About national-cultural performance of russian philological disciplines


The article analyzes the national-cultural specificity and terminology of Russian philological disciplines as a kind of scientific doctrine in different fields of knowledge, which was formed on the basis of classical theoretical guidelines and modern studies of Russian philological scientists. Russian philology goes back to ancient theories of language and speech, but the development of specific disciplines (grammar, rhetoric, logic, poetics) took on a peculiar cultural appearance in the creativity of specific authors and this appearance was significantly different from Western guidelines. The attitude to the authoritative Western leadership could be threefold: copying and comprehension, translation and processing and own additions, independent creativity in the creation of own terminology and new theories of language.Four basic terms are considered, corresponding to the four scientific theories, which are most relevant to the language practice and communication of modern society. This - actually philology, “slovesnost” (literature), rhetoric, the culture of speech. It was in the Russian scientific tradition that an understanding of general philology as a science studying the rules and laws of creation, transmission, storage, reproduction and functioning of verbal products was formed. Philology links the development of the culture of mankind both with the technology of creating speech, and with the improvement of the semantic content of the text.Russian scientific culture belongs to the creation of the term “slovesnost” (“literature”), originally understood as a gift of speech, verbal ability, but formed into a fundamental theory that studies the totality of all verbal products of the national speech culture. “Slovesnost” was also understood as the science of word in the broadest sense, and as verbal creativity, the art of speech.The article summarizes information about the national specifics of Russian rhetoric, which, of course, goes back to ancient theories, but it took shape in an original scientific concept that presupposes the following meanings: rhetoric - 1) the fundamental science of laws and rules for constructing thought and speech; 2) the doctrine of expedient and effective, convincing and appropriate speech; 3) the art of speech (eloquence), based on talent, the development of speech abilities of a person’s linguistic personality.In the Russian philological science of the twentieth century such an original direction took shape, as the culture of speech, originally understood as the teaching of the literary norm. The modern language situation requires a broader interpretation as the term culture (preservation and creative innovation in speech activity), and the term speech, which requires both a culture of thought, and the culture of the word, and the culture of the sentence, the phrase, the text as a whole, and the pronunciation culture. The author of the article confirms the uniqueness of the Russian national scientific tradition and this is the best evidence of the national contribution to the development of world scientific thought. Prospects for the study are a comparison of the existing Russian national concept of philology with foreign traditions and the current state of scientific thought both in the West and in the East, whereone develops his own vision and interpretation of the issues examined.

Vladimir Ivanovich Annushkin

Principal contact for editorial correspondence.
Pushkin State Russian Language Institute Ac. Volgin str., 6, Moscow, Russia, 117485

Doctor of Philology, Full Professor of Russian Literature and Intercultural communication of Philological Faculty in Federal State Budget Educational Institution of Higher Education the “Pushkin State Russian Language Institute” (Russia). Research interests: philology, rhetoric, stylistics, culture of speech, the history of Russian philology and rhetoric, teaching Russian as a foreign language, textology. Author of more than 300 scientific publications.

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