Vol 17, No 1 (2020): PERSONALIТY IN ТНE CONТEХТ OF DIALOGUE OF CULТURES. FOR TAТIANA G. SТEFANENKO’S ANNIVERSARY

EDITORIAL
EDITORIAL
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Abstract

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RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics. 2020;17(1):7-12
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MODERN ETHNOPSYCHOLOGY IN THE CONTEXT OF DIALOGUE OF CULTURES
Comprehensive Model of Intercultural Competence: Theoretical Substantiation
Khukhlaev O.E., Gritsenko V.V., Pavlova O.S., Tkachenko N.V., Usubian S.A., Shorokhova V.A.
Abstract

The paper presents theoretical substantiation and development of the authors’ comprehensive model of intercultural competence (ICC), based on the analysis and generalization of empirical models of intercultural interaction existing in Western and Russian science. The model is based on 9 constructs: intercultural stability/sustainability, intercultural flexibility, intercultural openness, intercultural interest, absence of ethnocentrism, cultural sensitivity, intercultural empathy, management of intercultural relations, and tolerance to intercultural uncertainty. Those constructs are combined into three groups of characteristics: 1) intercultural traits; 2) attitudes and mentality features; 3) intercultural skills. Basic mechanisms by which the distinguished constructs of intercultural competence contribute to intercultural efficiency are substantiated - this is maintenance of an optimal level of sensitivity to uncertainty and an optimal level of anxiety in the process of intercultural communication. The role of each component of intercultural competence is shown. Constructs “Cultural Sensitivity”, “Intercultural Empathy”, “Management of Intercultural Relations”, “Tolerance to Intercultural Uncertainty”, and “Intercultural Flexibility” make a significant contribution to maintaining the optimal level of sensitivity to uncertainty and thereby contribute to increasing effectiveness of intercultural interaction. Such components of intercultural competence as “Intercultural Empathy”, “Intercultural Interest”, “Lack of Ethnocentrism”, “Intercultural Openness”, “Tolerance to Intercultural Uncertainty”, maintain the optimal level of anxiety, which contributes to the effectiveness of intercultural communication. It is emphasized that none of the components of the ICC is a universal predictor of the success of intercultural interaction, this effect being achieved only through an integrative combination with other ICC constructs.

RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics. 2020;17(1):13-28
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The Ethos of Intractable Interethnic Conflict: Research Approaches and Prospects
Golynchik E.O.
Abstract

The present article deals with the concept of ‘ethos’ as applied to intractable interethnic conflicts - this topic has hardly ever been addressed in Russian scientific literature. The ethos of conflict is defined as a system of social beliefs and myths shared by a large group of people involved in a long-term intractable conflict and closely connected with the history of the conflict that dominates in this society, i.e. the collective memory of it. The concept of ‘intractable interethnic conflict’ was introduced into Russian psychology by T.G. Stefanenko, who began to study the phenomenology of such conflicts at the Department of Social Psychology of Lomonosov Moscow State University. Following the line, the article introduces the reader to modern research in this area. In the first part of the work, the author gives a definition of an intractable conflict, analyzes D. Bar-Tal’s theory of the ethos of conflict and describes methods for studying it applied in foreign social psychology. The author also describes the content of eight topics, around which the beliefs that make up the ethos of conflict are grouped. The second part of the article deals with the critics of contemporary ethos of conflict researches and new approaches to this phenomenon. The following three current trends in studying the ethos of conflict are highlighted: the first one is associated with an attempt to explain the ethos of conflict stability within the categories of J. Jost’s system justification theory (SJT); the second one is based on the assumption that the beliefs of members of a conflicting group are not uniform; therefore, it is important to study not only the prevailing social point of view on the conflict but also alternative views of minor or even outsider groups (rather opposing the ethos), because it is often an alternative view that can help out of a seemingly insoluble situation; and the last one is connected with research at the intersection of the phenomenology of the ethos of conflict and collective memory.

RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics. 2020;17(1):29-50
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Sino-Russian Intercultural Communication Research: Literature Review
Vasilyeva E.D., Lebedeva N.M.
Abstract

International relations between China and Russia have a long-lasting history. At the same time interpersonal contacts between these two ethnic groups face difficulties associated with language, cultural distance, prejudices and other factors. This article presents a review of studies on the problem of Russian-Chinese intercultural interaction. Due to its interdisciplinary nature the studies are scattered both methodologically and with respect to its theoretical foundations. In this regard, we conditionally divide the considered works into four main areas: studying the perception of the image of Russia and China among Russians and Chinese, classification of Sino-Russian communication barriers, cross-cultural analysis of communication components, and indigenous concepts of Chinese psychology related to the process of intercultural interaction. A brief review of the modern research results gained by Russian and Chinese authors on effective communication and building trustful relationships is given. The results of studies revealing important differences at the level of verbal and non-verbal communication are presented. Particular attention is paid to cross-cultural research aimed at identifying etic and emic attributes of the situation of intercultural interaction. The most common approaches to understanding the concept of trust and its operationalization in Chinese studies are described. The importance of further studying mechanisms of building trustful relationships between representatives of the two countries is noted. In conclusion, unresolved problems and current trends in the study of intercultural communication are identified.

RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics. 2020;17(1):51-63
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NEW TRENDS IN CROSS-CULTURAL RESEARCH
Cross-Cultural Neuropsychology: History and Prospects
Ardila A.
Abstract
It is proposed that cross-cultural neuropsychology analyzes the influence of cultural variables on cognition from a neurological perspective. It includes three major questions: 1. How are current neuropsychological tests affected by the cultural conditions? (2) Are there differences in the brain organization of cognition depending upon the culture? (3) How is brain pathology manifested in different cultural contexts? A history of cross-cultural neuropsychology is presented emphasizing that the interest in cultural issues is observed since the very beginning of neuropsychology. An analysis of culture is introduced, explaining how culture has been interpreted in different ways, but can be understood as the specific way of living of a human group. Further, it is discussed why culture is important in neuropsychology, followed by an analysis of some cultural variables. Special emphasis in schooling, considering that education represents a major variable affecting the performance in diverse cognitive tests. Several illustrative examples of research in cross-cultural neuropsychology are finally presented.
RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics. 2020;17(1):64-78
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APPLIED ETHNOPSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH
Intercultural Competence of Psychologists: Problems and Prospects of Study and Development
Melnikova N.M.
Abstract

The article is concerned with the problem of cross-cultural training of psychologists. The author analyses various approaches to the definition and development of intercultural competence and highlights professional and ethical problems of psychological activity related to cultural competence/incompetence of specialists. Particular attention is paid to the specifics in training psychologists for cross-cultural counselling, the experience of organising psychological work in a multi-cultural environment, using the example of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia), as well as some important aspects in how psychologists develop and manifest intercultural competence during ethnopsychological field studies. An analysis of the accumulated practical experience in a multicultural environment made it possible to identify the conditions for the successful development of cross-cultural competence, setting the psychologist’s value foundations and motivational readiness to communicate with people of other cultures. These conditions include: (1) a humanistic approach in psychology; (2) a subjectsubject approach to communication; (3) formation of scientific and professional thinking; (4) purposeful development of such mechanisms of understanding other people as decentration and reflection; and (5) mastering of conflict-resolution and group-work technologies. In this regard, the author concludes that the development of intercultural competence in the domestic psychologists’ training system requires not only a detailed discussion of ethical issues related to the psychologist’s activities or specifics of cross-cultural communication within the studied disciplines, but also the introduction of special cross-cultural communication development programmes and trainings in intercultural competence and cultural sensitivity. The cross-cultural training of psychologists can be based on the working model of ethnocultural competence proposed by T.G. Stefanenko. It is emphasized that the development of intercultural competence should involve not only an individual person but the entire professional community through research and open discussion of the current state of cross-cultural competence of psychologists as well as the entire complex of ethical issues.

RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics. 2020;17(1):79-100
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Ethnic Identity of Russian Women in Interethnic Marriages and its Relationship with Their Attachment to Spouses and Separation from Parents
Chebotareva E.Y., Konina M.A., Rudenko A.S.
Abstract

The article presents a comparative study of the types of ethnic identity in conjunction with the styles of attachment in a couple and separation from the parental family of women who are in intercultural and monocultural marriages. The main sample consisted of 198 Russian women aged 21 to 55 years ( M = 36.1), including 84 women married to representatives of their own culture and living in Russia and 114 women married to representatives of the titular nationality of one of six European countries and living in the countries of their husbands. The study involved the following methods: “Multi-Item Measure of Adult Romantic Attachment - MIMARA”, adapted by T.L. Kryukova, O.A. Ekimchik; “Attachment to Close People Inventory” (N.V. Sabelnikova, D.V. Kashirsky); “Questionnaire of psychological separation” by J. Hoffman, adapted by T.Yu. Sadovnikova, V.P. Dzukaeva; and “Method for diagnosing types of ethnic identity” (G.U. Soldatova, S.V. Ryzhova). In general, the results of the study show that for women in interethnic marriages living in a foreign cultural environment, attachment to both their parents and husbands is more secure and positive, whereas the style of ethnic identity is more extreme and is associated with internal conflict. Women from intercultural marriages revealed different features of ethnic identity depending on the length of their marriage. It is shown that the style of ethnic identity is closely connected with attachment relationships. For women in monoethnic marriages living in their native country, it is more associated with separation from their parents but, for women in interethnic marriages living in a foreign country, it is to a greater extent associated with attachment to their husbands. In both cases, positive ethnic identity is associated with insecure attachment and dependence on their parents and husbands, while extreme forms of ethnic identity are associated with secure attachment and personal autonomy in relationships. The results of this study allow the specialists to take into account the specific social situation of interethnic couples more accurately in the course of psychological, social and other assistance to such couples, to develop constructive ways of discussing and maintaining cultural differences in the couple.

RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics. 2020;17(1):101-127
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Transformation of Ethnic Identity of Armenian Migrants Involved and Non-Involved in the Activities of Their National Cultural Autonomy
Konstantinov V.V., Babaeva M.V.
Abstract

The paper discusses the results of a longitudinal empirical study on the types and manifestations of ethnic identity of Armenian migrants, its transformation depending on the participation/non-participation of representatives of the Armenian ethnos in the activities of the Armenian national cultural autonomy of Penza. The survey sample was formed from representatives of the Armenian ethnic group living in the Penza region: 100 during the initial diagnosis and 92 of them after the repeated diagnosis. The time period between the first and second stages of the study was 5 years. At each stage the sample included two equal subgroups: Armenian migrants who participated and did not participate in the activities of the national community. The features of ethnic identity were diagnosed by means of the Type of Ethnic Identity (TEI) technique (G.I. Soldatova and S.V. Ryzhova) and the technique for assessing the positivity and uncertainty of ethnic identity (A.N. Tatarko and N.M. Lebedeva). Student’s t -test was used for statistical data processing. The results of the study confirm the assumption that migrants who interact over a long stretch of time with their community organisation have less pronounced hyper-ethnic attitudes like ethno-egoism and ethno-isolationism. The repeated diagnosis revealed a decreasing tendency in the number of migrants in both groups with predominant positive ethnic identity and an increasing tendency in the number of migrants with ethnoindifference, which is most likely a natural reaction to their long staying in another culture and adaptation to it. The results of the study are likely to be useful in developing programs for the prevention of inter-ethnic conflicts in modern society, when it is necessary to take into account the role of national cultural autonomies in the process of migrants’ adaptation in the host society.

RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics. 2020;17(1):128-142
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Psycholinguistic Analysis of the Associations of the Concepts “Man” and “Woman” Typical of the Siberian Turkic Peoples
Egorova A.I.
Abstract

This study examines the associations of the concepts “Man” and “Woman” typical of the Turkic peoples of Siberia, i.e. Altaians, Tuvans, Khakas, and Yakuts. The objective of the study was to identify the semantic fields of stimuli associated with these concepts determined by the ethnocultural context. The study tested the hypothesis that the core of the associative fields of these concepts, in a meaningful sense, will have more similarities than differences among the Turkic ethnic groups mentioned above. The study involved 487 representatives of the Siberian Turkic peoples, namely 80 Altaians, 157 Tuvans, 126 Khakas, and 124 Yakuts, including 230 men and 257 women aged 18-65, of whom 145 were with a secondary general education, 73 were technical school graduates and 269 had an academic degree. The main research method was a survey with elements of an associative experiment. A total of 1844 associations were revealed, including 914 for the stimulus “man” and 930 for the stimulus “woman”. During the content analysis, all the answers were divided into six categories, which included subcategories and various indicators, i.e. ‘Physical characteristics’, ‘Status-role characteristics’, ‘Man’, ‘Subject, nature, abstraction, image’, ‘Personal qualities’, and ‘Behavioural characteristics’. By the number of references in the images “man” and “woman”, the first three ranks belong to ‘Status-role characteristics’, ‘Personal qualities’ and ‘Physical characteristics’. As for the core of the associative fields of the concept “man”, the respondents included the following indicators in it: ‘strong’, ‘defender’, ‘can stand up for his family’, ‘can defend the rights of his family’, ‘supporter of the family’, ‘shoulder’, ‘adviser’, ‘provider’, ‘breadwinner’, ‘father’, ‘dad’, ‘parent’, ‘master of the house’, ‘courageous’; and specifically: ‘smart’ (Tuvans and Khakas); ‘brave’, ‘fearless’, ‘bold’, ‘valiant’ (Tuvans and Yakuts); ‘stands by his word’ (Altaians); ‘strong-willed’ (Yakuts). The core of the associative fields of the concept “woman” included such indicators as: ‘beautiful’, ‘striking’, ‘well-groomed’, ‘attractive’, ‘nice’, ‘sweet’, ‘mom’, ‘mistress of the house’, ‘guardian of the hearth’, ‘feminine’, ‘soft’, ‘tender’, ‘kind’, ‘affectionate’, ‘kind-hearted’, ‘generous’, ‘helpful’, ‘sincere’, ‘smart’, ‘wife’, ‘caring’. The results of the study can be used for developing concepts and programmes of gender and family policy of the state as well as find application in the work of services of social and psychological assistance to families in the national regions of the Russian Federation.

RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics. 2020;17(1):143-158
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TATIANA G. STEFANENKO – SCIENTIST, TEACHER AND PERSON: TOUCHES TO THE PORTRAIT
Tatiana G. Stefanenko’s Contribution to the Development of Ethnopsychology at RUDN University: Inspiring Leadership
Novikova I.A., Maslova O.V.
Abstract

The article describes Tatiana G. Stefanenko’s cooperation with teachers and students of the Social and Differential Psychology Department of the Peoples' Friendship University of Russia (RUDN University), the most international university in Russia. The authors focus on contribution of T.G. Stefanenko’s contribution to the development of ethnopsychological science and practice at the RUDN University: teaching ethnopsychology, conducting intercultural competence trainings, organising joint scientific research on the intercultural adaptation of international students and other ethnopsychological problems.

RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics. 2020;17(1):159-167
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Tatiana G. Stefanenko - an Example of Professionalism, Education, Modesty
Gritsenko V.V.
Abstract

The article is devoted to unforgettable memories of the author’s meetings with an amazing person, Tatiana G. Stefanenko. She was an outstanding scientist whose contribution to Russian Ethnopsychology cannot be overestimated. She played a key role in organizing Smolensk ethnopsychological conferences. However, her interests were by no means limited only to scientific activity - she was fond of painting, music and theater. In addition, Tatiana will be remembered as a kind-hearted, sympathetic, sincere and surprisingly modest person.

RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics. 2020;17(1):168-173
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Cross'Cultural Communication Training: Dedicated to the Memory of Tatiana G. Stefanenko
Luneva O.V.
Abstract

The article is dedicated to the memory of Tatiana G. Stefanenko, Professor of the Department of Social Psychology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, who made a significant contribution to ethnopsychology as well as to the training of ethnopsycologists. The focus is on her participation in developing and testing the cross-cultural communication training project and some facets of the researcher’s personality.

RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics. 2020;17(1):174-182
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In Loving Memory of Unique Person
Tashcheva A.I.
Abstract

This publication contains memories of Tatiana G. Stefanenko, a unique person, professor of the Faculty of Psychology of Lomonosov Moscow State University, one of the leading Russian ethnopsychologists.

RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics. 2020;17(1):183-188
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The Teacher and Scientific Mum: Dedicated to the Memory of Tatiana G. Stefanenkо
Kupavskaya A.S.
Abstract

The article is dedicated to the memory of Tatiana G. Stefanenko, Professor of the Faculty of Psychology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, the teacher and the friend, and talking about the way she influenced and inspired the new generation of crosscultural psychologists on personal and professional levels.

RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics. 2020;17(1):189-195
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SCIENCE CHRONICLE
Tatiana G. Stefanenko’s Impact to the Development of Ethnopsychological Research in Azerbaijan
Shirkov Y.E., Azimzade A.A., Hasanova U.U., Novruzova L.Z.
Abstract

The article provides a brief historical survey of the Azerbaijani school of ethnopsychological research, revealing the role of T.G. Stefanenko in its development. The authors present the results accumulated during the first years of ethnopsychological studies in Baku under the direct supervision of T.G. Stefanenko: (1) features of the ethnic identity of adolescents from Azerbaijani and Azerbaijani-Russian families; (2) cross-cultural differences in the value orientations of students living in Azerbaijan and Russia; and (3) the relationship of the time perspective and characteristics of ethnic identity among representatives of Azerbaijani and Russian cultures.

RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics. 2020;17(1):196-208
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Psychological Science at the United Nations: Historical Trends
Takooshian H.
Abstract
Since the United Nations was formed by 51 nations on June 26, 1945, psychology organizations were slow to register with the UN as nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) in the past 75 years. This essay briefly describes the four-stage history of psychology NGOs at the United Nations, which have grown far more active and coordinated since 2004.
RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics. 2020;17(1):209-213
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REVIEWS
Appreciating CB Therapy Across Cultures: Book Review of: Iwamasa G.Y., & Hays, P.A. (Eds.). (2019). Culturally Responsive Cognitive Behavior Therapy. 2nd Edition. Washington DC: American Psychological Association. 348 p
Ellis D.J.
Abstract
RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics. 2020;17(1):214-218
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