Vol 6, No 4 (2019)

CURRENT PROBLEMS OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION
Impact of Regulatory and Enforcement Activities in Environmental Protection
Dobrolyubova E.I.
Abstract

Sociological surveys demonstrate that the public ranks environmental risks very high. Therefore, reforming regulatory and enforcement activities in the area of environmental protection is an important factor aimed at minimizing these risks. These efforts are undertaken in a broader context of regulatory and enforcement reforms aimed at minimizing risks to public values. The article evaluates the current status of regulatory and enforcement activities in the area of environment protection and compares this data with statistical and sociological sources. Based on this evaluation, the article concludes that regulatory and enforcement activities have limited effect on environmental protection, and there is a need for better targeting inspection activities to ensure minimization of environmental risks.

RUDN Journal of Public Administration. 2019;6(4):259-267
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Oil, Democracy and Internal Conflict in Sub-Saharan Africa
Kole A.
Abstract
This study examines the effect of oil and democracy on internal conflict in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). The study employed panel regression on 14 oil rich SSA spanning from 1983-2012. The major finding reveals a U-turn from the resource curse theory because it clearly shows that, increase in oil leads to a reduction in the likelihood of internal conflict situations in SSA. The study found strong evidence on the significance of political institutions in mitigating internal conflict in SSA. However, the interaction between oil and democracy reduces the risk of internal conflict in SSA countries with the lowest and average polity scores and increase conflict in those SSA with a maximum polity score. This outcome is usually expected in the course of transition from autocracy to democracy in developing countries. Therefore, with further improvement in the political institutions, the mitigating effects of oil on internal conflict will re-emerge. Impliedly, oil in itself is a blessing and leads to the realization of peace when countries improve their political institutions. Also, the study uncovered that, while real GDP reduces the chances of internal conflicts in SSA, an increase in military expenditures tends to dampen the likelihood of peace which is a bit departure from the rentier peace theory. Therefore, the study suggests that, for peace to be maintained, SSA should reduce its expenditure on the military and increase that of social spending while improving its political system.
RUDN Journal of Public Administration. 2019;6(4):268-285
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India-US Relations Through the Lens of Cold War: The Time of Estranged Relations (Brief Overview)
Nisar R.D.
Abstract
This paper provides a brief description of the estranged relations, ideological differences, divergences in national interests, initial misunderstandings and ups & down in the relations between two democracies - India and the US - during the Cold War period. After the WWII, an ideological clash dubbed “Cold War” started between two competing powers: the US and the USSR. During the Cold War era, both states went at great lengths to expand their ideologies into the Asian region and its periphery. The US formed security blocs and provided substantial financial aid to Asian countries in an attempt to contain the expansion of communist ideology of its main rival (the USSR) in the Asian region. After India gained independence, the US pressured the Indian leadership into joining the US bloc against the communist Soviet Union. On the other side, the USSR built Warsaw Pact and tried to enroll the newly born states, such as India and Pakistan, in its bloc to counter the US course of action. However, India was not disposed to join any blocs, the US bloc above all, and entered the Non-Alignment Movement. The Indian leadership supported the catchphrase “Asia for Asians” and condemned the involvement of extra-regional powers, such as the US, in Asian regional matters.
RUDN Journal of Public Administration. 2019;6(4):286-295
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US Middle East Policy Shift: Trump’s Administration Divergency
Beck M.
Abstract
Middle East is one of the most volatile geopolitical hotspots in the world. US administration approach towards the region is crucial for geopolitical relations between great powers, regional stability, moreover projects leverages and friction for political developments far beyond its geographical definition. Main research objective takes a comparative prospective between administrations of Barack Obama and Donald Trump and their approaches towards the region. Key hypothesis is that approach of Donald Trump differs from the one of Barack Obama. Sub-hypothesis is: was US influence in the Middle East more profound and sinewy, during Obama administration and his “universal liberalism” - theoretical approach, or Trump administration Hobbesian realism, zero-sum and “make the job done” is more potent for new geopolitical constellation of power. Further, autocratic dictators or Islamist forces, is democracy in the Middle East increasing or decreasing US influence in the region. This article determines effects of how different theoretical, personal and operational dynamics influence political developments on multiple levels. Identifies vectors and modality of US relations with key countries in the region during both administrations. Analysis in this article lies in the realist school of thought in international politics and uses comparative methods of Comparative politics in political science.
RUDN Journal of Public Administration. 2019;6(4):296-311
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INTERNATIONAL EXPERIENCE OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION
Study on the Effectiveness of Internal Control Systems in Ghana Public Sector: A Look into the District Assemblies. Part 2
Owusu-Ansah E.
Abstract
Assessing the effectiveness of the internal control system in the public sector is one of the surest way to identify if public institutions are working effectively to achieve corporate objectives. The objective of the study is to assess the effectiveness of the internal control systems in the MMDA’S. The study made use of convenience and purposive sampling method to sample data. It was observed that there is an existence of internal control system in the Adenta. Municipal Assembly and it is very effective in the achievement of the Assembly’s objectives. The Writer recommended that the government should employ more personnel who are members of the professional bodies such as the ICA Ghana, ACCA, and CIMA into the unit, this is because with their knowledge and in-depth study of their profession it will help to reduce the problems of internal control as highlighted in this work.
RUDN Journal of Public Administration. 2019;6(4):312-331
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Multicultural Citizenship and the Status of ‘Others’ in the Post 1991 Ethiopia: A Study on Membership and Self-Governing Status of Amhara People in Benishangul-Gumuz Regional State
Muluye K.T.
Abstract
Following the regime change in 1991, the Ethiopian government sought to institutionalize inclusive multicultural citizenship in the country. Membership status and selfgoverning rights are crucial entitlements in the multiculturalists’ notion of citizenship. Though citizenship is considered to be part of domestic affairs of a state, it is also influenced by the policies of sub-state political units. Hence, this paper examines the membership and self-governing status of Amhara and analyzes how the citizenship status is affected at sub-state units, with a focus on Benishangul Gumuz Regional State. Concurrent embedded mixed approach was employed and data were collected through interviews and document analysis. Interview data were obtained from 29 respondents, chosen by means of an intensity sampling method. Quantitative data were also acquired from Ethiopian Central Statistical Agency. The data were analyzed qualitatively with some quantitative backup. Though Amhara People of BGRS have the legal status of Ethiopian citizenship, BGRS has failed to fully integrate these people to the mainstream political community. Particularly, the exclusionary politics of recognition (as only selected nationalities receive the so-called ownership of the region ) and the prohibition of Amhara from exercising selfgovernment rights (this right is exclusively given to the ‘owner’ nationalities by the regional constitution) demonstrate the hierarchy of citizenship, where Amhara people are treated as secondclass citizens in BGRS, which is contradictory to the notion of multicultural citizenship.
RUDN Journal of Public Administration. 2019;6(4):332-345
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PUBLIC DIPLOMACY IN CONTEMPORARY WORLD
People’s Diplomacy in Contemporary Central Asia: Towards Integration and Prosperity
Omonov M.
Abstract
Central Asian countries have been recognized by the international community as independent states since 1991. The region’s location makes it a geostrategic “bridge” linking the East and the West, therefore it plays a crucial role in establishing connections between the world’s leading countries. In the last three years, Central Asia has witnessed a change in perspective integration, with a view to new cooperation in the field of People’s diplomacy. The aim of the article is to analyze the significance and perspectives of Public diplomacy for developing integration processes in the region.
RUDN Journal of Public Administration. 2019;6(4):346-355
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Russian Cultural Marking of the International Scene: The Soft Power to the Test (2000-2018)
Kouma J.C.
Abstract
Since the mid-1990s, and even more Vladimir Putin’s accession to the presidency, reaffirmation and recognition of Russia’s status as a great power has been erected as an existential political imperative. The restoration of Russia's global influence is one of the parts of this high-powered policy implemented by the authorities. It manifests itself repeatedly through hard power initiatives outside national borders in Georgia, Ukraine or Syria. But the “color revolutions” in the post-Soviet space, primarily the Orange Revolution of 2004, prompt the Russian government to rethink its foreign policy in order to project a better image of Russia abroad. This late awareness is reflected in the adoption of a clean soft power strategy and its main key instruments are created during the second term of Vladimir Putin (2004- 2008). The notion of soft power will be institutionalized in the Foreign Policy Concept of the Russian Federation on February 12, 2013. This article is therefore intended as a contribution to the analysis of the issues surrounding the cultural variable in foreign policy. of the Russian Federation. It is therefore more precisely his ambition to decipher the motives underlying the mobilization of resources for the purpose of cultural outreach by Russia. A country with many contrasts and, moreover, in a world cultural field traditionally controlled by strong Western powers, Russia has opted for soft power, with the triple vision of making its way, to feed its current rise and to pose as a “responsible” and “conciliatory” power. For the twelfth largest economic power in the world, it is also a question of reducing the mistrust and criticism that its presence already arouses on the international scene. The choice made on the cultural variable is therefore not insignificant; because, it is a strategy, through which Russia would like to build, if not regain its greatness of yesteryear.
RUDN Journal of Public Administration. 2019;6(4):356-365
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ACADEMIC LIFE
Book review: Leenco Lata Peacekeeping as State-Building: Current Challenges for the Horn of Africa. Ewing Township, USA: The Red Sea Press. 2012. 160 p.
Gardachew B.D.
Abstract
The review of Leenco Lata's1 book “Peacekeeping as State-Building: Current Challenges for the Horn of Africa” examines the theory and practice of state-building on the example of African countries. The central premise of this monograph is the assumption that state-building requires rethinking of the factors and attributes traditionally associated with the state. The book consists of nine chapters, each of which is analyzed by the reviewer. The monograph focuses on the problems of state-building, state legitimacy, and the role and specifics of peacekeeping operations in the horn of Africa.
RUDN Journal of Public Administration. 2019;6(4):366-370
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