Vol 18, No 4 (2021)

PERSONALITY IN THE MODERN EDUCATIONAL ENVIRONMENT IN RUSSIA AND IN THE WORLD
Content of Pedagogical Education in the Modern World: Meanings, Problems, Practices and Development Prospects
Bermus A.G., Serikov V.V., Altynikova N.V.
Abstract

The article examines modern ideas about the nature of pedagogical activity, providing a critical analysis of the state of practice and scientific research on the problems of pedagogical education and reconstructing a set of methodological ideas, concepts and schemes related to ideas about the content and forms of pedagogical education. The authors present approaches to solving such problems as the modern understanding of the essence of pedagogical activity and the trends of its transformation in connection with the changed educational space, new functions of the teacher in the digital educational environment; crisis phenomena in pedagogical education and ways to overcome them. In this vein, the authors consider the concept of pedagogical education, substantiating its goals, content options and psychological mechanisms for mastering pedagogical activity. The proposed model of the process of professional socialization of teachers reveals the content, technologies and criteria for their effective professional training, dialectics of psychological, pedagogical and subject components in the structure of professional competence. Consideration is also given to the environment of a pedagogical university as a source of development of pedagogical experience and personal and professional qualities of teachers. The article may be of interest to researchers and organizers in the field of pedagogical education.

RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics. 2021;18(4):667-691
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Current Problems of Preventing Aggressive Behavior in the Educational Environment: A Case Study of Three Schools in the Russian Countryside
Guryanova M.P., Selivanova E.I.
Abstract

Among the most acute socio-pedagogical problems facing the modern Russian school is the increasing number of aggressive manifestations in the educational environment. This situation actualizes the school’s need for the prevention and correction of aggressive behavior. The article presents the results of a socio-pedagogical research, the purpose of which was to identify the types and forms of aggressive behavior in the educational environment and to explore the current state of preventive work. The study was conducted by the Institute for the Study of Childhood, Family and Upbringing in July 2021 in the form of a questionnaire survey of directors of educational organizations. The methodology of the research included a socio-pedagogical analysis of situations of aggressive manifestations among students, teachers and parents; study of social, environmental, family and personal factors of aggressive behavior; and identification of mechanisms for preventing aggressive behavior in the educational environment. The results are presented in the format of socio-psychological portraits of three schools located in the countryside, which are prominent representatives of Russian rural society. The study made it possible to draw the following main conclusions: (1) preventive work becomes an independent type of pedagogical work; (2) cyber-aggression, which was actively manifested during the period of distance learning and now requires comprehensive preventive work with students, teachers, and parents, is an over-pressing problem for educational organizations; (3) today’s school is faced with the urgent task of developing and implementing programs for the prevention and correction of aggressive behavior. The ideas presented in the article can be used in the practice of educational organizations of different types.

RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics. 2021;18(4):692-707
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Aggressiveness of Participants in Educational Relations and Psychological Safety of School Environment
Badiev I.V.
Abstract

The problem of aggression and violence in the educational space is currently quite serious. Illustrative examples of it are numerous publications in the media about acts of aggression exhibited by students against their peers and teachers, about the use of violence by teachers against their students, acute conflicts between the parents of students, sometimes leading to tragic consequences. In this regard, the works devoted to the problem of the psychological safety of the educational environment become very important. The purpose of our research is to identify the factors of psychological safety of the educational environment in the context of the aggressiveness of the participants in educational relations. The study involved 15 292 respondents, including 945 teachers, 6478 parents and 7869 students of grades 7-11 from 34 schools in Ulan-Ude. The following psychodiagnostic techniques were used: Cook - Medley Hostility Scale (CMHS); Questionnaire of Legitimized Aggression by S.N. Enikolopov and N.P. Tsibulsky; Bass - Perry Aggressiveness Questionnaire BPAQ (LA-44) in Russian adaptation by S.N. Enikolopov and N.P. Tsibulsky; questionnaire for students, teachers and parents “Psychological diagnostics of the safety of the educational environment at school” by I.A. Baeva. The empirical data obtained were subjected to correlation and factor analysis. As a result of the study, the following conclusions were formulated: (1) the psychological safety of students is associated with the peculiarities of the relationships between the teachers and students, between the parents of students and the school, between the parents and other students, between the parents and their children in the context of school education; (2) aggressiveness of students is associated with the level of aggression of their teachers and is not closely related to the level of aggression of their parents; (3) there is an inverse relationship between the aggressiveness of students and their sense of security in relationships with their teachers; (4) aggressiveness of teachers is associated with their satisfaction with the school. There are five areas of relationships that need to be taken into account when designing a safe educational environment: (1) the relationship between parents and students at school; (2) the relationships among teachers and accepted rules of conduct at school; (3) the relationships between teachers and students; (4) family satisfaction with school; (5) teachers’ satisfaction with the school.

RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics. 2021;18(4):708-730
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Developing General Cultural Competences: A Case Study of Students Taking a Course in Pedagogy and Psychology
Pshenichnyuk D.V.
Abstract

The education system and teachers are currently faced with the need to increase the interest of students not only in their chosen specialty and related training courses but in the content of the compulsory basic-level disciplines. One of the possible solutions to this problem may be filling such courses with practice-oriented and universal content, which can contribute to the formation and implementation of general cultural competences even in the learning (professional training) process. The purpose of the work is to present to the expert community the results of introducing the author’s approach to the development of a set of knowledge, skills, abilities and competencies of students, as they are taught pedagogy and psychology, and to compare the process and results of face-to-face and online training conducted according to the author’s program. The attention is focused on the development of practical skills and abilities within the framework of this course, in particular, the ability to conduct classes for peers with elements of training. The study used an adapted experimental curriculum of the pedagogy and psychology course, means of assessment (control works in the form of tests with open and closed questions) and self-assessment (author’s questionnaire). The sample consisted of 68 undergraduate and postgraduate students of Lomonosov Moscow State University. The results of using the developed program showed high efficiency in relation to indicators of academic success of the students due to the creation of conditions for mutual learning and conducting classes by the students themselves.

RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics. 2021;18(4):731-750
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The Impact of Music Training on the Cognitive Development of Preschool and Junior School Children: A Review of Research
Bayanova L.F., Bukhalenkova D.A., Dolgikh A.G., Chichinina E.A.
Abstract

The review presents the results of studies of the impact of music training on the cognitive development of preschool and junior school children. It is shown that music lessons can contribute to the development of reading, writing, listening and speaking as well as mathematical skills, memory, intelligence, and executive functions. After analyzing a number of relevant studies, the authors came to the following conclusions: (1) the impact of music lessons on the development of the cognitive sphere in children is associated with concomitant factors, such as: parental involvement in music lessons and home musical environment, age when a child begins to take music lessons and their duration, socioeconomic status of the family; and 2) it is systemic music training, which includes singing, playing musical instruments and solfeggio, that can have a beneficial effect on cognitive development. The mechanisms by which music training promote the cognitive development of children were also examined. While a vast body of work confirms the beneficial effects of music training in this regard, there are a number of studies showing no such effects. Special consideration is also given to the reasons why positive research results can be erroneous. In conclusion, the authors give recommendations for designing further research on this topic as well as for organizing music lessons for children of preschool and junior school age.

RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics. 2021;18(4):751-769
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PERSONALITY AND EDUCATION IN MULTICULTURAL DIMENSION
Communication in a Multicultural Virtual Environment for Modern Slovak Students
Tkáčová H., Králik R.
Abstract

The necessity of establishing intercultural communication skills in children and young people is growing in the modern world. Expanding, extending the openness and accessibility of the Internet area, where diverse people with varied ideas, interests, and aspirations meet, plays a significant role in this process. Today’s youth are aptly referred to as “digital aborigines,” as they navigate the multicultural internet environment with ease, actively using modern technology that have already become a part of their daily lives. The goal of this study is to investigate the setting of an online multicultural environment from the perspective of Slovak university students, as well as to identify and analyze current problems that university students can see in online discussions about other cultures. A structured interview was used as the primary research approach. The results provide Slovak students’ perspective on the six most common topics that resonate in connection with different cultures on the current Internet: (1) concerns about one’s own safety due to “differences of others;” (2) misinformation on the Internet regarding “the difference of others;” (3) cognitive prejudice; (4) religious prejudices; (5) exaggeration; and (6) influencing audience emotions. This paper holds the view that modern young people should develop not only the ability to navigate in virtual reality, but also make daily personal efforts to overcome personal barriers and develop “intercultural media literacy,” which the authors define as the ability to acquire, in addition to digital competencies, intercultural understanding skills and apply these skills in practice in the process of communication in the Internet environment.

RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics. 2021;18(4):770-784
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The Current State of the Teaching the Russian Language in the Multicultural Russian School
Kytina N.I., Khamraeva E.A.
Abstract

Although it is commonly known that the dominant trend in the development of modern post-industrial society is globalization, today we can already talk about ‘glocalization’ as a bidirectional process of integration and localization, complementary to the dialectical development of mankind. This process implies the unification of all spheres of social life in a single global space and the isolation of individual regions and ethnic groups as a protective reaction to preserve their uniqueness and identity. The described social trends are now becoming decisive for the development of the education system as the main social institution. Migration processes and related problems of integrating migrants into a new society, preserving the national language and culture, searching for identity - all these phenomena necessitate innovative methodological solutions that should be implemented in the context of learning the Russian language at a multicultural Russian school. The article considers topical problems related to the implementation of the program of teaching the Russian language in a multicultural environment. The authors propose a conceptual definition of a multicultural school. They analyze the pedagogical experience of individual educational institutions developing their own training methods for use in a multicultural environment. This analysis makes it possible to identify socio-adaptive, cultural, psychological and linguistic aspects of teaching Russian in a multicultural school. Along the way, an increase in the psychoemotional burden of teachers working in multi-ethnic classes is noted. Additionally, the effective experience of implementing preschool language training of non-native speakers in the Moscow region is analyzed. In line with the above, the authors review the current situation with regard to teaching the Russian language in the multiethnic regions of Russia through the example of the Republics of Sakha (Yakutia) and Tatarstan. In particular, it is noted that for the regions of the Russian Federation it is methodologically incorrect to use the term “multicultural school”, since in the national constituent entities of the Russian Federation there is a special type of “national” school, and a program for studying Russian as a non-native language is also being implemented.

RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics. 2021;18(4):785-800
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Acculturation Scale to Russia for Chinese Students: Development and Psychometric Verification
Novikova I.A., Novikov A.A., Shlyakhta D.A.
Abstract

The topic on diagnosing intercultural adaptation and psychological acculturation to a new socio-cultural environment is relevant in connection with the processes of globalization and, in particular, with the growth of academic mobility in education. Research on this problem are especially relevant for Russian science due to the lack of acculturation scales, which are widely represented in Western and international psychology. In 2019, a research team led by Professor A. Ardila developed the Russian-language Acculturation Scale for Russia (ASR), which was validated on a sample of international university students from 71 countries of the world. The aim of the present study was to adapt the ASR for the Chinese students studying in Russian universities. Chinese students are the largest group of international students from far abroad studying at Russian universities, while many of them experience significant difficulties in adapting to a new socio-cultural environment, as well as in learning the Russian language. In total, the study involved 213 Chinese students (59% - female) studying at Russian universities, of which 93 students (58% - female) completed the Russian-language version of the ASR, and 118 students (61% - female) completed the Chinese version of the ASR, which was designed using the back translation. Both ASR versions were psychometrically tested using Cronbach’s α and MacDonald’s ω coefficients, as well as bifactorial analysis. The methods of descriptive statistics and the Wilcoxon W-test were used to compare the Russian-language and Chinese versions of the ASR. The normalization was carried out by means of non-linear percentile normalization (stanines). As a result, a high consistency of the Russian-language and Chinese versions of the ASR and their equivalence with each other were shown. Both versions can be used to assess the level of acculturation of Chinese students to Russia, while the Chinese version is recommended for the Chinese students who have been living in Russia for less than 1-1.5 years and/or have a poor Russian proficiency.

RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics. 2021;18(4):801-824
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PERSONALITY AND SOCIETY: PAST, PRESENT, AND FUTURE
To Remember or to Forget: Political Repression in the Collective Memory of Descendants
Bovina I.B., Ryabova T.V., Konkin V.Y.
Abstract

The question of political repression divides society and polarizes public discourse. Understanding political repression through the prism of socio-psychological knowledge is a zone of proximal development for researchers, because the “suicidal nature” of repression, which A.M. Etkind points out, makes it difficult to understand terror, hinders the work of mechanisms that operate in a society that has come into contact with a catastrophe of such magnitude and duration. The study is devoted to the study of social ideas about “repression”, as well as emotional reactions towards repression and the repressed among the descendants of the repressed, i.e., their children and grandchildren. A total of 110 people (61.82% - females) aged 44 to 78 years, 93.63% with higher education, participated in the study. The sample included three groups: the generation of children (21 people, M = 59.52 years; SD = 9.04); the generation of grandchildren (63 people, M = 54.71 years; SD = 7.66); and the control group (26 people, M = 53.65 years; SD = 7.72). A survey in the form of a questionnaire was used, followed by a prototypical analysis of associations, which made it possible to identify the structure of ideas about repression in the three groups. To analyze emotional reactions, a factor analysis of scores on 38 scales was carried out, followed by an analysis on the new variables. The characteristics of the structure of social representations (the core and periphery zones) are consistent with the initial hypothesis that the supposedly traumatic event of repression is perceived as a personal one by the descendants but as a social one by the respondents of the control group. There were no differences in the severity of emotional reactions in relation to the category of “repressions” and “repressed” between the generations. The combined group of descendants significantly differs from the control group in the greater severity of indicators when assessing the category of “repression” by the factors of “Anxiety”, “Depression” and “Grief”, and when assessing the category of “repressed” by the factor of “Grief”. The results of the study of social ideas about the past allow us to talk about the collective memory of repression in two generations of the descendants of the repressed: in the structure of the inner world of generations of descendants, repression is a personal event of family history, colored by sorrowful feelings of varying degrees of intensity and depth.

RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics. 2021;18(4):825-848
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Value and Life Meaning Aspects of the Moral Component of Spiritual Capacities: The Relationship in Russian Students Sample
Ozhiganova G.V.
Abstract

The article is devoted to the axiological (value-meaning) sphere of Russian students. The author analyzes the definitions and concepts of values and meanings of life in domestic and foreign psychology, pointing out that many researchers note a close relationship between these constructs. The value-meaning aspects of the personality are considered in the context of the study of spiritual capacities, i.e., their moral component. Among the subcomponents of the moral component of spiritual capacities, three blocks are identified: (1) motivational-axiological - value-meaning (spiritual and moral qualities, striving for meaning); (2) affective-motivational - selfless love (spiritual altruistic orientation, empathy); and (3) cognitive-affective - conscience. This work is focused on the motivational-axiological block. The purpose of the study is to identify whether the value-meaning sphere, considered as part of the moral component of spiritual capacities, is balanced in modern student youth, which implies the consistency of the functioning of the spiritual and moral qualities (reflecting an orientation towards higher values), and the aspiration for meaning. The research objectives are to reveal the connections between the spiritual and moral qualities and the components of the value-meaning sphere (life-meaning orientations, value “Spiritual satisfaction”) among students; to establish the level of manifestation of these qualities in the studied sample; and to determine the differences in all the considered indicators between the male and female respondents. The sample was made up of 196 students (males = 73%; females = 27%; М = 19.76; SD = 1.556). The following inventories were used: The Spiritual Personality Inventory (SPI) by A. Husain, M. Anas (adapted by G.V. Ozhiganova); The Life Meaning Orientation Test (LMOT) by D.A. Leontiev; the scale of “Spiritual satisfaction” of the Axiological Orientation of a Personality 4.5 (AOP4.5) test by A.V. Kaptsov. The results of the study confirmed the hypothesis: on the sample of students, a significant positive relationship was established between the spiritual and moral qualities, reflecting the orientation of a person towards higher values, with aspirations for meaning and spiritual satisfaction. Gender differences were revealed only on the scale of “Spiritual satisfaction” - it was higher in girls. In the student sample, an average level of manifestation of spiritual and moral qualities was established.

RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics. 2021;18(4):849-868
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PERSONALITY AND QUALITY OF LIFE: PSYCHOLOGICAL FEATURES OF DOCTORS AND PATIENTS
Psychological Characteristics and Quality of Life of Patients with Penile Cancer: Pilot Study on a Russian Sample
Shchelkova O.Y., Usmanova E.B., Iakovleva M.V., Matveev V.B., Khalmurzaev O.A., Yacevich A.A.
Abstract

Research into the psychological aspects of oncological diseases is nowadays relevant and widespread; however, there are very few studies in patients with penile cancer (PC). Therefore, the purpose of this pilot study is to investigate the psychological characteristics and quality of life of patients with PC for further organization of psychological counseling. The study included 17 male patients (mean age 49.0 ± 3.76 years) of the N.N. Blokhin National Medical Research Center of Oncology. The following techniques were used: Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), Big Five Inventory (BFI), Ways of Coping Questionnaire (WCQ), Purpose in Life Test (PLT), Quality of Life of Cancer Patients (EORTC QLQ-C30). The patients’ overall health status was assessed by D.A. Karnofsky’s scale; a specific psychological structured interview was also conducted. The emotional state of most patients is characterized by low indexes of anxiety and depression. Most of them are purposeful, organized, emotionally stable, unwilling to form trusting relationships. They have high rates of life meaningfulness, a normative level of internality and a decreased “purpose in life” indicator. The patients are not prone to active and conscious overcoming stress compared to healthy men. The indexes of quality of life, as well as the rates of its specific parameters (cognitive, physical and emotional activity) in the studied group of patients exceed the same values in patients with different tumor localizations and are not consistent with the objectively estimated condition. Health-related quality of life is largely determined by the characteristics of patients’ value system, especially in oncological diseases that are related not only to a vital threat, but also to deep personal experiences, including the experience of patients’ male identity.

RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics. 2021;18(4):869-892
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Estimating the Efficiency of the “Proactive Behavior Training” in the Formation of the Doctor’s Adherence to Preventive Work
Slabinsky V.Y., Voishcheva N.M., Kabieva A.A., Levadnaya M.O.
Abstract

Today the public health service faces numerous pressing challenges, including not only treatment, but also prevention of diseases. A theoretical analysis of materials on this topic shows that insufficient adherence of doctors to preventive work can be associated not only with a high level of their professional burnout, but also with their usual reactive coping strategies, which is caused by the traditional conservatism of the medical community. Previous studies have shown that the solution to the described problem may lie in the formation of a system of proactive coping behaviors and reduction of professional burnout among doctors. The aim of the study is to evaluate the efficiency of the “Proactive Behavior Training” developed by V.Yu. Slabinsky and N.M. Voishcheva in the formation of a doctor’s adherence to preventive work. The sample consisted of 125 people (112 women, 13 men). Their age range was from 24 to 68 years. The work experience ranged from less than 1 year to 45 years. The experimental group and the control group consisted of 64 and 61 people respectively. The research was conducted using the following techniques: Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (ZTPI); Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI); Proactive Coping Inventory (PCI); BAK conflict; projective test “My job”; and case method (unstructured cases). The statistical analysis was carried out using the Wilcoxon test for compare the test results before and after the training, and the Fisher criterion (φ*-criterion) for check statistically significant differences in the frequency of occurrence of the selected criteria. The results of the case method were processed by content analysis. It was revealed that, in primary care physicians (PCPs), the “Proactive Behavior Training” develops a system of proactive coping strategies (“proactive overcoming”, “reflexive overcoming”, “preventive overcoming”, “seeking instrumental support” and “seeking emotional support”); it reduces the level of professional burnout (increasing “professional success” and reducing “emotional exhaustion”) and potentiates the “positive past” time perspective. A positive influence on the emotional and imaginative perception of physicians of their professional activities was found, which is confirmed by the results of the projective test “My job”. It was noted that the participants in the training developed such traits as “diligence”, “optimism” and “tenderness”, which contributes to the manifestation of a more humane attitude towards their patients, and, as a consequence, a greater efficiency in their preventive activities. These results, as well as the content analysis data for the texts of the tasks completed by the doctors and reviews obtained from the heads of the medical organizations, the employees of which participated in the training, confirm the efficiency of the “Proactive Behavior Training” in developing the PCPs’ adherence to preventive work.

RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics. 2021;18(4):893-914
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SCIENCE CHRONICLE
Mental Health as a Priority of Modern Society: Results of the International Scientific and Practical Conference on Commitment to Mental Health
Mikhailova O.B., Khairova Z.R., Bashkin E.B.
Abstract

The article presents the chronology and results of the International Scientific and Practical Conference “Commitment to Mental Health Issues”, which was organized and conducted by the Department of Psychology and Pedagogy of the Philological Faculty of the Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia (Moscow, October 7, 2021). The international forum brought together psychologists, medical workers, teachers and students from various universities in Russia and foreign countries (254 participants in total), who discussed current problems of mental health and digitalization during the pandemic.

RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics. 2021;18(4):915-922
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