Vol 16, No 3 (2019)

SOCIAL AND PERSONALITY PSYCHOLOGY
Individual Values and Ideological Attitudes as Predictors of Prejudice against Others
Shamionov R.M.
Abstract

The growth of social competition and modern trends of economic and social integration in the world encourage the study of the discriminatory attitudes of individuals and groups as a significant barrier in the implementation of these processes. Despite the search for various grounds and factors for the development of discriminatory attitudes, studies of specific attitudes and values towards specific and generalized discriminated groups remain relevant. The aim of this research is to study the role of individual values and ideological attitudes in predicting the prejudice against Others. The study involved 217 people (men - 36 %), mean age M = 28.9; SD = 11.2.Aquestionnaire aimed at assessing the severity of the discriminatory attitude towards the representatives of a number of groups was used. The expression of values is determined by the Sh. Schwartz method. To assess the ideological attitudes of the right-wing authoritarianism, social domination, and belief in a dangerous and competitive world, we used a short version of J. Duckitt’s methodology by D.S. Grigoriev. As a result of the confirmatory factor analysis, four generalized discriminated groups were identified: socially unprotected, dissident, outsider groups and social status groups. The data characterizing the ratio of ideological attitudes and the severity of discrimination of individual groups, as well as generalized groups was obtained. Based on structural modeling the common and specific values for each generalized discriminated group were identified.

RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics. 2019;16(3):309-326
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Moral Basis for Ethnic Tolerance
Protasova I.N., Sychev O.A.
Abstract

The article deals with the relation between ethnic tolerance and the moral sphere features on the basis of Moral Foundations Theory by J. Haidt. As a result of theoretical analysis we put forward a hypothesis that ethnic tolerance is entirely compatible with individualizing moral foundations (caring/not doing harm and fairness) but contradicts the binding moral foundations (loyalty, authority, sanctity). To test this hypothesis the research was carried out on a sample of 340 university students. The participants completed a questionnaire packet containing the “Tolerance index” questionnaire by G.U. Soldatova et al. and the “Moral foundations questionnaire” by J. Graham et al. The correlations between variables showed that ethnic tolerance was positively correlated with moral foundations ‘Care’ and ‘Fairness’ and negatively correlated with moral foundation ‘Authority’. Using path analysis we showed that ethnic tolerance is positively correlated with individualizing moral foundations and negatively correlated with binding moral foundations under the control of tolerance as a trait, gender and age. Our results also revealed unsatisfactory reliability of the “Social tolerance” scale of the “Tolerance index” questionnaire indicating the need for further investigation of the psychometric properties of this questionnaire. Our results support the hypothesis that ethnic tolerance is compatible with individualizing moral foundations, but contradicts the binding moral foundations. This fact demonstrates the moral inconsistencies of ethnic tolerance in the context of the individualizing and binding moral foundations.

RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics. 2019;16(3):327-340
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Development of Approach to Typology of Internet Communities based on Discursive Markers of Collective Subjectivity
Pavlova N.D., Voronin A.N., Grebenschikova T.A., Kubrak T.A.
Abstract

The article discusses the problems of the typology of network communities, representing the new social reality of modern digital society. The methodology of a comprehensive study of social communities based on socio-psychological and psycholinguistic methods, the use of the discursive approach and the subject category, little studied in relation to large social groups, determine the novelty of the research. According to the main research hypothesis, various forms of group subjectivity, which determine its readiness for joint activities, are manifested in the discourse of the network community, which constitutes it by mediating the interaction of its members, transmitting ideas about the world, values, relations, attitudes and setting patterns of behavior. We defined discursive features of internet communities relevant to the various forms of group subjectivity and subjectivity criteria - interconnectedness, focus on joint activities, etc. A procedure for identifying discursive characteristics of the subjectivity of a network community of various levels (lexical, procedural, semantic) was presented and their examples were given. On this basis, a comparative analysis of network communities, providing for the future creation of their psychological typology was carried out.

RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics. 2019;16(3):341-358
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Typical Spheres of Social Activity Manifestation in Modern Youth
Bocharova E.E.
Abstract

The purpose of the study presented in the article is the empirical study of the typical life spheres where social activity of young people is manifested. The empirical study was carried out on a sample of student youth ( N = 236), which included high school students from secondary schools ( n = 118) and students from higher educational institutions ( n = 118) from Saratov and the Saratov region. We used the questionnaire aimed at registering various forms of social activity and the degree of their manifestation (by R.M. Shamionov, I.V. Arendachuk, E.E. Bocharova, M.V. Grigorieva, A.I. Zagranichniy, M.A. Klenova, N.V. Usova, O.A. Cherekayeva, A.A. Sharov, 2018) and the technique called “Morphological Test of Life Values” (by V.F. Sopov, L.V. Karpushina, 2001) to study various life spheres. Presumably, there are typical spheres of manifestation of various forms of social activity, differing in content orientation. It has been established that the typical spheres of social activity manifestation in young people are the spheres of professional (educational and professional) life, social activity, education and hobbies. The study revealed the typical spheres for various forms of social activity manifestation. Among them are the sphere of professional (educational and professional) life, i.e. leisure, altruistic, socio-economic, spiritual, Internet-network, socio-political, and civil forms of activity; the sphere of social activity, i.e. leisure, altruistic, socio-economic, and socio-political forms of activity; the sphere of education, i.e. leisure, altruistic, educational and developmental, protest forms of activity; the hobby-related sphere, i.e. leisure, altruistic, spiritual, civil forms of activity; the sphere of family life, i.e. altruistic and subcultural forms of activity. We have discovered contradictory tendencies regarding functional manifestation in some forms of social activity in various life spheres and the restriction of other forms of social activity and areas of their manifestation. The applied aspect of the problem under study can be implemented in the development of youth policy programs.

RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics. 2019;16(3):359-376
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Relation between Victimization and Emotional Intelligence: Gender and Age Features
Sheinov V.P.
Abstract

The study of victimization is relevant in view of its high prevalence in modern society and the numerous negative consequences for victims of bullying and for organizations. The purpose of this research is to study the possible relationship between victimization and emotional intelligence in Russian-speaking boys, girls, men and women. Similar studies have not previously been conducted on Russian-language samples. A total of 454 respondents took part in the study, of whom 115 were women (average age - 49.1 years), 72 men (average age - 50.4 years), 104 girls (average age - 19.1 years), and 163 boys (average age - 19.1 years). The diagnostics of victimization was carried out using the author’s method for assessing the degree of victimization of an adult individual. The Russian-language version of N. Hall’s test was used to evaluate the components of emotional intelligence (EI). The main method of statistical processing was correlation analysis. It has been found that the presence of negative connections between the components of victimization and the components of EI is common to all groups. However the connections for each of these groups are different. In particular: in girls, the aggressive behavior negatively correlates with managing one’s emotions, empathy, recognition of other people’s emotions and the general indicator of EI; in young men, the dependent behavior is negatively associated with managing one’s emotions, self-management and the general indicator of emotional intelligence; in women, the aggressive behavior negatively correlates with managing one’s emotions, self-management and the general indicator of emotional intelligence; in men, the aggressiveness is negatively associated with managing one’s emotions, self-management, recognizing the emotions of other people, and the general indicator of emotional intelligence. The comparison of the obtained results with the results of foreign studies (mainly in teenagers) shows that the nature and direction of interrelations revealed for adults, for boys and girls in general, do not differ from those established in foreign studies.

RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics. 2019;16(3):377-392
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PSYCHODIAGNOSTICS
Acculturation Scale to Russia (ASR) for International Students: Development and Psychometric Verification
Ardila A., Maslova O.V., Novikova I.A., Shlyakhta D.A., Aguilar Y.Y.
Abstract

The growing number of migrants makes it relevant to study the problem of acculturation to a new culture and to develop adequate methodological tools for assessing acculturation. Acculturation scales are a common tool for studying the adaptation of international citizens; in Russia, however, there is a shortage of them. The purpose of this study was to develop a short, easy to use, and not requiring translation into the mother tongue scale, aimed at determining the level of acculturation. When developing the methodology, we relied on the analysis of the available acculturation scales and on the recommendations proposed by van de Vijver et al. This study included the following stages: development of the initial version of the scale, testing and analysis of comprehensibility of the scale questions, psychometric analysis, repeated testing and psychometric verification, and finally, determining external validity. At the various stages, the study covered 445 international students (42% female) from 71 countries. For psychometric analysis, descriptive statistics methods, Cronbach α and MacDonald ω coefficients, bifactor analysis were used. To check the external validity, the method of expert evaluations (16 experts are teachers of the Russian language, basic disciplines, tutors on educational work) and correlation analyses were used. As a result, the proposed Acculturation Scale to Russia (ASR) has a high consistency (α = 0,89, ω = 0,91), three-factor structure (3 subscales were identified), and its satisfactory external validity. This scale can be used to assess the level of acculturation of international students in Russia.

RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics. 2019;16(3):393-415
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Psychodiagnostics of Psychological Readiness of Candidates for Management of Correctional Facilities
Bovin B.G., Fedorova E.M.
Abstract

The article presents the results of an empirical study conducted by the employees of the Research Institute of the Federal Penitentiary Service. The problems of the psychological selection of the employees enrolled in the reserve for the posts of heads of correctional institutions of the penitentiary system of the North Caucasus Federal District are considered. The sample consisted of 164 employees of corrective services, pre-trial detention centers, medical correctional institutions and correctional institutions in the territorial bodies of the Federal Penitentiary Service of Russia of the North Caucasus Federal District: age - from 25 to 45 years old, gender - male, work experience - from 3 to 10 years. The methods used in the centers of psychodiagnostics of the territorial bodies of the Federal Penitentiary Service of Russia were used in the psychological examination of candidates enlisted in the reserve for promotion, namely, MMPI and an expert survey. As a result of the study, the criteria for psychological readiness for managerial activities and psychological contraindications for holding a managerial position were determined. On the basis of a multiple regression analysis, a socio-psychological model, which determines the level of staff readiness for management activities in correctional institutions of the Penal Enforcement System was also developed. The practical significance of the study lies in the possibility of applying the developed model to the psychodiagnostic examination of candidates and the formation of a reserve for managerial positions.

RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics. 2019;16(3):416-434
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CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY
Time Perspective in Patients with Affective Disorders: Review of Scientific Research
Zakharova A.Y., Trusova A.V.
Abstract

The article presents the results of the theoretical analysis of the Russian and international studies devoted to the phenomenon of the time perspective of the personality. The time perspective is an extremely relevant research topic, and at the same time, a littlestudied area of psychological and psychiatric science. The history of the term is briefly described, the main approaches to the definition of the concept are considered, the important properties and characteristics of the time perspective of the individual are determined. In this article, the features of the time perspective of a personality are considered with regard to anxiety and depression, important manifestations of affective disorders; the properties of the temporal perspective are considered in the context of manifestations of anxiety and depression in patients with affective disorders. The connection of the depressive episodes and the subjective attitude to the past, present, and future is marked, the role of dysfunctional time perspective in the context of depressive and anxious experiences is emphasized. The influence of subjective perception of time, especially future, on the increasing anxiety is reflected. Some foreign and domestic studies of the time perspective in patients with affective disorders are considered and analyzed. We found some differences in subjective perception of time and time perspective in patients with anxious and depressive manifestations: the speed of time in depressed patients is slowed down, in anxious patients it is accelerated; as for the attitude to the past, present, and future, in patients with severe depressive manifestations there is a pessimistic attitude to the events of the future and fixation on the events of the past.

RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics. 2019;16(3):435-450
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PROBLEMS OF MODERN UNIVERSITY EDUCATION
Individual Educational Programs as New Mechanism of Integration between Higher Education and Labor Sphere
Senashenko V.S., Struchkova E.P.
Abstract

At present the problem of the integration between the higher education and the sphere of labor has become particularly urgent. It is noted that the attempts earlier made by a number of authors to solve the problem of the integration between the higher education and the labor sphere by combining educational and professional standards, as well as by harmonizing the requirements of the labor market for the qualifications of specialists and the competencies of graduates of higher education are facing significant difficulties. In this paper, we consider individual educational programs as one of the mechanisms of combining the higher education and labor. The analysis of the emerging differences between the higher education and the sphere of labor in the context of different educational models has been conducted. Thus, for example, within the framework of the professional model of the educational process organization, the possibilities of building individual educational programs are limited by the amount of labor intensity of the variable part of the educational program according to the field of study or subject specialism. At the same time, we are talking about professional individual educational programs, which are based on the processes of the formation of professional subjectivity of the student and the formation of his/her professional image. Such individual educational programs not only orient students on a certain type of work activity already at university, but also guarantee a well-grounded choice of the future profession. The paper focuses on the significant impact of the individualization of professional and professionalization of individual educational programs, as well as the multilevel structure of higher education on the nature of the integration of educational programs of higher education and the trajectories of professional development of young professionals. It is emphasized that the adaptation of students to the educational process, built on the principles of individualization of educational programs, is a key point of interdisciplinary psychological and pedagogical problems of the development of creative abilities of students and is accompanied by the mastery of new skills.

RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics. 2019;16(3):451-465
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Persons
The Path of Ethnopsychologist: to the 70th Anniversary of Tatiana G. Stefanenko
Kotova M.V., Malysheva N.G., Solovyova O.V.
Abstract

This article is dedicated to the memory of Professor of the Faculty of Psychology of Lomonosov Moscow State University, a leading researcher in the field of ethnopsychology in Russia - Tatyana Gavrilovna Stefanenko, who in 2019 would have turned 70 years old. The article deals with the main milestones of her life, pedagogical, scientific and practical work, touches upon the facets of her personality.

RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics. 2019;16(3):466-473
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SCIENCE CHRONICLE
Celebrating Psi Chi at Yale University
Takooshian H., Denmark F.L.
Abstract
Psi Chi was founded at Yale University on 4 September 1929, during the historic Ninth International Congress of Psychology - the first congress on U.S. soil. This report recounts how Yale University has been partnering with leaders of Psi Chi to host four joyous Anniversary Convocations to date, to salute international psychology, Psi Chi and student excellence in psychology - in 1999, 2004, 2009, and 2019.
RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics. 2019;16(3):474-479
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Psychology: Creating the Future Together - Results of 16th European Congress of Psychology
Ershova R.V.
Abstract
The report contains a brief overview of the 16th European Congress of Psychology (ECP2019), which was held in Moscow at July 2-5, 2019. The congress brought together more than 3,000 delegates from 94 countries of the world and became one of the landmark international events in the field of psychology in 2019.
RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics. 2019;16(3):480-485
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