Vol 14, No 3 (2017)

Articles
NON-TRIVIALITY OF THE RESULTS OF MILGRAM FIELD EXPERIMENT IN MOSCOW AND NEW YORK SUBWAY
Mitina O.V., Voronov A.Y.
Abstract
Non-triviality of the results of the field experiment conducted on Stanley Milgram’s methodology in the New York and Moscow subway have been studied. The statistical significance of the difference between empirical and predicted results has been taken as the non-triviality criterion. 208 respondents (psychologists and students studying psychology) were asked to predict an experimental result in dependence on an experimenter’s and subject’s gender, a subject’s age, and a city where the experiment was carried out. The obtained results have confirmed our hypothesis on non-triviality of the experiments in subways: it has been showed that there is a statistically significant difference between real behavior of subway passengers (in New York and in Moscow) and predictions made by Moscow and Tashkent respondents. Practically in most cases the predicted probability that a subject gives a seat after request of experimenter (young woman or young man) is much less than in reality. The structural equation modeling (SEM) has been used to analyze the data by constructing the model taking account of all factors mentioned above. The model fit the experimental data well (CFI = 0.919). It has been found that predicted results depend not only on gender, age, and residence of a respondent but also on the degree of familiarity with the research. The obtained data give an important material for a further study of the role of situational (an experiment design) and individual (respondent characteristics) factors in predicted results; they contribute to further understanding of the problem of creation and support of non-formal social norms in various cultures and show new aspects of research carried out on experimental methodology of Stanley Milgram.
RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics. 2017;14(3):255-272
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ECT DAMAGE INDICATES STM DIVIDED INTO STM CONTROL & LTM TRACES: NEUROLOGICAL DEFINITION OF “CONFUSION”
Tarnow E.
Abstract
Recently it was shown that short term memory (STM) free recall consists of two stages: the first few recalls empty working memory and a second stage, a reactivation stage, concludes the recall (Tarnow, 2015; for a review of the theoretical predictions see Murdock, 1974). Bayley et al (2000) investigated free recall in people who had undergone Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) and found that both recency and primacy effects were normal. Here I investigate this further, and argue that this finding suggests a division of STM between STM Control and long term memory (LTM) traces and that STM Control is not effected by ECT.Serial position probabilities from an investigation of Bayley et al (2000) were used to compare 11 subjects with ECT treatments to a control group and to a group of Alzheimer’s subjects.The free recall probabilities are found to be separable into the serial position curves and the overall probability of recall. This suggests that STM is separable into an STM Control structure (the serial position curve responsible for working memory and reactivation functions) and LTM traces (the overall probability of recall).Using the ECT review of Abbott et al (2014a) showing excess activity in MTL and lacking activity in the frontal lobes I suggest that STM Control is overworked trying to establish stable patterns in LTM. It could be that the confusion resulting from ECT is due to the failure of this process, suggesting a neurological definition of confusion.
RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics. 2017;14(3):273-281
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CULTURAL SELF-DETERMINATION OF A PERSONALITY IN POLYLINGUAL EDUCATIONAL ENVIRONMENT: METHODOLOGY, THEORY, PRACTICAL USAGE
Bulankina N.E., Peter S.
Abstract
This paper provides the view-point on cultural self-determination of a personality (CSD) in light of humanistic philosophy, the basics of which have been under the authors’ investigation since the 90s until now. One of the most significant points of the authors’ present-day research is to show the possibilities and perspectives of CSD for adaptation of the humanitarian approach towards ‘education through life’ for students; the latter is of paramount importance for the new generation, for our compatriots, and for our country, because along with this idea, the research under discussion paved the way for thoughts of making the most of the dual-purpose thinking of a personality in the educational process as a whole. The authors of the article consider the idea that the problem lies in the fact that Chaos is the foundation of the Universum, time and matter (objects) are not permanent constants, and Chaos is always a great variety. Reaching a sort of stability, Man finds himself in the situation of diversity. Then, there comes an existential crisis, which resolves in dualistic thinking. Thus, the authors of the article see in CSD one of the most significant mechanisms and ways out of the existential crisis, in which we, the people of the global communication-information civilization, have to live and work, to study new realia of the world and teach the new generation how to be adaptable and creative in the society of instability. From the view-point of the authors’ pedagogical theory of CSD (2003), the paper also covers the technological aspects of providing the conditions for positive student motivation in the academic process, the basics of which depend on the intellectual component of a personality. The latter is based on the ability of both students and teachers to make most of the languages of the educational environment for fruitful communication in the light of the philosophy of Dialogism (M.M. Bachtin, V.S.Bibler, M.Buber, Yu. M.Lotman, М.S. Каgan, etc.).
RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics. 2017;14(3):282-289
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CULTURAL-ECOLOGICAL THEORY AND THE LANGUAGE EDUCATION OF ROMA CHILDREN
Kyuchukov H.
Abstract
The paper presents results from language testing of 70 Roma children from Bulgaria - pupils of grade 1, studying in one of the biggest Roma settlement’s schools in Sofia, “Fakulteta” district. The children were tested using the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test. The test measures language comprehension and language production of the children at the beginning and end of the school year. Between the first and second testing, the teaching methodology in instruction for the children was changed - a Roma assistant teacher whose task was to use the mother tongue of the children as a communicative tool was introduced to the classes. The results of the children during the second testing were substantially better and they are discussed in the light of the theory of the American anthropologist J. Ogbu, who developed his cultural-ecological theory (CE) in the 1980s. The results of the children are analyzed via dispersion analysis using ANOVA. According to Ogbu’s CE theory, the school success of minority children depends on the attitudes of the society at large and the level of community support. The paper also briefly discusses the reason why the de-segregation of the Roma children and their integration into mainstream schools in Bulgaria has largely proved to be a failure.
RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics. 2017;14(3):290-300
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PECULIARITIES OF TEACHING THE RUSSIAN LANGUAGE IN U.S. UNIVERSITIES (WITH THE EXAMPLE OF SEWANEE: THE UNIVERSITY OF THE SOUTH)
Willgus K., Kartashova V.N.
Abstract
This article presents the peculiarities of teaching Russian as a foreign language of students at Sewanee: The University of the South (USA). The American system of pedagogical education of foreign language, with its high mobilization potential from the position of participant in the educational process, is analyzed. Description of the main trends of the higher education system of the United States, making it highly competitive in the global educational space, is given. It is stated that recently the importance of studying foreign languages in the country has significantly increased; some of the most popular foreign languages are listed. Russian as a foreign language is one of the top seven languages studied in American universities. An attempt to justify the reasons why American students prefer to study Russian language is made. The overview of educational programs in the field of training and possibilities of exchange programs for students in the target language country are presented. The basic methods and techniques of language teaching, as well as additional activities in the framework of a club of Russian language, which increase the motivation and quality of student learning, are described. In the conclusion, the authors highlight that the process of modernization of vocational language education in the U.S. is through their variability and pluralism.
RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics. 2017;14(3):301-310
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LIFE VALUES OF PERSONS IN CROSS-CULTURAL (ARAB - RUSSIAN) AND MONOCULTURAL MARRIAGES AND THEIR REPRESENTATION IN FAMILY SPHERE
Chebotareva E.Y., Jaber H.M.
Abstract
The paper presents the results of the empirical study, which has been conducted with the aim to analyze the differences in life and family values and their interactions between the spouses from cross-cultural and monocultural couples. The sample of the study consists of 330 persons, including 85 cross-cultural Arab - Russian couples (170 persons), living in Russia, and 80 monocultural couples (160 persons).The main methods were S. Schwartz’ “Value Survey”, “Test of Attitudes to Family Life” by Yu. Alyoshina, L. Gozman, & E. Dubovskaya, «Marital Role Expectations and Aspirations” by A.N. Volkova, “Marital Satisfaction Test” by V. Stolin, T. Romanova, & G. Butenko.It was revealed that the persons from cross-cultural and monocultural marriages have different life and family values hierarchies, besides, they realize their life values in family life differently. In cross-cultural marriages the spouses see the opportunities for their normative life goals realizing in the family, especially in its psychotherapeutic and parental spheres, as well as in social activity outside the family. But in their real day-to-day activities, they do not always manage to realize their life goals in the family sphere, probably because of the difficulties in interacting with their social environment, which can come from the fact that their families are more enclosed, which in turn leads to a decrease of marital satisfaction. In the cross-cultural spouses’ representations, the collectivist values are more related to family functioning, but individualistic values such as hedonism and power are perceived as incompatible with the successful functioning of the family.
RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics. 2017;14(3):311-325
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INTERCULTURAL COMPETENCE PROFILES IN RUSSIAN UNIVERSITY STUDENTS
Novikova I.A., Novikov A.L., Gridunova M.V., Zamaldinova G.N.
Abstract
The article is devoted to the study of intercultural competence (ICC) as a psychological phenomenon including the analysis of its models, factors, and profiles. The results of an empirical study in two major multinational Russian universities (388 students, of which 254 young women and 134 young men) are presented. The aim of the study was to identify the typological profiles of the ICC and their characteristics in relation to personality traits. ICC was studied based on the “Dynamic model of intercultural sensitivity” by M. Bennet. The author’s modification of the “Scale of intercultural sensitivity” by O.E. Khuhlaev and M.Y. Chibisova in the adaptation of Y.A. Lopashenko was used for the ICC diagnostics. Personality traits were considered in the framework of the Five-Factor Model (P. Costa and R. McCrae) and were measured by a short form of the “Five-Factor Questionnaire” in Russian adaptation by M.V. Bodunov and S.D. Biryukov. We identified four ICC profiles of students provisionally called “ethnocentrists”, “negativists”, “undecided (ambivalent)”, and “ethnorelativists”. It is shown that the profiles differ not only in the correlation between the severity of parameters of the ICC, but also in personality traits. The results can be used for the design of ICC development and formation programs, based on the identified psychological specifics of ICC profiles.
RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics. 2017;14(3):326-338
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EMOTIONAL AND PERSONAL FACTORS OF ADAPTABILITY OF THE POPULATION IN THE ECUADORIAN ANDES
Costales Zavgorodniaya A.I.
Abstract
The multidisciplinary and transdisciplinary principle has been applied to understand and interpret the perception and adaptability of the high Andes population to the climatic variability. The study is centered on several communities of the three ethno-cultural groups in Ecuador: Puruhas, Kayambis and Otavalos, linked to the two geographic sceneries, from 2600m a.s.l. up to the summit of volcanoes. The information has been collected and the climatic variability along the last 30 years is analyzed, the dynamics of land use and natural vegetal covering of the two last decades have been interpreted (verified data and information), and data from real environment have been compared with the information obtained from the conversations, conducting surveys (perceived environment and people’s answers) and psychological tests (behavior and analysis of adaptability). The study takes the perspective that adaptability is linked with the emotional and personal characteristics of the resilience of one person or one group. The capacity to get related with the environment, to take the greatest advantage from what is necessary in order to satisfy their needs, is a process through which the communities assimilate new ways of survival and, consequently, they adapt themselves to new situations. Studying these characteristics in a certain ethno-cultural group was the object of this study, and, in this paper we will show some of the characteristics as an attempt to make a possible model of the adaptational potential of the inhabitants of these groups in condition of hazard, and their possible vulnerability.
RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics. 2017;14(3):339-352
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CONFERENCES
INTERNATIONAL SCIENTIFIC CONFERENCE “ART HISTORY IN THE CONTEXT OF OTHER SCIENCES IN RUSSIA AND ABROAD: PARALLELS AND INTERACTIONS”
Konson G.R.
Abstract
RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics. 2017;14(3):353-359
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