No 4 (2015)

Articles
HIGHER SPIRITUAL AND SELF-REGULATIVE CAPACITIES IN ANCIENT KNOWLEDGE SYSTEM - BUDDHISM (APPROACH OF HISTORY OF PSYCHOLOGY)
Ozhiganova G.V.
Abstract
The necessity of research on higher spiritual and self-regulative capacities in the context of ancient oriental system of knowledge is expressed. The historical and psychological methods of studying ancient knowledge are described. The methods of the history of psychology, proposed by the author, are used: such as the method of revealing scientific knowledge reserves, aimed at restoring and practical mastering the psychological heritage of ancient times, as well as the experimental method, involving the verification of psychological facts, phenomena and laws described in ancient texts, with the help of modern scientific research methods (observation, experiment, statistical data). Meditative practices and philosophical concepts of Buddhism are considered from the standpoint of modern psychology. The ancient Buddhist meditative practices “Contemplation of the mind”, linked to the concept of “mindfulness” is described. It is concluded that the concept of the mind is the key in the Buddhist system of knowledge. The understanding of the mind in the ancient Buddhist doctrine is compared with a modern interpretation of the concept of “mind” in psychological science, as well as its content is revealed due to psychological terms “higher self-regulative capacities” and “moral-value aspect of spiritual capacities”. It is revealed that in the Buddhist system of knowledge there can be seen close links between higher self-regulative capacities and moral-value aspect of spiritual capacities. The results of empirical studies of the ancient meditative practices and their positive impact on self-regulation of the modern people are submitted.
RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics. 2015;(4):7-14
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FIRST DIRECT EVIDENCE OF TWO STAGES IN FREE RECALL
Tarnow E.
Abstract
I find that exactly two stages can be seen directly in sequential free recall distributions. These distributions show that the first three recalls come from the emptying of working memory, recalls 6 and above come from a second stage and the 4th and 5th recalls are mixtures of the two.A discontinuity, a rounded step function, is shown to exist in the fitted linear slope of the recall distributions as the recall shifts from the emptying of working memory (positive slope) to the second stage (negative slope). The discontinuity leads to a first estimate of the capacity of working memory at 4-4.5 items. The total recall is shown to be a linear combination of the content of working memory and items recalled in the second stage with 3.0-3.9 items coming from working memory, a second estimate of the capacity of working memory. A third, separate upper limit on the capacity of working memory is found (3.06 items), corresponding to the requirement that the content of working memory cannot exceed the total recall, item by item. This third limit is presumably the best limit on the average capacity of unchunked working memory.The second stage of recall is shown to be reactivation: The average times to retrieve additional items in free recall obey a linear relationship as a function of the recall probability which mimics recognition and cued recall, both mechanisms using reactivation (Tarnow, 2008).
RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics. 2015;(4):15-26
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CLUSTER MODEL OF PATRIOTICITY IN STUDENTS
Nurekeeva A.B., Kudinovа I.B., Gavrilushkin S.A.
Abstract
The article discusses the results of an empirical research carried out on a sample of students. Previously, the analysis of domestic and international research on patriotism showed that this phenomenon is interpreted ambiguously. In most of the works patriotism is characterized as an emotional feeling of love for the motherland. As for patrioticity, the term is identical to patriotism. We believe that the interpretation of these concepts should include different content. Patriotism may be considered as a phenomenon, process, and patrioticity as the quality of the individual, as a complex psychological formation, determined by socio-psychological characteristics, providing the intensity of aspirations and readiness of an individual for the implementation of a certain way of patriotic attitude towards the world and self. Based on this definition, following S.I. Kudinov and A.V. Potemkin we believe that most adequately this quality can be examined in the framework of the dispositional concept by A.I. Krupnov and the typology is allocated on the basis of the model proposed by I.A. Novikova. Based on the above, the results obtained with the help of the “Patriogramma” method by S.I. Kudinov, A.V. Potemkin were subjected to cluster analysis. As a result of the cluster analysis there were allocated three clusters with clear signs of differentiation. The findings demonstrate the differentiation of personality patrioticity manifestations at the students’ age.
RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics. 2015;(4):27-34
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PECULIARITIES OF SELF-ESTEEM AND SELF-ATTITUDE IN ADOLESCENCE
Rushina M.A., Orlova A.V.
Abstract
The paper presents the results of the research devoted to the study of gender characteristics of self- esteem and self-attitude in adolescence. Namely, the work considers the theoretical framework of the study and some empirical results of self-assessment and self- attitude. Adolescence was not chosen by chance. It is at this time that there happens a qualitative transformation of consciousness, when the former, children’s and adolescents’ self-image changes and becomes more mature, objective. The analysis of the literature showed that the problem of identifying the level of self-esteem and self-attitude still remains topical and one of the most studied, especially because the work was focused on gender differences. When there were questions about the study of self-comprehension of the person, the task of reconstruction of the ontogenesis of the conscious self was solved through observing the children and through the analysis of graphic images and texts. Since the 1930s the interest in the study of consciousness has increased dramatically and still has not subsided. As a rule, the subject of such studies are the structure and components of self-consciousness, i.e. how the individual perceives and describes him/herself, what properties of the body and the personality he/she realizes more clearly; mental processes and operations with the help of which the individual realizes, evaluates and defines him/ herself and his/her behavior; the psychological functions of self-consciousness, i.e. how adequate the self-image and personal self-assessment are, what role they play in the self-regulation of behavior.
RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics. 2015;(4):35-40
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INFLUENCE OF CHORAL SINGING ON PSYCHO-EMOTIONAL STATE OF SINGERS
Grigoriev I.V., Tserkovsky A.L., Lapkovsky V.V.
Abstract
Previously we have described certain correlation between the protein composition of mixed saliva (PCMS) and human psycho-emotional state (PES). In this investigation, the analysis of PCMS was used to study the change of PES in the group in the process of creative activities, i.e. choral singing. During the experiment, three groups of singers performed different parts of songs in the course of their regular sessions. The saliva for the analysis was collected from the singers just before and after the choral singing. The results led to the following conclusions. The vast number of singers showed evidence of healthy mental state. During the experiment, in each of the three creative teams there was a relatively harmonious PES of the participants. Collective singing strengthened the positive PES of the most singers. In particular, after singing in the choir a few people were found to have changed their PES from depressive to normal. Also, the processing of the collected data showed that the analysis of the PCMS characteristics allows evaluating not only the direction of the PES change against the background of the creative process, but also the depth of the emotional experience. In conclusion, the results of the research provide an objective basis for the confirmation of the beneficial effects of choral singing on the psyche of the singers.
RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics. 2015;(4):41-50
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PSYCHOLOGICAL PECULIARITIES OF ADAPTIVITY IN AFRICAN STUDENTS
Badalova L.I.
Abstract
The article analyzes the results of the empirical research of adaptability as a basic characteristic of a personality; it was conducted on a sample of the representatives of different nationalities of African students. The research was made with the use of the capsule version of the blank methods, elaborated by A.I Krupnov, as well as the qualitative analysis of the adaptability components manifestation and the connections between them with the use of the correlation analysis. The qualitative analysis of the manifestation degree of each adaptability component shows that the adaptation index has the highest ranking. This proves that African students can adjust well to the new social and cultural environment while taking classes. However the respondents showed high levels of nostalgia and detachment. These feelings are accompanied by negative emotions (emotional stress) and prevent a normal integration into the new society. The development of the self-confidence and addressing the affective disposition can be regarded as the major resources for compensation and correction of the negative influence of adaptability weaknesses. At the same time there is a connection between nostalgia and adaptation parameters. This phenomenon is the indicative of a positive role of experiencing a painful homesickness in the process of adaptation of the African students. This refers to the two-directional functional ability of nostalgia and its value for the successful integration into a new society.
RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics. 2015;(4):51-56
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SPESIFICS OF RELATION BETWEEN TOLERANCE AND PERSONALITY TRAITS IN RUSSIAN AND CIRCASSIAN STUDENTS
Murzakanova A.Z.
Abstract
The article is devoted to the problem of relation between tolerance aspects and personality traits. The main directions of the modern researches of tolerance were considered. The author substantiated the actuality and perspective of researching this problem in ethnopsychological aspect by the example of multinational Russia.The results of the empirical research on correlation between the types of tolerance and the “Big Five” factors in Russian and Circassian students are presented. A total of 383 respondents took part in the research, including 170 Circassian students from Kabardino-Balkariya, 74 Circassians from Moscow universities and 139 Russian students who are also from Moscow. With the help of express questionnaire “Index of Tolerance” by G.U. Soldatova, L.A. Kravtsova, O.E. Khukhlaev and L.A. Shaygerova we diagnosed the level of students’ tolerance (ethnical, social, personal and general). For the diagnosis of the “Big Five” factors we used “The Five Factors questionnaire” in M.V. Bodunov and S.D. Biryukov’s modified version.The comparative analysis revealed that the “Big Five” factors are relatively stable and do not have significant differences in three groups. Comparing the types of tolerance, we found out that the level of social tolerance is almost the same in all groups, while ethnical type differs significantly. It’s notable that the average index of the above mentioned type of tolerance in a group of Russian students is the lowest.With the help of the correlation analysis we detected that the relation between tolerance and such personality traits as Openness to Experience and Agreeableness are the most stable and proven in all groups.
RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics. 2015;(4):57-64
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WOMEN AND RUSSIAN MODERNIZATION
Kiregian E.
Abstract
This article analyzes Russian women and their ability to embrace Western educational and business practices following the fall of the Soviet Union. As recently as the 1980s, women managers in Russia were rare. Today, a total of 42 percent of senior management posts in Russia are held by women. Unlike women in Western nations who tend to frame their emerging role in ideological terms, Russian women enrolled in academic programs that gave them valuable skills for the market economy. The paper also shows that Russian women are adapting to these changes more rapidly than men.This study explores the considerable changes that have taken place in business education as Russia has adapted to the needs of a world economy. The Master of Business Administration (MBA) degree is now popular across Russia and is the source of the new business management concepts that explain the data. Russians are now far more likely to speak English, to work in a service-related job, to hold personal investment portfolios and to be able to work outside of Russia. These are massive changes compared to the years before 1991. New business curricula have played a role in making these changes happen.
RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics. 2015;(4):65-70
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PSYCHOLOGICAL APPROACHES TO STUDY OF OPTIMAL MANAGEMENT ACTIVITIES IN LEADERS OF ETHNIC COMMUNITY ORGANIZATIONS
Kolesnik N.T.
Abstract
The article describes the main psychological approaches, and in particular, the system-synergetic approach to the study of the management activities of the leaders of ethnic community organizations. It also discusses the concept and essence of social self-organization of the ethnic group. It presents the methodological framework of the synergetic approach to the consideration of the study of complex self-organizing systems. The analysis of conditions of effectiveness of the process of self-organization of ethnic public associations is given. The basic principles of modern psychology of labor, which form the basis for the research of the optimal management activity of the leaders of ethnic community organizations, are highlighted. The presented theoretical analysis led to the conclusion that the integral research of the management activities of the heads of ethnic community organizations may be based on the psychological system-synergetic approach, from the point of which the management activities could be presented as a psychologically complex and open system.
RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics. 2015;(4):71-76
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LIFE QUALITY INCREASING AND DYNAMICS OF COGNITIVE PROCESSES AS THE RESULT OF EDUCATION AT THE “THIRD AGE”
Belovol E.V., Boyko Z.V., Radysh I.V., Shurupova E.Y.
Abstract
Longitudinal data obtained in the study of the influence of education at the third age on cognitive functioning and psychological status of elderly persons is analyzed in the article. The project started in October 2014 and will continue until December 2016. All the participants (N=21) are non-working pensioners with higher non-psychological education; in the project they are studying in the program “Practical psychology”, the duration of education is 2.5 years. As a result of the training the participants have become more confident in the sphere of social relations, they have become more self-confident, the future has stopped to seem meaningless for them. The students have become more confident in their cognitive abilities, their indices of cognitive consciousness and life satisfaction have increased significantly. As a result of the conducted research, it was revealed that learning in elderly years influences significantly the psychological well-being of elderly students. The improvement of cognitive functioning by the end of the first semester (six months after the beginning) was revealed as well. It is assumed that the improvement of cognitive functioning is due to changes in neuronal structures, as more time is necessary for these qualitative and quantitative changes.
RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics. 2015;(4):77-84
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EXTRACURRICULAR CLASSES FOR STUDENTS IN ACADEMIC SUBJECTS (ORGANIZATIONAL-PEDAGOGICAL ASPECTS)
Kazarenkov V.I., Prokop J., Kazarenkova T.B.
Abstract
The article presents the pedagogical foundations of organizing the extracurricular activities of the students in various academic disciplines. The content of the article reflects the situation characterizing the importance of the purposeful development of these activities for the successful socialization, professionalization and self-realization in the system of university education. The actualization of extracurricular work is determined by the socio-economic changes taking place in the Russian state and society, and thus in higher education. Drawing on the analysis of the scientific literature and the state of practice of the specialist training in high school we have identified the main factors of actualization of these activities of students (social, socio-educational, socio-psychological, pedagogical, psychological) and revealed the essence of each of those. This publication submits a brief description of the principles, goals, objectives, contents, methods, means and forms of organization of educational work on extracurricular classes of students on academic subjects, it also stresses the importance of optimal selection of the content of the material, the choice of methods, means and forms of extracurricular work, integrating extracurricular and classroom work of students, individualization and differentiation of their education and training in extracurricular activities. The article shows the role of the teacher in the development of the student’s individuality in extracurricular activities.
RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics. 2015;(4):85-92
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PEDAGOGICAL CONDITIONS OF THE INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT OF PRESCHOOL CHILDREN BY MEANS OF FOREIGN LANGUAGE
Kartashova V.N.
Abstract
The article describes the conditions of intellectual development of preschool children during foreign language teaching in the developmental subject-spatial environment of a preschool educational institution. The creation of developing educational and subject-spatial environment gives the opportunity to implement different programs. When creating the developing educational environment a particular emphasis is given to the foreign language. Teaching a foreign language helps reach the goals not only of the formation of foreign language communicative skills of preschool children, of introduction to a foreign culture, but also solve challenges of his intellectual development. Several types of interaction of the child with objects of the surrounding world are identified. They are latent, real and mediated. The main ways to stimulate intellectual development of the preschool child are described (the creation of a favorable psychological environment; ensuring the opportunity to actively ask questions of divergent type due to the enrichment of meaningful context of a child’s life; the widespread use of questions relating to the most diverse areas with the aim of developing children’s observation). These methods can be considered as pedagogical conditions which will allow us to create the environment for the personal development of the child. The article presents the experience of their implementation. The main approach is integrative-game. This approach supposes the inclusion the integration of different types of children’s activities (visual, musical-rhythmic, theatrical) for the joint execution of tasks focused on the development of the child in the process of foreign language teaching.
RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics. 2015;(4):93-98
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DISCUSSION METHODS: MODIFICATION AND TRANSFORMATION
Abbasova A.A., Tskolia K.R.
Abstract
The article is devoted to the importance of selecting the optimal methods of stimulation and motivation for learning. In modern conditions it is very important that the teacher did not give the students ready knowledge, but pointed out the way for the acquisition of knowledge, taught them to gain knowledge. This demands from the philologist the choice of effective forms of working with texts of different types and styles of speech, listening, speaking. In this connection a special attention should be paid to the lessons of speech development. There is a special group of methods to stimulate the development of communicative competence. Among them, the method of discussion, which is increasingly being used during the Russian language lessons. The specificity of using this method in class for teaching Russian as a foreign language, its basic functions (teaching, developing, educating) are considered. The key rules for conducting a discussion at the Russian language classes, the main and additional functions-roles of the teacher, the participants, the minute-taker are analyzed. The advantages of the discussion in Russian in comparison to the discussion in the students’ native language are summarized.
RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics. 2015;(4):99-104
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RETsENZIYa NA MONOGRAFIYu:T.V. Kiyashchuk. System of social and psychological support for foreign students in their learning activity.M.: RUDN, 2014 s. 103 s
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Abstract
RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics. 2015;(4):105-106
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NAShI AVTORY
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Abstract
RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics. 2015;(4):107-109
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