Dmitry V. Shevtsov, Ana Teresa Gutiérrez del Cid,  "Sociocultural heritage of Russian America: traditions, customs, way of life." 

The article considers the problem of the cultural heritage of the Russian colonization of the north-eastern part of the Pacific region.The authors examine the influence of the Russian culture on the life of the indigenous population of Russian America after its sale in 1867.The study demonstrates the borrowings of the traditional elements of everyday life, the customs of the native population, the Russian legacy in the place-names and languages of the indigenous peoples of Alaska, and other problems. One of the key issues of the study is the preservation and prevalence of the Russian language, as well as of the Russian-language periodicals in the region.The article contains newspapers data, eyewitnesses’ recollections, materials of authoritative investigations on this issue, etc. The authors come to conclusions that after 1867 the Russian language remained widespread only in the Russian-Creole population centres: Sitka, Kodiak, Kenai Peninsula. In the rest of Alaska,the language was quickly ousted and replaced with English. The indigenous population adopted several elements of everyday life from the colonists, mostly furniture, tools, clothes. By the early 20thcentury, the most part of these things had been replaced by more modern American objects. After 1867 the Russian Orthodox Church remained one of the few forces to be able to preserve the Russian culture in the region. In the 1870s and 1890s, there were extensively opened new parishes and Russian-language schools. However, in the early 20th century the influence of the Russian Orthodox Church considerably decreased due to the policy of accelerated Americanization and the emergence of Catholic and Protestant missions in Alaska.

Mariia V. Krotova, "Stepan Vostrotin: a Siberian’s view from emigration."

This article is devoted to the little-known emigration period of life of Russian political and public figure S.V. Vostrotin (1864−1943), who was a businessman, owner of gold mines in Siberia, deputy of the III and IV State Duma. There are many archival documents, evidence of his active work in exile. There is used the anthropological approach which allowed the author to analyze the possibility of the Russian emigrants to influence the events in the Soviet Union, to reveal their attitude to the Soviet policy, to reconstruct their ideas of patriotism. Being in exile in Manchuria, and then in France, S.V. Vostrotin was convinced that he should preserve the ties with the Russian people in the Soviet Russia. In his opinion, the mission of his emigration consisted in rising above ideology, personal grievances and in protecting the national interests of Russia, even having no chance of returning to the motherland. Realizing his modest ability and the insignificant political weight of emigrants, nevertheless, through his articles, speeches, analysis of the international situation, he sought to draw attention to the problems of Siberia and the Russian Far East.Russian political emigrants were closely watching the events in the Soviet Russia. There was also the reverse process − the Soviet Union invested heavily in the study and control over emigrants. The analytical data of the Soviet intelligence show that the opinions and actions of emigrants were not only under close scrutiny of the secret services, but were also taken into account in making important political decisions, particularly in Manchuria. It was unlikely that Vostrotin believed that his voice would be heard abroad. However, the document from the Stalin archive gives us extra evidence that Russian political emigrants influenced the country of origin much more than it is generally thought.

Tatiana M. Simonova, Piotr Gluszkowski, "History of Russian emigrants in Poland in 1919−1939: new sources and modern historiography." 


The article considers the main problems of the history of the Russian emigrants on the basis of studying the Russian and Polish archives in the context of the contemporary Russian and Polish historiography. There are identified and critically comprehended the materials of the key assets in the Polish archives. The article sums up the intermediate results of the study of the history of Russian emigrants in the Russian Federation and the Republic of Poland. The purpose of the article is to identify the weak points of this section of the Russian historiography, as well as the characteristic of the basic directions of the Polish historiography in the section "Emigrantology". The comparison of the directions of the development of the first-wave émigré history in both countries based on the comparative analysis of the main researches of the modern Russian and Polish historiography allows outlining a number of underexplored questions. The authors faced the challenge of giving a sampling, but the most representative picture of the comparative studies in this section of the Russian and Polish historiography. The authors’ attention was primarily paid to the historical and historical-cultural works, rather than to the researches on legal issues. As a result of the comparative review, there are a number of conclusions. In particular, it was noted that the Russian historiography is not able to conduct comprehensive studies due to the sheer lack of trained personnel (knowledge of the history of the Republic of Poland, Polish-Soviet relations and the Polish language). At the same time, the Polish historiography has reached a qualitatively new level of research, as evidenced by the establishing of the new educational and scientific specialty (Emigrantology), a part of which is the academic module on the history of the Russian emigrants in Poland.

Dmitriy I. Oleynikov, "Administrative apparatus of Stalin era and Alekhin−Botvinnik failed match (1939−1940)." 

This article examines the fate of the well-known chess players of the second half of the 20th century − the “expatriate defector” Alexander Alekhine and the Soviet champion Mikhail Botvinnik − as one of the little-known stories related to the history of the contacts between the representatives of the Russian diaspora and the Soviet state of the Stalin era. The author examines the history of the failed match between these two outstanding chess masters in 1939−1940 and shows why the Alekhine-Botvinnik match, which had been initially approved at the highest party and state level, was not held, and find out what role the Soviet administrative apparatus played in this. The author comes to conclusion that under the conditions of strict authoritarian leadership, with the directives of V.M. Molotov, N.A. Bulganin and A.Ya. Vyshinsky, and possibly Joseph Stalin, the managers had a sufficient set of bureaucratic methods that allowed delaying the process of preparing the match up to a favourable occasion which led to the final breakdown in the negotiations. Such methods include precaution, prolonging pauses in interdepartmental communication, requesting for “instructions”, recalculating estimates, using rumours as arguments, using erroneous addresses and redirecting correspondence. The reason for the officials’ inactivity was the fear of personal responsibility for the defeat of the Soviet champion by the “expatriate defector”, especially in the situation when some leaders of the USSR chess movement were repressed.The author’s analysis provides insight into the problems of the functioning of the executive power in the conditions of the political regime established in the USSR by the beginning of the Second World War.

Vitaly F. Ershov, Gadzhieva Khanym David kyzy, "Russian community in Spain and cultural dialogue (1991−2015)." 

The article considers the relevance of studying the Russian community in Spain in the context of Russia’s foreign policy and the development of globalization processes. The author considers the factors of the increase of the Russian-speaking community of Spain at the turn of the 21st century, highlights the key demographic and social parameters of the Russian community in Spain. The article reveals the positive influence of the expansion of the Russian-Spanish cooperation in the sphere of culture and economy in the 2000s on the process of institutionalization of the movement of the Russian compatriots in Spain for the preservation of their cultural and language identity and on the promotion of the Russian culture in Spain. There are distinguished the most important aspects of the social life of the modern Russian-speaking community of Spain: revitalization of joint cultural work of the Russian diplomats, of the representatives of the Russian business in Spain and figures of the foreign Russian community; participation of foreign compatriots in the development of the Russian-Spanish relations at the regional level, including the national republics of the Russian Federation; increase of the share of the Russian-language press, electronic media and social networks in the Spanish information space, etc. The author reveals the role of the Russian compatriots’ community in Spain in the increase of the dialogue of cultures and civilizations, in the international interaction in the educational and economic sphere. There is also analyzed the influence of globalization on the evolution of the socio-cultural image and institutional structure of the Russian diaspora in Spain in the 1990−2000s.

Irina V. Sabennikova, Valeriya L. Gentshke, Aleksei S. Lovtsov, "Geography of archival contents of Russian diaspora: history of formation." 


The article analyzes the process of the establishment of archival continents of the Russian diaspora and the causes of the emergence of foreign archival Rossica. The article reveals the influence of migrations on this process. Author show the diversity of archival materials on the Russian history which are kept outside Russia and often scattered in different archival collections, private and public archives and libraries. The emergence of communities of the Russian diaspora in several countries of the world led to the formation of extensive archival heritage. The study of this heritage is one the most urgent contemporary problems. The activities related to the discovery, restitution to Russia and use of this heritage have significantly increased in the last decades which is connected with the change of the political situation, researchers’ gaining access to the archival collections of the Russian diaspora. The relevance of this fundamental research problem is enhanced by the necessity of eliminating the existing information gap at the current stage of the Russian history development – to reveal the information concerning foreign archival Rossica, the documents of the Russian diaspora and their locations in foreign archives and compile them in the unified information data base. The identification of the location of different documents of this group is aimed at the reconstruction of the integrity of the scattered archival collections by means of both restitution, exchange or copying of the documents and by means of virtual unification, for example, in the form of digital archive. These activities will also contribute to solving the problems related to the restitution of the archival heritage.

Sergey N. Uvarov, "Russians in Udmurtia in the second half of the 20th century: demographic aspect." 

The author of the article introduces for the first time a large number of facts characterizing the demographic processes: birth rate, death rate, natural increase of the Russian population in Udmurtia in 1958−1996 (There are no available data only for 1981). The article shows that in the first half of the 1960s there was a sharp decline in the birth rate of the Russian population in the republic. In total, in 1960−1965 it reduced by 1.6 times. Most likely, the reasons for the fall in the birth rate are due to the worsening of the socio-economic situation in the country. In this regard, there enhanced intrafamily birth control, for example, there were more abortions. In 1969−1983, the number of births in the republic was growing. A small decrease in the population occurred only in 1973, 1977, 1979. In the 1980s there were two sharp rises in the birth rate: the first one occurred in 1983, the second − in 1986−1987. From 1988, there began a continuous decline in the birth rate of the Russian population in the republic, due to the transformation of the country. From the mid-1960s the death rate of the Russian population in the republic began to increase, and for two decades there was a steady growth (except 1972 and 1980). In 1985−1986 it declined, particularly in 1986, which was largely due to the anti-alcohol campaign. In 1992 the natural increase virtually stopped. From 1993, the death rate exceeded the birth rate throughout the republic. In total, in 1958−1996 (except 1981), the natural increase of the Russian population in Udmurtia amounted to 206842 people. According to the census data for 1959−1989, the Russian population of the republic increased by 186446 people. This suggests that in the second half of the 20th century, the Russians were leaving the republic rather than coming there.


Vyacheslav V. Fomin, Lubov V. Isakova, "Gustav Ewers’ contribution to the study of the initial period of Ancient Rus' history." 

The authors analyze the views of G. Ewers (1871–1830) on the history and the law of Ancient Rus’. Ewers’ main achievement is the criticism of the Norman theory. The article includes the characteristics of the following arguments: the inconsistency of the Swedish etymology of the word «Rus'»; the fallacy of the origination of the ancient Russian law out of the Scandinavian law. The basis of Ewers’ concept is the patrimonial theory. It reveals the natural course of the emergence of a state of Eastern Slavs. The scientist formulated the Khazar theory instead of the Norman theory. Ewers attributed the origin of Rus’ to the Northern Black Sea region. He believed that a large role in the formation of the Pontic Rus’ was played by the Khazar ethnos. Ewers also made a significant contribution to the study of the Russian Chronicles. He denounced Schloezer’s methodology, demonstrated the composite character of the Russian Chronicles. The authors show that Ewers’ ideas were highly appreciated by his contemporaries. Ewers’ criticism meant the end of the first wave of normanism. His insights remain important for the contemporary historiography against the background of the attempts of the resurgence of normanism.

Vasiliy Zh. Tsvetkov, "Political and legal peculiarities of organization of judicial power and repressive system in the White Crimea in 1920."

The article examines the peculiarities of the functioning of the judicial system in the White South of Russia during the 1920s. This period is characterized by a significant departure from the previously proclaimed principles of the ideology of the "White movement", which were replaced by the so-called "left-wing policy with the right hands". The author comes to conclusion that due to the reduction of the territory occupied by the White armies (the borders of the Crimea and North Tavria (Tauride Governorate)), it became possible to more closely monitor the work of the local judicial system. The White leadership proclaimed its policy of combating all violations of law, the absence of legitimate methods of government, the rule of the so-called "machine gun right", in which it was the decisions of the military which became the major ones, they prevailed over all civilian legislative acts and institutions. General Wrangel and the Government of the South of Russia, led by Alexander Vasilievich Krivoshein, the former tsarist minister, managed to achieve some changes for the better. There increased the role of the Governing Senate and the importance of prosecutor's supervision; the activities of the magistrate courts began to recover. The work of counterintelligence agencies was put under prosecutor's supervision. Court martial got legal limitations, the Red Army soldiers were pardoned. However, it was not possible to completely overcome the dominance of military justice over civil one and to achieve significant changes in the political and legal system in the conditions of the ongoing Civil War. This became one of the reasons for the weakness of the White rear and the failures of the South Russian White movement.

Akhmed K. Chapanov, "Social and political life of Ingush emigrants in Europe (1920−1940)."

In the 20th century there were several emigration flows of the Ingush to Europe. The first mass emigration took place in the post-revolutionary period. After 1917, the centres of the social, political and cultural activities of the Ingush Diaspora were Paris, Berlin, Prague and Warsaw. In that period, most Ingush emigrants belonged to the military, political and scientific-cultural elite, which explains the high level of the social and cultural values created by them in foreign countries. It is the social and political life and the spiritual heritage of the Ingush emigrants, being abroad for certain reasons in different historical periods, which is a very interesting subject for research. The article analyzes the process of the formation of the institutional basis of the Ingush post-revolutionary community in Europe. There is shown the role of public figures, in particular S. Malsagov and the Dzhabagiev brothers, who made a significant contribution to the development of the Ingush spiritual culture and science. The author notes that the most visible in the public and political life of the North Caucasian post-revolutionary community in Europe were the activities of the organizations and movements, which sympathized with the ideas of the Caucasus independence. As a result of the research, the author comes to the conclusion that the socio-political associations of the North Caucasian emigrants in Western Europe played a significant role in the socio-cultural adaptation of national communities of peoples of the North Caucasus abroad. Although the process of the social and cultural integration was rather difficult and long, the Ingush Diaspora preserved its national identity. The article is based on the memoirs, emigrant periodicals and electronic publications devoted to the problems of the political-legal and socio-cultural adaptation of the Ingush immigrants in Europe. In order to analyze the history of the Ingush emigrants, there are also presented unpublished documents stored in the Russian state archive of literature and art (RGALI).