya imperiya: ot traditsii k modernu [The Russian Empire: from tradition to modernity]. St-Peterburg: Dmitrii Bulanin, 2014-2016 (in Russian).
  6. Davydov MA. Dvadtsat ’ let do Velikoi voiny: rossiiskaya modernizatsiya Vitte - Stolypina [Twenty years before the Great War: the Russian modernization of Witte and Stolypin]. Moscow: Aleteia, 2016 (in Russian).
  7. Ostrovskii AV Rossiiskaya derevnya na istoricheskom pereput’e. Konets XIX - nachalo XX v. [Russian village at the historical crossroads. The end of XIX - the eurly XX century]. Moscow: Tovarishhestvo nauchnyh znanii KMK, 2016 (in Russian).
  8. Anfimov AM. Rossiiskaya derevnya v gody Pervoi mirovoi voiny [Russian village during the First World War]. Moscow: Socjekgiz, 1962 (in Russian).
  9. Voronov II. Ministerstvo zemledeliya Rossiiskoi imperii: XIX- nachalo XX v. [Ministry of Agriculture of the Russian Empire: XIX - the early XX century]. Krasnoyarsk: LiteraPrint, 2013 (in Russian).
  10. Senin AS. Zheleznodorozhnyi transport Rossii v epokhu voin i revolyutsii (1914-1922 gg.). [Railway transport of Russia in the era of wars and revolutions (1914-1922)]. Moscow: Transportnaja kniga, 2009 (in Russian).
  11. Sidorov AL. Ekonomicheskoe polozhenie Rossii v gody Pervoi mirovoi voiny [The economic situation in Russia during the First World War]. Moscow: Nauka, 1973 (in Russian).
  12. Tagirova NF. Rynok Povolzh’ya (vtoraya polovina XIX - nachalo XX vv.) [The Volga market (the second half of the XIX - early XX centuries.]. Moscow: Izdatel’skii centr nauchnyh i uchebnyh programm, 1999 (in Russian).
  13. Rodnov MI. Prostranstvo khlebnogo rynka (Ufimskaya guberniya v kontse XIX- nachale XXvv.) [The bread market space (Ufa province in the late XIX - early XX centuries.)]. Ufa: DizajnPress, 2012 (in Russian).
  14. Artizov AN, Levykin AK, Petrov YuA, eds. Rossiya v gody Pervoi mirovoi voiny. 1914-1918: materialy Mezhdunarodnoi nauchnoi konferentsii [Russia during the First World War. 1914-1918: Materials of the International Scientific Conference]. Moscow: IRI RAN, 2014 (in Russian).
  15. Iskhakov SM, ed. Rossiya i Pervaya mirovaya voina: ekonomicheskie problemy, obsh-chestvennye nastroeniya, mezhdunarodnye otnosheniya [Russia and the First World War: Economic Problems, Public Constructions, International Relations]. Moscow: IRI RAN, 2014 (in Russian).
  16. Petrov YuA, ed. Rossiya v gody Pervoi mirovoi voiny: ekonomicheskoe polozhenie, sotsial ’nye protsessy, politicheskii krizis [Russia during the First World War: economic situation, social processes, political crisis]. Moscow: ROSSPEN, 2014 (in Russian).
  17. Naumov AN. Iz utselevshikh vospominanii. 1868-1917. [From the surviving memories. 1868-1917]. New-York: Izdatelstvo A. K. Naumovoy i O.A. Kusevickoy, 1955 (in Russian).
  18. Lih Lars T. Bread and Authority in Russia, 1914-1921. Berkeley,1990.
  19. Borisov VI., Chernobaev AA. Khleb, voina, revolyutsiya: Prodovol’stvennaya politika na Yuge Rossii v period pervoi mirovoi voiny i revolyutsii (1914-1918) [Bread, War, Revolution: Food Policy in the South of Russia during the First World War and Revolution (1914-1918)]. Moscow, Lugansk: LSHI, 1997 (in Russian).
  20. Bukshpan YaM. Voenno-khozyaistvennaya politika [Military-Economic Policy]. Moscow, Leningrad: RANION, 1929 (in Russian).
  21. Os’kin M.V. Front Commands in winter of 1917 in combating crisis of food supply to field forces. RUDN Journal of Russian History. 2015; (4): 24-33.
  22. Geoffrey J. The First World War (1); The Eastern Front 1914-1918. Essential Histories 13. Osprey Publishing; 2002.
  23. Holquist P. Making war, forging revolution: Russia's continuum of crisis, 1914-1921. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2002.
  24. Kitanina TM. Voina, khleb i revolyutsiya (Prodovol’stvennyi vopros v Rossii. 1914-oktyabr’ 1917g.) [War, bread and revolution. (The Food Question in Russia, 1914 -October 1917)]. Leningrad: Nauka; 1985 (in Russian).
  25. Kitanina TM. Rossiya v Pervoi mirovoi voine 1914-1917 gg.: ekonomika i ekonomi-cheskaya politika: Kurs lektsii [Russia in the First World War 1914-1917: economy and economic policy. Lecture course]. St-Petersburg: Gumanitarnaja akademija, 2016 (in Russian).
  26. Yaney G.-L. The Urge to Mobilize: agrarian reform in Russia, 1861-1930. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1982.

Statistics

Views

Abstract - 22216

PDF (Russian) - 159

Cited-By


PlumX

Dimensions


Copyright (c) 2017 Os’kin M.V.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

This website uses cookies

You consent to our cookies if you continue to use our website.

About Cookies