No 3 (2016)

Articles
FLOW AND OPTIMAL EXPERIENCE: METHODOLOGICAL IMPLICATIONS FOR INTERNATIONALIZING AND CONTEXTUALIZING A POSITIVE PSYCHOLOGY CONCEPT. PART 2
Rich G.
Abstract
This article represents the second part of a two part series of articles focusing upon one core positive psychology concept - the peak experience termed flow developed by psychologist Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi - as a test case for examining some of the issues involved when positive psychology is internationalized and made indigenous. In particular, methodological, measurement, and theoretical issues regarding flow research will be discussed. Quantitative, qualitative and mixed methods approaches to flow, including interviews, surveys, and the experience sampling method among others will be described. Evidence is examined from a range of existing research projects on flow from around the globe, raising questions concerning the positive psychology enterprise, including the value of psychological assessment tools and the debate over cross-cultural universals/comparisons. Rather than viewing qualitative and quantitative approaches (or anthropological and psychological perspectives) as rival factions, this project seeks to develop constructive dialogue that acknowledges both strengths and limitations of each approach to facilitate engagement with the topics of mixed methods and human strengths, subjects often neglected in cross-cultural research. The first part of the article series examined methodological implications of this positive psychology concept, and this second part of the article series focuses upon the cross-cultural implications.
RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics. 2016;(3):7-13
views
WORKING MEMORY CAPACITY TEST REVEALS SUBJECTS DIFFICULTIES MANAGING LIMITED CAPACITY
Ershova R.V., Eugen T.
Abstract
Free recall consists of two separate stages: the emptying of working memory and reactivation [5]. The Tarnow Unchunkable Test (TUT, [7]) uses double integer items to separate out only the first stage by making it difficult to reactivate items due to the lack of intra-item relationships.193 Russian college students were tested via the internet version of the TUT. The average number of items remembered in the 3 item test was 2.54 items. In the 4 item test, the average number of items decreased to 2.38. This, and a number of other qualitative distribution differences between the 3 and 4 item tests, indicate that the average capacity limit of working memory has been reached at 3 items. This provides the first direct measurement of the unchunkable capacity limit of number items.Difficulties in managing working memory occurred as most subjects remembered less as the number of items increased beyond capacity and failed to remember a single item in at least one out of three 4 item trials. The Pearson correlation between the total recall of 3 and 4 items was a small 38%.
RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics. 2016;(3):14-19
views
PERSONALITY QUALITIES ENHANCING ITS SECURITY AGAINST MANIPULATION
Sheinov V.P.
Abstract
This article shows the extent of the problem of an individual being unprotected from the manipulation and its harm. No one is fully immune to manipulation and everyone can become a victim of manipulative actions. It is demonstrated that manipulative relationships have taken roots in modern society and there is a tendency for a wider spread. 92-95% respondents who have had negative state of mind resulting from being manipulated would like to learn how to protect themselves from manipulation. It is established that if individuals are focussed on themselves, they are less prone to being manipulated; if individuals are focussed on relationship they are more likely to be subject to manipulation. The personal characteristics helping to be immune to manipulation are shown, i.e. a rather high social intellect of an individual, their independence from people’s opinions, low levels of trust and inquisitive minds. It is shown that 1) females are better protected from manipulation than males; 2) the degree of protection against manipulation does not depend on the person’s age and the degree of machiavellism of their personality; 3) the individuals’ assertiveness helps to protect themselves from manipulation. The representation level of this research and its results are guaranted by the number of participants (552 respondents) and the wide social representation: firemen, university teachers and students, military cadets, psychologists, retail employees.
RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics. 2016;(3):20-27
views
CORRELATION BETWEEN TOLERANCE TOWARDS UNCERTAINTY AND THE PERSON’S ADAPTIVE READINESS FOR CHANGE
Shamionov R.M.
Abstract
The paper presents a theoretical and empirical analysis of how tolerance towards uncertainty correlates with the individual’s adaptive readiness. Adaptive readiness is defined as an integral concept that includes not only the person’s notions about his/her own ability to adapt (in general or to a particular (specific) situation), but also the affirmations about his/her ability to cope with difficulties arising in the process of the interaction with other people; changes in the economic, environmental, political, and other spheres of life; his/her health or his/her socio-psychological or other status, etc.. Studies prove that adaptive readiness (affirmation), adaptiveness (personality property), and readiness for change (attitude) are predictors of tolerance towards uncertainty. It is shown that, when a variable is singularly and conjointly introduced into the regression equation, adaptive readiness influences the parameters of tolerance in the most profound way relative to both socio-psychological adaptiveness and the parameters of readiness for change.
RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics. 2016;(3):28-39
views
GENDER-SENSITIVE CORRELATION BETWEEN COMMUNICATION AND ORGANIZATIONAL SKILLS WITH PROFESSIONAL EFFECTIVENESS OF MANAGERS
Obidina N.V.
Abstract
The paper discusses the problem of gender-sensitive correlation between the communicative and organizational skills and the professional performance of managers in commercial organization. The topicality of research is preconditioned by the fact that today an increasing number of women get the senior positions in business in Russia. The article submits and analyses the results of the empirical research that took place in a commercial organization (managers of clothes and accessories retail shops). Store managers of this organization took part in the research, including 82 male and 231 female. The age of the respondents ranged from 21 to 42 years old. The work experience of the managers was no less than one year. The communicative and organizational skills were measured with the help of the test-questionnaire “Communication and organizational skills” (COS) worked out by V.V. Sinyavsky and B.A. Fedorishin. The professional effectiveness was determined by two indicators: 1) the implementation of shop sales plan in 2014 and in 2015, 2) the results of expert estimates obtained using the feedback from “360 Degrees”. The results of correlation analysis demonstrated the strong relations between the manifestation of communicative and organizational skills and the indicators of professional effectiveness, received by using the feedback from “360 Degrees” in both male and female groups of respondents. At the same time, the implementation of shop sales plan in 2014 also showed a strong positive relationship with organizational and communicative skills especially in female group. By the end of 2015, after the financial crisis, these relations were although preserved, but getting weaker.
RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics. 2016;(3):40-47
views
SEMANTIC EVALUATION OF ETHNIC STEREOTYPES AND LIFESTYLE OF INDIGENOUS PEOPLESOF THE NORTH OF RUSSIA
Ryabova M.A., Serkin V.P.
Abstract
The article discusses the themes of ethnic stereotypes and lifestyle of indigenous peoples of the North and the non-indigenous peoples. The indigenous peoples identify with their ethnic group, positive evaluation of their perceptions of themselves prevail. The indigenous peoples believe that the representatives of other ethnic groups assess them less positively, and in fact, the representatives of non-indigenous peoples evaluate them even worse than they suppose. The students from the number of indigenous peoples consider as the most important parameters for the evaluation of their lifestyle (factors of evaluations): “unattractiveness - attractiveness”, “peacefulness - hostility”, “melancholy - sanguine”. The students from the number of non-indigenous people consider the most important parameters for the evaluation of their lifestyle: “well-being - ill-being”, “hostility - peacefulness”, “sanguine - melancholy”. The testees of both samples evaluate their lifestyle more positively at the conscious, reflexive level (universals), than at the unconscious, uncontrolled level (implicit factor structure of evaluations). The testees of both samples evaluated their lifestyle completely differently at the unconscious, non-regulated level (factorial structure of evaluations), indigenous people have more introverted, non-indigenous people have more extroverted evaluations.
RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics. 2016;(3):48-58
views
ETHNOPSYCHOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF STRUCTURAL PECULIARITIES IN SUBJECTIVE WELL-BEING(a case study of ethnic groups of the Saratov Region)
Bocharova E.E.
Abstract
The article presents the data of the empirical study of the structural organization of ethnic groups subjective well-being on the territory of the Saratov Volga region conducted on proportionally selected samples ( N = 280), whose representatives identify themselves as Russians ( n = 70; city of Saratov), Armenians ( n = 70; city of Saratov), Kazakhs ( n = 70; village Alexandrov Ghay in the Saratov Region that borders on the West Kazakhstan Region of Kazakhstan with the ethnical composition represented primarily by Kazakhs), Tatars ( n = 70; village Yakovlevka in Bazarno-Karabulakskiy district of the Saratov Region with the Tatar dominant ethnical group), whose average age is 25.6 years old; SD = 9.7; sex ratio is female (52%) and male (48%); respondents’ employment - 87%. It has been found that in contrast to the Russians, the sphere of social and socio-economic relations is the least “happy” area in the representatives of the Armenian, Kazakh, Tatar ethnic groups. The “happiest” is the sphere of family relations in the samples of Armenian, Kazakh and Tatar youth. The significant differences have been revealed in the structure of the subjective well-being both on the emotional and cognitive levels. A downward trend of the index of the subjective well-being of the ethnic groups from the remote areas of the region has been registered. The applied aspect of the research problem can be implemented in the development of ethno-national policy programmes of the Saratov region.
RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics. 2016;(3):59-69
views
TO THE MATTER OF STUDYING SHYNESS IN A CONTEXT OF STUDENTS’ INTERCULTURAL ADJUSTMENT
Kameneva G.N., Radojev M.
Abstract
The article considers the theoretical background for studying the conection between shyness as a personality trait and students’ intercultural adjustment. One of the principal goals of the contemporary educational systems is to stimulate knowledge and cultural interchange and form a multicultural educational environment. The adjustment of foreign students to a new culture as well as to the educational process is realized through communication, therefore the personality traits related to social interaction are expected to give their contribution to this process. Shyness as a personality trait has been conceptualized mostly based on the western empirical research. Many neurological, physiological, psychological, social and cultural correlates have been brought to light. Among the contemporary lines of investigation on shyness it is important to emphasize the role of this feature in different social interactions and circumstances. Nevertheless, the association of shyness and the intercultural adjustment hasn’t been considered in studies up to now. In the present article the authors tried to mark out the main points of contiguity of these two phenomena and ground the potential of this line of investigation.
RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics. 2016;(3):70-79
views
PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS OF STYLISTIC FEATURES MANIFESTATION IN PEDAGOGICAL COMMUNICATION
Arendachuk I.V.
Abstract
The article deals with the contemporary theoretical approaches to defining such concepts as “pedagogical communication” and “the style of pedagogical communication”, the substantial features of pedagogical communication in the system of the teachers’ attitude to their students, their professional work and themselves are revealed. The results of the empirical research conducted on a sample of Saratov secondary school teachers ( n = 67; average age of 42 years old; average length of service of 18 years), intended to identify the relationships between the style of pedagogical communication and its psychological factors (personal and practical) are demonstrated in the article. We used the methods of determining the style of interpersonal interaction (S.V. Maksimov, Yu.A. Lobeiko), diagnostics of dominant emotional modality in teachers (L.A. Rabinovich in T.G. Syritso’s modification), satisfaction evaluation of the profession of a teacher and identification of crisis factors and factors of overcoming the professional crisis of teachers (O.M. Chorosova, R.E. Gerasimova); the method of “psychological portrait of a teacher” (Z.V. Rezapkina, G.V. Rezapkina). The article demonstrates that the more constructive the style of pedagogical communication is, the larger number of psychological factors it has, and the system of these factors is dominated by the factors that characterize the individual features of the teacher’s personality.
RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics. 2016;(3):80-88
views
INDUCTIVE AND DEDUCTIVE APPROACHES IN FOREIGN LANGUAGE TEACHING
Puzanov A.P.
Abstract
The article is devoted to the key issue of foreign language teaching - the concept of method - deductive or inductive. The opposition is surveyed and analysed on the basis of foreign research in this field including a spectrum of basic categories and subcategories of the deductive-inductive continuum of explicit and implicit knowledge with all the contradictions, complexity and multi-factor nature of the experimental results. Besides, methodological, philosophic and pedagogical foundations of induction and deduction are considered in the light of achievements of cognive psychology (L.S. Vygotsky, J. Piaget, J. Bruner), constructivism (E. von Glasersfeld), synergetics (I. Prigozhin, L. Bertalanffy, H. Haken), critical pedagogy (H. Giroux, P. McLaren), “episodical learning” (S.I. Gessen), existential philosophy of education (N.A. Berdyaev), problem-based learning (J. Dewey). The range of questions dealt with are as follows: effectiveness of foreign language teaching as a criterion of learning success; ends and means in the process of education; ethical dependence of foreign language learning, in particular pedagogical coercion; inductive strategies in language creative work, linguistic self-organization, development of critical thinking (the principle of discovery, problem-based tasks). Methodological analysis of the problem state and ways of its solution showed divergence of opinion that indicates the necessity of multiple evaluation and complementarity of both inductive and deductive approaches under different conditions and for different purposes. At the same time philosophic and pedagogical view revealed the significance of ethical and motivation factors such as inherent value of learning process, the issue of ends and means in the broad educational context.
RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics. 2016;(3):89-98
views

This website uses cookies

You consent to our cookies if you continue to use our website.

About Cookies