No 3 (2015)

Articles
SELFISHNESS: CONGENITAL OR ACQUIRED?
Ershova R.V., Omelchanko E.V.
Abstract
The paper discusses the points of view of foreign and domestic scientists on the nature of selfishness. The analysis of the literature showed that selfishness is still one of the least studied personality traits. There is no accordance in the scientific views of the nature and the content of selfishness. There are different trends in the definition and understanding of selfishness: its identification with personality traits or instinct; its inclusion in a unit synonymous range with needs, orientation, values. Currently in psychological science, there are two opposite concepts; one of them maintains a biological nature of selfishness, the other - underlines the primacy of social factors in the selfishness formation. These studies can be considered as a first step towards a holistic concept of the selfishness. The deepest understanding of the nature and mechanisms of development and formation of selfishness should be based on the system approach, which include an analysis of selfishness as a functional system of motivational, cognitive, productive, dynamic, emotional, regulatory, reflective characteristics. Its implementation may offer great opportunities to identify psychological and psychophysiological mechanisms of selfishness formation and growth
RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics. 2015;(3):7-15
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FREE RECALL: HAVE WE BEEN LOOKING AT THE WRONG CURVE?
Tarnow E.
Abstract
I show that without the serial position curve, free recall can appear just as simple as integer recognition. The total search in word free recall, averaged over item position, increases linearly with the number of items recalled. Thus the word free recall search algorithm scales the same as the low-error recognition of integers [13]. The linear scaling of the search algorithm is different from what is commonly assumed to be the word free recall search algorithm, search by random sampling. The proportionality constant of 2-4 seconds per item (a hundred times larger than for integer recognition) is a power function of the average proportion not remembered and seems to be explicitly independent of subject age, presentation rate and whether there is a delay after the list presentation or not. The linearity of the word free recall extends down to 3 items which presents a challenge to the prevalent working memory theory in which 3-5 items are proposed to be stored in a separate high-availability store
RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics. 2015;(3):16-20
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THE USE OF METHODS OF PSYCHOSEMANTICS FOR THE EXAMINATION OF VALUE-SEMANTIC SPHERE OF ADOLESCENTS PRONE TO DRUG-ADDICTED BEHAVIOR
Markov A.S., Safronov A.I.
Abstract
The article considers the problem of using methods of psychosemantics for the examination of value- semantic sphere of adolescents who are prone to drug-addicted behavior. As a diagnostic tool for this task there was used the psychosemantic approach which gives the opportunity to uncover the subjective picture of the world of the teenager, a member of the risk group, his verbal and graphical constructs.At the first stage of the study, with the help of the proprietary methodology of working scales (motivational- need sphere, emotionally-conative sphere, the sphere of normative and behavioral regulation, the scale of the social risks, value-semantic sphere) the personal profiles of adolescents are prone to drug-addicted behavior were identified and described. As part of the description of the personality profiles, the peculiarities of the drug-addicted behavior were also disclosed.The psychosemantic approach applied at the second stage of the empirical research, with the help of the modified role list given to the respondents, allowed to make and characterize the resulting model maps of the subjective semantic space of the teenagers at risk. The above mentioned model maps reflect the subjective value-semantic sphere, the existing correlation between the formed socially approved and also risk-taking role positions, and the internal picture of the world of the adolescents prone to drug-addicted behavior. The study results give the opportunity to improve the preventive and remedial work with adolescents, prone to drug-addicted behavior in the educational environment
RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics. 2015;(3):21-29
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ROLE OF PROFESSIONAL IDENTITY IN SELF-REALIZATION OF PSYCHOLOGISTS-TEACHERS
Kudinov S.I., Vladimirova Y.V.
Abstract
The article highlights the problem of the role of professional identity in self-realization of psychologists- teachers. Within the frame of a system-defined approach the research identifies and describes the individual- typological features of the phenomena interesting to us. The works that focus on the study of self-realization are subjected to the analysis, as the result it is noted that in this field there are still gaps in the understanding of this issue. Thus, the study from the perspective of the influence of professional identity on the successful self-realization of the personality is recognized as relevant. In the framework of this study the following assumptions are put forward: there is a relationship between the professional identity and successful self- realization of the personality; the level of formation of professional identity has an impact on the success of personality self-realization; the professional identity not fully formed acts as a barrier for creativity, activity, internality and constructive self- realization; fully formed professional identity provides a high success rate of self-realization. The purpose of this study was to investigate the features of self- realization and professional identity of psychologists-teachers. For the study, we used “Multidimensional questionnaire of personality self-realization” (MQPS) by S.I. Kudinov, for the study of professional identity the following methods were used: “Professional identity-marginalism” questionnaire by E.P. Ermolaeva and Methods of measuring professional identity (MMPI) by L.B. Schneider. The results obtained were subjected to quantitative analysis. In the article the author relies on the data gathered as a result of a study conducted at the Institute of Education Development of the Republic of Bashkortostan (GAOU DPO IRO RB), city of Ufa. The sample consisted of 142 educational psychologists. As a result of the conducted research, the specific relationship between the professional identity and self-actualization of the educational psychologists was established
RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics. 2015;(3):30-38
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COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF MOTIVATIONAL SPHERE IN PEOPLE AT DIFFERENT STAGES OF CAREER DEVELOPMENT
Babaev T.M., Kargina N.V.
Abstract
The problem of motives and motivation of human behavior in their activities is one of the major issues in psychology. The main way to achieve an effective professional activity of a person is to understand his or her motivation. By using the knowledge about what motivates people, encourages them to act, what motives prompt their actions, you can develop an effective system of forms and methods to manage them. It is important to understand: how the motives arise or if they are caused by various reasons at different stages of career development; how and in what ways can motives be put in action; how to motivate people.In the present work there were empirically investigated the characteristics of demonstration of the human motivational sphere, not only at the research stage, when it comes to the choice of profession and self- determination (from 15 to 24 years), but also at the later stages of a person’s career: a consolidation phase of career (25 to 44 years) and a stage of the career saving (45 to 64 years)
RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics. 2015;(3):39-44
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PSYCHOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF PATRIOTISM MANIFESTATIONS IN HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS
Shurukhina G.A., Zhdanova L.A.
Abstract
In modern society, patriotism is manifested in all spheres of human life and it is understood as a love for the motherland and its people, as a sense of duty and pride for the country, a sense of honor and personal dignity, personal responsibility for occurring events, devotion to the country and its people. Patriotism is a complex concept including patriotic feelings of an individual. In the article, the peculiarities of the manifestation of patriotic feelings in high school students are analyzed on the basis of the system-functional approach. The study involved a group of senior students of secondary comprehensive school, a group of the representatives of the Ministry of Emergency Situations and cadets of a Cadet Corps. Statistically significant differences in sixteen variables characterizing manifestation of patriotic feelings were obtained in the group of cadets, the differences were observed in degrees of manifestation of both harmonic and inharmonic variables. High values were obtained for the variables of the reflective-evaluative component. The personal difficulties have got higher values which indicates a serious and responsible approach of cadets to the manifestation of patriotic feelings. These results were used to formulate correction programs aimed at the harmonization and development of patriotism among representatives of different age groups
RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics. 2015;(3):45-50
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COGNITIVE STYLE OF A PERSON AS A FACTOR OF EFFECTIVE EMOTION RECOGNITION
Belovol E.V., Khvorova E.M.
Abstract
Facial expression is one of the most informative sources of non-verbal information. Early studies on the ability to recognize emotions over the face, pointed to the universality of emotion expression and recognition. More recent studies have shown a combination of universal mechanisms and cultural-specific patterns. The process of emotion recognition is based on face perception that’s why the in-group effect should be taken under consideration. The in-group advantage hypothesis posits that observers are more accurate at recognizing facial expressions displayed by the same culture compared to other culture members. On the other hand, the process of emotion recognition is determined by such cognitive features as a cognitive style. This article describes the approaches to emotion expression and recognition, culture-specific features to basic emotion expression. It also describes factors related to recognition of basic emotions by people from different cultures. It was discovered that field-independent people are more accurate in emotion recognition than field- dependent people because they are able to distinguish markers of emotions. There was found no correlation between successful emotion recognition and the observers’ gender, no correlation between successful emotion recognition and the observers’ race
RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics. 2015;(3):51-60
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INTER-CULTURAL FEATURES OF SELF-EXPRESSION OF STUDENTS IN COMMUNICATION
Akimova A.R., Volk M.I.
Abstract
Modern political and cultural situation in Russia calls for a new generation of young people. In this regard we need to develop in them the personal qualities and characteristics which will enable them to achieve their personal and professional success in various spheres of life. The article is devoted to the study of inter-cultural communication features in Russian, Kazakh and Armenian students. The differences in the motives of the self-expression in students depending on the situation and communication partners, their cultural-value orientations, communicative tolerance and the manifestations of sociability, aggressiveness, proneness to conflict are revealed. The obtained results of the study gave us the opportunity to develop the practical recommendations that can significantly optimize the psychological support of students, designed to maintain and strengthen their physical and mental well-being, helping to solve problems in personal sphere and interpersonal interaction
RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics. 2015;(3):61-66
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IMPACT OF ETHNIC IDENTITY ON SOCIAL DISTANCE OF PERSONALITY
Kudinova I.B., Kislitsin A.I., Nurekeeva A.B.
Abstract
In the present paper, we discuss the results of an empirical research. The study involved students of the Russian Peoples’ Friendship University. The sample consisted of the representatives of the Latin Americans, Chinese and Russians. The main techniques used in the study are “Types of Ethnic Identity” by G.U. Soldatova and S.V. Ryzhova and “Social Distance Scale” by E. Bogardus. The main objective of the empirical study was to identify the level of ethnic identity formation in the representatives of the Russian nationality and the representatives of other countries, and then analyze how a particular level of ethnic identity, formed in Russians and other nationalities influences the social distance between each other in a multicultural interpersonal space. In order to establish the relationships between the ethnic identity and social distance in different samples the correlation analysis was used. The results of it gave the opportunity to determine the dependence of ethnic identity and social distance at a statistically significant level and to identify some specific features of this interdependence, due to both gender and national and ethnic origins. Furthermore, the identified patterns of the interdependence of the studied phenomena are determined by the success of self-realization of the actors. The higher the level of self-realization, the closer the social distance and the higher the level of tolerance of the individual is
RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics. 2015;(3):67-74
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MIGRATORY ATTITUDES IN MAGADAN INHABITANTS WITH DIFFERENT LEVEL OF SUBJECTIVE CONTROL
Kuznetsova S.A.
Abstract
Hypothesis of the research: “There are interrelations of level of migratory attitudes and the level of subjective control in the inhabitants of Magadan as a migration-mobile region, which can be specific in different spheres” is verified on the sample consisting of 62 Magadan inhabitants. Research methods: the proprietary “Scale of migratory attitudes” and a technique “Level of subjective control” by E.F. Bazhin,Golynkina, A.M. Etkind. The obtained results confirmed the hypothesis on scales of general internality, internality in interpersonal relations and internality of health and illness. It was revealed that migratory attitudes in Magadan inhabitants from contrast groups (in externals and internals) are more fully formed. The inhabitants of Magadan considering themselves capable to control their interpersonal relations, and in their migratory attitudes reckon with the attitudes of the relatives and their expectations, though not always share them fully. The inhabitants of Magadan considering themselves responsible for the condition of their health express more fully formed migratory attitudes (including the attitudes of relatives and their expectation) in comparison with the “fatalists” in this sphere
RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics. 2015;(3):75-83
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TEACHERS’ ATTITUDE TO HEALTH AS A FACTOR OF EFFECTIVENESS OF IMPLEMENTATION OF THEIRHEALTH-BUILDING FUNCTION
Le-van T.N.
Abstract
The attitude of teachers to health is considered from the perspective of their professional activity from the standpoint of cultural and system-functional approach. It is associated with the idea of humanization of the educational process. The phenomenon “Attitude to health “ is shown as an integral concept, which arose at the intersection of health psychology, philosophy and pedagogy of health. The data from several studies in the field of health culture of teachers (Russian and foreign), including the studies conducted by the author, are presented, which suggests a low level of health culture in the Russian educators (in terms of personal position). It is associated with destructive or indifferent attitude of the teachers towards their health and affects the quality of the implementation of their health-creating function. The health-creating function is considered as a unity of components: 1) the creation of a safe and healthy learning environment, 2) the inclusion into the content of education some issues related to the formation of students’ skills of a healthy lifestyle, oriented on health values and motivation for a creative behavior, and 3) self-development of the teacher in the field of health (professional and personal). In general, the article considers the preservation and strengthening of health through pedagogical means as giving a humanistic attitude to the educational environment and learning process, denial of violent training methods relying on the internal positive motivation towards training activities, development of personal and physical capacities of the child
RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics. 2015;(3):84-89
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REQUIREMENTS OF THE EMPLOYERS AS THE BASIC GUIDELINES FOR THE FORMATION OF THE PROFESSIONALLYCOMPETENT SPECIALIST
Zolotaryev B.P.
Abstract
Nowadays different conditions of the functioning of higher school have influence on the quality of higher education (the content of the courses, the technology of the education, the organization of educational process have changed). One of the main criteria of the activity of the modern university is the level of satisfaction of the requirements that the employers set for the graduates. Institutions of higher education rely on state educational standards, which, according to the assessment of the employers, do not match the requirements of modern manufacture. This refers primarily to the practical skills of the graduates starting to work in the real economy. To meet the requirements of the employers and to guarantee the employment for the graduates, it is necessary to generalize these requirements and introduce them into the educational process taking into account the capacity of the university.For the quality of the working force training at different levels of the vocational education system, not only the knowledge about the competencies required from the workers, but also the ideas of the students both about the requirements of the employers and the possibility of their implementation within the existing system of vocational education are important. It is advisable, in our opinion, to involve employers in participating in the development of the system of continuous professional education.Also it is necessary to have a universal algorithm of actions to define the requirements of the employer and a system of analysis, to determine on what points the requirements of the employer do not comply with Federal State Educational Standards and how to implement them in the learning process without coming into conflict with the existing FSES. The author suggests one of the possible variants of the system of work, tried and tested in working conditions and proved its effectiveness at Bunin Yelets State University
RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics. 2015;(3):90-98
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NAShI AVTORY
- -.
Abstract
RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics. 2015;(3):99-101
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