Vol 14, No 2 (2017)

Articles
TALENT DEVELOPMENT IN THE WORLD OF CLASSICAL MUSIC AND VISUAL ARTS
Jarvin L.
Abstract
In this article, we propose to explore the developmental trajectories of children displaying gifts and abilities in the domains of (classical) music and in visual arts. A developmental model for talent development that was developed in the domain of classical music will be briefly presented and its applicability in the field of visual arts will be discussed.
RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics. 2017;14(2):131-142
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PERSISTENCE AND ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT IN FOREIGN LANGUAGE IN NATURAL SCIENCES STUDENTS
Krupnov A.I., Kozhukhova Y.V., Vorobyeva A.A.
Abstract
The article discusses the results of empirical study of the association between variables of persistence and academic achievement in foreign languages. The sample includes students of the Faculty of Physics, Mathematics and Natural Science at the RUDN University ( n = 115), divided into 5 subsamples, two of which are featured in the present study (the most and the least successful students subsamples). Persistence as a personality trait is studied within A.I. Krupnov’s system-functional approach. A.I. Krupnov’s paper-and-pencil test was used to measure persistence variables. Academic achievement was measured according to the four parameters: Phonetics, Grammar, Speaking and Political vocabulary based on the grades students received during the academic year. The analysis revealed that persistence displays different associations with academic achievement variables in more and less successful students subsamples, the general prominence of this trait is more important for unsuccessful students. Phonetics is the academic achievement variable most associated with persistence due to its nature, a skill one can acquire through hard work and practice which is the definition of persistence. Grammar as an academic achievement variable is not associated with persistence and probably relates to other factors. Unsuccessful students may have difficulties in separating various aspects of language acquisition from each other which should be taken into consideration by the teachers.
RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics. 2017;14(2):143-154
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INDIVIDUAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL PECULIARITIES OF TRANSLATING AS A LANGUAGE ABILITIES COMPONENT
Bolshunova N.Y., Dyachkov A.V.
Abstract

The article addresses the differential-psychological aspect of translating abilities as a component of language abilities. The peculiarity of translation is described including both linguistic and paralinguistic aspects of translating a content and a sense from one language into another accompanied by linguistic and cognitive actions. A variety of individual and psychological peculiarities of translation based on the translation dominant were revealed. It was demonstrated that these peculiarities are relevant to communicative and linguistic types of language abilities discovered byM.K. Kabardov. Valid assessment methods such as M.N. Borisova’s test for investigation “artistic” and “thinking” types of Higher Nervous Activity (HNA), D. Wechsler’ test of verbal and nonverbal intelligence, and a test developed by the authors of the article for individual specificity of interpreter’s activity as communicative and linguistic types of translating abilities assessment were used. The results suggest that all the typological differences are based on special human types of HNA. Subjects displaying the “thinking” type use linguistic methods when translating, whereas subjects displaying the “artistic” type try to use their own subjective life experience and extralinguistic methods when translating foreign language constructions. Extreme subjects of both types try to use the most developed components of their special abilities in order to compensate the components of the other type which are not well developed to accomplish some language tasks. In this case subjects of both types can fulfill these tasks rather successfully.

RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics. 2017;14(2):155-166
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VULNERABILITY TO MANIPULATION AND ITS RELATION TO COGNITIVE AND PERSONALITY FEATURES IN ADOLESCENTS
Sheĭnov V.P.
Abstract

The article suggests an approach to the solution of the interdisciplinary problem of searching for cognitive and personal features of adolescents aged between 14 and 16, subjective to manipulative influence on the part of others. A number of qualities of adolescents that contribute to their vulnerability to manipulation has been revealed, connections have been established between these features. It is shown that the nature of these qualities influence essentially depends on the biological sex and gender of the adolescents. Boys’ vulnerability to manipulation positively correlates with the indicators of their internality, masculinity, androgyny, self-confidence, social courage, predisposition to working with people and to aesthetic, extreme, or economic activities. Girls’ vulnerability to manipulation negatively correlates with the indicators of their internality, masculinity, self-confidence and verbal-logical thinking, but is positively related to their predisposition to working with people. The internality of boys and girls positively correlates with masculinity, self-confidence, social courage; in boys, it also correlates with creative thinking and a predisposition to extreme activities. Masculinity in boys and girls is positively linked to self-confidence, social courage, initiative in social contacts and a predisposition to extreme activities. In boys and girls, self-confidence is positively associated with the creative thinking, with a predisposition to extreme activities and with initiative in social contacts. Boys and girls display positive correlations between self-confidence, social courage, and initiative in socialcontacts. Compared to girls, boys are more vunlerable to manipulation, more internal and self-confident, have greater social courage. Girls have higher averages in visual-figurative and verbal-logical types of thinking, display a tendency to work with people and to aesthetic activity. Boys show higher average indices of abstract-symbolic thinking, a tendency for research, practical and extreme activity. There are signs of feminization of young men.

RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics. 2017;14(2):167-177
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THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PSYCHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE ATTITUDE TO THE DISEASE, COPING BEHAVIOR OF PATIENTS WITH ISCHEMIC HEART DISEASE, AND THEIR COGNITIVE STATUS
Solodukhin A.V., Bezzubova V.A., Kuhareva I.N., Inozemtseva A.A., Seryy A.V., Yanitskiy M.S., Trubnikova O.A., Barbarash O.L.
Abstract

The paper presents the study of the relationship between the attitude to the disease, coping behavior of patients with coronary heart disease prior to coronary bypass grafting (CABG), and indicators of cognitive status. Bekhterev Institute Personality Questionnaire, Ways of Coping Behavior test by R. Lazarus, Mini-Mental State Examination scale, Frontal Dysfunction Battery test, and Clock- Drawing test were used in the study. The sample included 132 patients. The results of study show that in patients with coronary artery disease prior to CABG the most frequently observed type of attitude to the disease is either the harmonious type or a combination of harmonious and ergopathic types. Confrontation, Distancing, and Problem Solution Planning were identified as the preferred coping strategies. Correlation analysis revealed positive associations between cognitive status and harmonious, ergopathic, and hypochondriac types of attitude to the disease, and negative associations between cognitive status and anosognostic and sensitive types of attitude to the disease. Furthermore, positive correlations between cognitive status and Confrontation, Self-control, Responsibility taking, Problem Solution Planning, Positive revaluation coping strategies and negative correlations between cognitive status and Distancing and Escape-avoidance coping strategies were found. The results of this study will help to improve the level of diagnostic and rehabilitation psychological care of patients with coronary artery disease in preparation for CABG.

RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics. 2017;14(2):178-189
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CULTURAL AND VALUE ORIENTATIONS OF RUSSIAN, BURYAT, AND MONGOLIAN STUDENTS
Dugarova T.T., Badiev I.V.
Abstract

The article discusses the results of empirical studies of cultural and value orientations Russian (Buryat) and Mongolian students. The sample includes humanities students of Ulan-Ude (Russian Federation) universities ( n = 388) and Ulan Bator (Mongolia) universities ( n = 176). In the present empirical research the following diagnostic methods were used: J. Townsend’s “Cultural andValue Orientations Test” adapted by L.G. Pochebut and R. Inglehart’ scale in M.S. Yanitskiy modification. The analysis revealed that the dominant cultural type of Buryat and Mongolian young people is the modern culture type. There are ethnic differences in adherence to traditional and dynamically developing culture: Buryat students are more committed to the traditional and modern culture, and less focused on dynamically developing culture; Russian students are more focused on traditional and dynamically developing culture and less focused on modern culture; Mongolian students are more focused on dynamically developing culture and less focused on traditional culture. The youth of Buryatia are more committed to the values of adaptation and socialization than the youth of Mongolia. The youth of Buryatia are more committed to the values of adaptation than the youth of Mongolia. There are differences in individualization values in the subsamples of students from Russia: these values are more prominent in Russians than in Buryats. Revealed differences are interpreted as ethnopsychological features of young people and are seen as potential resources of tolerance development and systemic crisis of contemporary society overcoming.

RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics. 2017;14(2):190-200
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MOVEMENTS IN THE STRUCTURE OF INSIGHT PROBLEM SOLVING (THE CASE OF NINE-DOT PROBLEM)
Loginov N.I., Spiridonov V.F., Mezentsev O.A.
Abstract

Existing data about the effect of concomitant or preceding motor activity on the process of insight problem solving conflicts with modern theories of insight. Therefore, it requires more detailed research of motor activity in the insight problem solving. This study investigates the regular changes of motor activity in the process of solving a classical insight problem “9 dots” (nine-dot problem). To register the motor activity parameters (length of the motor units, velocity of implementation of the motor units, duration of the pauses between the motor units) and to present conditions of the problem a tablet was used. As a result, persistent differences in the motor activity were found between successful and unsuccessful solvers in the initial and final stage of the problem solution. It turned out that successful solvers demonstrated a greater length of motor units (especially at the final stage of the solution) than unsuccessful ones. At the same time, differences in the duration of pauses between the motor units atthe initial and final stages of the solution were not found. Subjects who did and did not solve the problem do not differ in the duration of pauses between the motor units. It was found that at the final stage the frequency of the “fast” lines increases which can be associated primarily with the “offline” planning of motor activity that is the planning preceding the activity itself, rather than proceeding in parallel with it.

RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics. 2017;14(2):201-212
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INVENTORY FOR ASSESSMENT OF SOCIO-PERCEPTUAL ATTITUDE: PSYCHOMETRIC CHARACTERISTICS AND FEATURES OF USE
Dubovitskaya T.D., Tulitbaeva G.F., Shashkov A.V.
Abstract

Socio-perceptual attitude is defined as a predisposition of the subjects of communication to perceive, assess, and act in relation to each other in a certain way. The functions of social-perceptual attitudes are social adaptation (utilitarian function), cognitive function, expression and evaluation, and psychological protection. Author’s technique of diagnostics of social-perceptual attitude of a person in relation to other people is presented in the article. The inventory uses the proverbs of the peoples of the world as test material. The results of psychometric testing indicate the reliability and validity of the technique.High scores on the technique results indicate the individual’s characteristics such as willingness to trust, to help, and to notice positive experiences; the ability to see the positive potential; faith in people’s ability to develop and achieve better results; emotional acceptance, benevolence, and empathy.The average scores indicate the subject’s desire for close and trusting relationships, cooperation, sincerity; willingness to understand another person; desire to take into account individual psychological features of other people; contradictions with others are either absent or are resolved constructively.Low scores indicate that, in relation to others, the subject is characterized by the following: suspicion, anticipation of negative attitude to themselves, willingness to see the negative manifestations in the behavior of others, ignoring of their successes and achievements; emotional rejection, criticism, irony, malice; accusations against the others used to justify their own negative actions (aggression) against said others.The author’s technique can be used in solution of the problem of psycho-diagnostics and therapy in order to optimize communication and interpersonal relations: achieve mutual understanding and cooperation, develop a constructive mutually beneficial solution, overcome the desire to criticize others.

RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics. 2017;14(2):213-225
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THE ANTIQUE FOUNDATIONS FOR THE UNITY OF EDUCATION
Krikunov A.E.
Abstract

The author of the paper considers the unity of education as a specific way of existence, blurring the distinction between ontological and anthropological interpretations of education. This approach is supposed to adequately identify the philosophic sense of the category of education without linking it exclusively to the philosophic consideration of educational practice. The author also points out the connection between the ideas of the world unity and of a human being’s education as a process of gradual approaching one’s true and complete image in the history of European philosophy. Even though the contemporary notion of education is most elaborately presented by classical German philosophers, the author aims to show the prospects of addressing the antique philosophic tradition proposing the first conceptualization of education connected with a special ontological position. The author calls attention to the gradual development of views on the systemic nature of being, linking it to the initial didactic guideline of Greek philosophers. The example of Aristotle’s ethics proves the integrity of externally separate ways of making up of a person. The author comes to a conclusion about the necessity of taking the connection of educational concepts and a characteristic tendency to create the philosophic theory of the world, the elements of which are united in an integrated system, into account. In the author’s opinion, it will allow to define the real philosophic and pedagogical sense of the revision of the classical philosophic tradition, undertaken by the contemporary philosophy.

RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics. 2017;14(2):226-236
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CONFERENCES
THIRD INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM “MENTAL RESOURCES OF THE PERSONALITY: THEORETICAL AND APPLIED RESEARCH”
Kholodnaya M.A., Ozhiganova G.V.
Abstract
RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics. 2017;14(2):237-242
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