Vol 16, No 4 (2019)

PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY AND CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY
Prospects for Using Adaptive Biofeedback to Train Musicians
Petrenko T.I., Bazanova O.M., Kabardov M.K.
Abstract

The use of biofeedback (BFB) technology becomes relevant for professional training of musicians to achieve success in psychomotor function control. We compared two training approaches: 20-22 sessions of alpha-EEG/EMG biofeedback implication to increase the аlpha-2 power while reducing the tension of the forehead muscles and sham biofeedback training. Fifty student musicians (18-28 years old) were divided randomly by age, gender, performing specialty, and individual EEG alpha-peak frequency (IAPF) into two groups. Music performance, state anxiety, self-actualization, nonverbal creativity, coefficient of finger movement optimality (Ko) and the efficiency of the single training session (E1) were evaluated before and after for both types of courses. We calculated the change of the EEG power in the individually adjusted alpha-2 range in the Pz and the integrated EMG power of the surface muscles of the forehead in response to finger movement. Training with biofeedback improved music performance score, increased self-actualization, Ko, and E1 while reducing pre-stage anxiety. The students who received the sham biofeedback did not achieve such improvements. When using biofeedback, students with baseline low alpha-peak frequency (LF) showed a more significant increase in scores for music performance, Ko, and E1 than students with high alpha-peak frequency (HF). In LF students, the sessions without biofeedback did not change the studied parameters. In this pilot placebo-controlled study, we demonstrated that achieving success in the optimal musical performance training depends on the baseline genetically determined IAPF and feedback implication from the EEG alpha-2 power and forehead muscle tone.

RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics. 2019;16(4):495-516
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Study of Phobic Manifestations and Anxiety in Patients with Coronary Heart Disease after Myocardial Infarction in View of Tasks of Psychological Rehabilitation
Velikanov A.A., Boyarskaya A.A., Stoljarova A.A., Protasov E.A., Lubinskaya E.I., Demchenko E.A.
Abstract

The study of the psycho-emotional features of patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) is important for the development of psychological rehabilitation measures. In particular, it is necessary to take into account the specifics of the experienced fears and anxiety states which can be manifested in patients after myocardial infarction (MI). Negative psycho-emotional experiences are known to influence the course and prognosis of the disease. Identification of the structure of phobic manifestations, anxiety and personal characteristics of patients is appropriate for optimizing psychodiagnostics and psychocorrection. The present research is aimed at studying the characteristics of phobic manifestations and the structure of anxiety in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) after myocardial infarction (MI), considering the dominant state, indicators of quality of life and personal characteristics. In the course of the present study 67 patients were surveyed with gender distribution of 12 women (18%) and 55 men (82%): patients of the Almazov National Medical Research Centre of the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation who had a history of myocardial infarction (up to 1 year) and had undergone myocardial revascularization. The average age of the patients was 58.95 years. Clinical interview and psychological testing (Dominant State Determining Method, Integrative Test of Anxiety, The 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36), The Big Five Personality Test) were used. In patients with CHD after MI with substantial fears the most frequently detected phobic manifestations are the fear of physical activity and the fears associated with the disease itself. In the group of patients with the presence of phobic manifestations more pronounced indicators of anxiety, lower indicators of quality of life (QoL) and emotional stability in the structure of personal characteristics were noted. When planning psychological rehabilitation for patients with CHD who have undergone MI, it is important to consider the likelihood of anxiety and phobic manifestations.

RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics. 2019;16(4):517-539
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SOCIAL AND PERSONALITY PSYCHOLOGY
Types of Attitudes toward Traits and Their Role in Selfand Other Assessments
Baleva M.V., Polyanina O.I., Smirnova I.V.
Abstract

The study integrates the experimental and descriptive approaches to the attitudes. The assumptions that the emotional, cognitive and behavioral components of attitudes toward personality traits, as well as the types of these attitudes mediate the selfand the Other assessments are under consideration. The study involved 314 students aged 18 to 30 years old (M = 20.23; SD = 1.59), of which 79 men (25%) and 235 women (75%). To measure attitudes toward traits, as well as the selfand the Other assessments, a list of 20 antonymic adjectives denoting personality characteristics was used. The objects of perception were young man and woman who answered the questions of the Short Dark Triad Questionnaire as an absolutely “good” or “bad” person. Using cluster analysis, different types of attitudes toward traits were highlighted within each component (cognitive, emotional, and behavioral). These types were determined by the participants’ position in relation to positive and negative traits. The attained results indicate that the subject’s self-esteem depends on the attitudes toward traits and detects different severity depending on the attitudes type. The highest self-esteem is observed in those subjects who: 1) consider that positive traits are more common than negative; 2) give highly contrast emotional ratings to positive and negative traits; 3) believe that positive traits are less controlled than negative ones. The assessment of the Other also reveals a connection with the types of the attitudes toward traits: the “good” Other is rated higher when the emotional attitudes toward traits are highly contrast, while the “bad” Other is rated higher when: 1) the negative traits are treated as more common; 2) the contrast between positive and negative traits is perceived as moderate. The results obtained open up the new perspectives for the correction of the selfand the Other assessments through the formation of attitudes toward traits.

RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics. 2019;16(4):540-559
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Subject-Activity Determinants of Types of Social Activity of Students
Arendachuk I.V.
Abstract

The relevance of the study of the social activity of young people presented in the article in the context of the subject-activity approach is determined by the need for psychological justification of programs meant to implement it in the significant areas of public life. The purpose of the study is to identify the subject and activity characteristics that determine the social activity of the students, depending on the type of its orientation. The study was conducted on a sample of young people aged 15-25 years ( n = 229). The two types of social activity were identified: the one aimed at the realization of personal aspirations and interests (“for own benefit”) and the one aimed at the achievement of socially significant goals (“for others’ benefit”). The subject characteristics of these types of activity were studied using the personality self-determination test by B. Sheldon as modified by E.N. Osin, the questionnaire for the study of the subjectivity structure by E.N. Volkova and I.A. Seregina, the methodology “The Level of Development of Personality Subjectivity” by M.A. Schukina. The activity self-organization questionnaire by E.Yu. Mandrikova and the author’s questionnaire, the reliability of which is confirmed by the results of positional analysis, were used to study the activity characteristics. It is shown that the social activity of young people is largely due to activity characteristics. The social activity aimed “for own benefit” is more highly determined by the subjective characteristics of the person, compared to the activity aimed “for others’ benefit”. The universal determinants of the social activity of students, which do not depend on the types of its orientation and have a common predictive potential, are revealed. These include the level characteristic of the personality’s subjectivity “creative - standard” and the characteristics of activity - “initia- tive in activity”, “solution of socially-oriented tasks” and “self-organization (through external means)”. In the structure of the activity the factors “activity content”, “social responsibility” and “satisfaction with the result of activity” were also attributed to the sustainably expressed determinants of the social activity aimed “for own benefit”. The activity characteristics “striving for success, self-affirmation”, “striving for confidence, self-improvement”, “satisfying own needs”, “complying with social requirements”, “insistence”, “focusing on the present”, as well as the characteristic of the non-situational subjectivity of the personality “freedom of choice and responsibility for it” became the determinants of activity aimed “for others’ benefit”.

RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics. 2019;16(4):560-581
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Structure of Social Representations of Higher Education in Students with Different Intragroup Status
Sachkova M.E., Esina G.K.
Abstract

The current article represents the results of the study of the students’ social representations of higher education analyzing their (social representations) structure and content. The total sample size is 358 Moscow secondary school and undergraduate students (average age ~ 18.3). The aim of the research is to identify the structure and content of the students’ social representations of higher education, taking into account their intragroup position in the study group. We used the method of free associations (by P. Verges) to reveal the structure of social representations and a complex of socio-psychological methods (methodological procedure for definition of informal intragroup power structure in the contact community, sociometry, referentometry) to determine the students’ integral intragroup status. The obtained associations were subjected to prototypic (rank-frequency) analysis. The results of the research show that the cores of the social representations of higher education of the students of different intragroup status categories differ according to the number of elements and their content characteristics. It was revealed that the social representations of the undergraduate students of different status categories seemed to be more consistent in comparison to secondary school students due to the smaller “distance” to higher education as an “object”. We also revealed the differences in the significance and emotional rating of representations core elements depending on the student status categories.

RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics. 2019;16(4):582-599
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PSYCHOLOGY OF INTERNET DISCOURSE
Post-Event Cinema Discourse: Concept, Functioning, Case Study
Kubrak T.A.
Abstract

The problems of the organization and functioning of post-event cinema discourse are discussed in the article. Post-event discourse is shaped by the viewers and represents their response statements in a communicative interaction with the movie; it reflects the processes of perception and understanding of the film by the audience. It is discussed that if there is a real event underlying the film, the film itself becomes a post-event discourse, forming or reinterpreting the ideas about what happened depending on the cultural and historical context. The results of an empirical study that implements a case study methodology are presented. A thematic analysis of the post-event Internet discourse, expressed in the statements about a particular film (“T-34”), has been carried out. A thematic map that revealed the structure of the post-event cinema discourse and its simplified versions, due to the genre features of the film has been developed. It is shown that viewers not only interpret the plot of the film, but also rethink the events behind it, express the effects of influence, raise topics for discussion that are not directly related to the film. The structure of post-event discourse changes depending on the characteristics of the audience. It has been revealed that the significant part of the audience perceived the film in accordance with the original function of cinema as “entertainment”. This determined both the peculiarities of its understanding and the effects of the impact, mainly emotional. Another part of the audience discovered the cognitive implications of the film and demonstrated a more complex structure of post-event discourse organization; understanding the film in a broader context contributed to the comprehension and actualization of additional themes. It is assumed that the unfolding post-event discourse in the process of communicative interaction of the viewer with the film contributes to the formation of discursive reality.

RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics. 2019;16(4):600-617
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Yandex Users’ Needs in Knowledge on Psychology
Kitova J.A., Aprelikova N.R.
Abstract

Modern information technology space provides people with new opportunities for learning about the world, acquiring additional knowledge and satisfying cognitive needs. The paper analyzes the requests and characteristic features of the needs for knowledge on psychology of the Internet users in the Russian Federation. The study was conducted on the basis of the search queries in Yandex. The specific user requests demonstrate a heterogeneous level of interest in various branches of psychology, which allows highlighting the structural and substantial features of the respondents’ needs in psychology knowledge and the forms of obtaining the kind of knowledge they prefer. In general, the research results showed a high level of interest of the Internet users in knowledge on psychology, demonstrated their high orientation towards the search for useful information on personal development, professional activities and the development of favorable relationships with others. The data obtained indicate the most important areas of knowledge on psychology for a modern person and will be useful in the framework of psychological and educational theory and practice. The article points out that the study of the needs of the population in knowledge on psychology should be an integral part of the psychological community, which is responsible for the psychological well-being of people and the development of the psychological culture of society as a whole.

RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics. 2019;16(4):618-633
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PSYCHOLOGICAL AND PEDAGOGICAL PROBLEMS OF EDUCATION
The E-Course Multimodal Content, Its Specific Structure and Teaching Affordances
Galchuk L.M.
Abstract

The article presents the results obtained through the study of the multimodal segment within the Moodle-based training course in terms of its specific features and affordances for creating an innovative system of vocationally oriented foreign language teaching in nonlinguistic Master’s degree programmes. There is a need to research the functionality of the e-course semiotically different constituents when they co-occur and specify their contribution to the efficient presentation and perception of the learning content in digitally supported language classroom, which makes the research relevant. It envisaged identifying a set of multimodal resources and elements within the e-course, examining the image - text relations in terms of logico-semantics, specifying the teaching properties and affordances of such multicode combinations and assessing their learning effect through the students’ grade report as well as their feedback on the satisfaction with the multimedia learning content. The obtained results confirm that the e-course multimodal resources and elements derive their synergistic effect in terms of meaning and function from the complex interaction of the different modes constituting them. The digital nature of the multimodal learning content provides it with a set of specific properties such as multimedia, interactivity, nonlinear information flow, informativeness and gamification that when apply in teaching may contribute to creating effective online vocationally oriented foreign language learning environments. The specification of text - image combination patterns in formal and semantic terms and teaching affordances of their non-verbal constituents in online language classroom adds novelty to this paper.

RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics. 2019;16(4):634-650
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ON 80TH ANNIVERSARY OF A.I. KRUPNOV, RUDN UNIVERSITY PROFESSOR
We Grew Up on Shoulders of Our Predecessors: on Anniversary of Alexander I. Krupnov
Osnitsky A.K.
Abstract

The article is dedicated to the 80th anniversary of the birth of Dr. habil. in Psychology, Professor A.I. Krupnov. It analyzes the continuity and achievements of scientific research on differential psychology in Russian science. Advantages of A.I. Krupnov’s psychological researches and the employees of Psychological Institute of Russian Academy of Education are revealed. The man of the year developed a holistic conceptual foundation of the personality traits’ formation, combining the interaction of direct-sensory and conscious components of human activities. Theoretically grounded and practically demanded aspects of the activity of person’s self-regulation were presented in A.I. Krupnov’s integral concept. Along with article author’s ideas about the regulatory experience of the person providing independence and conscious self-regulation in the process of the organization and implementation of activity are considered. Reconstruction of the appeal to human experience while studying its psychological characteristics in the regulatory context combines the interaction of valuable, reflexive, operational, communicative and habitually-activated components of the activities’ organization and implementation. A person acquires the ability to set tasks through regulatory experience. He chooses them from among those imposed by the environment and generates new tasks independently, and then consistently achieves their successful solution.

RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics. 2019;16(4):651-669
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REVIEWS
Book Review of DiMino, J. (2019). Shadow Work and Sacred Space: Exploring Myths We Live In. Mimesis Books. 229 p
Sauvayre P.E.
Abstract

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RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics. 2019;16(4):670-673
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SCIENCE CHRONICLE
Results of the All-Russian Professional Skill Contest “Educational Psychologist of Russia - 2019”
Kudinov S.S., Khairova Z.R.
Abstract

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RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics. 2019;16(4):674-681
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