Vol 16, No 1 (2019)

CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY AND PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY
Values as Predictors of Parent - Child Interaction Specifics in Finno-Ugric and Russian Families
Khotinets V.Y., Kozhevnikova O.V., Vyatkin B.A., Vologdina V.A.
Abstract

The paper represents the results of exploring the effects of values on the specifics of parentchild interaction in Finno-Ugric families (Udmurts, Komi-Permyaks) in comparison to the Russian ones. 280 respondents, including 140 mothers and 140 children (56 % are females) have participated in the research: 1) representatives of the Finno-Ugric (Ural) peoples: Udmurts (94 individuals) from villages of Mozhginsky district of the Udmurt Republic and Komi-Permyaks (86 individuals) from the villages of Komi-Permyak Okrug of Perm Krai; 2) representatives of the Russian ethnocultural group (100 individuals) from the village Ust-Kachka of Perm Krai. The standardized techniques have been implemented: the technique by S. Schwartz adapted by N.M. Lebedeva for measuring values at the individual level and the questionnaire by I.M. Markovskaya for exploring parent-child interactions. The methodology and procedures of Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) have been used as the main statistical method. It is revealed that parent-child interaction in Finno-Ugric families living in rural settlements with the autochthonic population is based on collectivistic values of self-preservation and survival, harmonious interaction with others. At the same time, the effect of a distinct individualistic value of independence on the indicators of the cohesion of parent-child interaction positions is found in Russian families. The results obtained during the research can be implemented while developing pedagogic techniques including the algorithms of inculturation of children in social institutions.

RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics. 2019;16(1):7-19
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CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY AND PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY
Concept of Cognitive Reserve in Context of Studying Coronary Heart Disease: Modern Views and Prospects of Scientific Research
Eremina D.A., Sidorovskaya Y.M.
Abstract

The article presents the results of a theoretical analysis of the contemporary foreign and domestic literature on the concept of the cognitive reserve, which is currently extremely urgent. The problems and the specificity of the cognitive impairments in patients with cardiovascular pathology, in particular, with coronary heart disease, as well as the main concepts and methodological problems of the concept of cognitive reserve are discussed in detail. The problem of the operationalization of this concept and the difficulties associated with it in determining the potential mechanisms of the cognitive reserve implementation are considered. The reciprocal influence of cognitive impairments on the course and prognosis of the coronary heart disease, in particular, on the level of compliance of the cardiac patients and subsequent psychological rehabilitation has been considered. In this regard, the paper discusses the potential directions for further research on the concept of cognitive reserve in relation to coronary heart disease, namely, the prospects of the study of the relationship between cognitive impairment and affective pathology and, in particular, alexithymia, which can significantly optimize the existing rehabilitation schemes for patients with ischemic heart disease.

RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics. 2019;16(1):20-38
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Relations of Sensorimotor Integration and Inhibitory Processes with Internal Position of Patient’s Personality
Elnikova O.E., Merenkova V.S.
Abstract

The article discusses the relations of the sensorimotor integration and inhibitory processes with the features of the internal position of the patient’s personality. Sensorimotor integration is considered as a characteristic of the mental processes, allowing us to estimate the peculiarities of the flexible rearrangements in the brain in the course of the formation of the new connections. Inhibitory control is considered as a psychophysiological characteristic responsible for cognitive inhibition and suppression of a certain type of behavior. The respondents were voluntary participants (a total of 98 people, 60 women and 38 men) with different levels of health, namely: (1) chronically ill (health group 3) - the total number of 50 people (average age 37 ± 11.1 years); (2) healthy people with certain functional abnormalities - 48 people (average age 34 ± 10.6 years). The types of attitudes to the disease were measured with the TOBOL inventory by L. Vasserman et al. The ReBOS technique by E. Vergunov was used to diagnose the orderliness of the sensory flow and the inhibitory processes level. It is shown that the representatives of the second and third health groups are diagnosed with an identical set of types of attitude to the disease, which is not constructive. That allowed us to divide them into groups according to the degree of adaptation. The respondents, whose mental and social adaptation is not impaired, are more difficult to adapt to the changing conditions, they have recorded rigidity and insufficient development of the inhibitory processes, they are capable of purposefully following the chosen model of behavior, but the underdevelopment of the inhibitory processes does not allow them to stop the implementation of the non-constructive attitude to health. In the respondents, whose type of response to the disease is characterized by the presence of mental maladaptation, the nervous system is more flexible and the inhibitory processes are better developed, they are able to purposefully follow the selected attitude to the disease, and are able to “slow down” the implementation of the chosen strategy. At the same time, the respondents are focused on their own condition, which prevents them from exercising conscious inhibitory control. The results suggest that the perception of the sensory flow and the level of inhibitory processes are related to the internal position of the individual, but the nature of the connections is determined by the degree of the constructive attitude to the disease.

RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics. 2019;16(1):39-54
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Targets of Psychological Work for High Alexithymia People
Gaus E.V., Pronenko E.A., Vasilyeva O.S.
Abstract

The article reviewed the modern empirical studies of alexithymia, summarized the theoretical understanding of the phenomenon of alexithymia, describes the difficulties faced by the people with a high level of alexithymia and suggested tips on psychological work with the alexithymic people. The novelty of this research consists in the formulation of the aspects of the practical work of a psychologist in order to increase the level of the adaptation of the alexithymics and improve the quality of their life. At the moment, this problem is covered in only a small amount of research. The main result of the article is the identification of the areas of psychological work with the alexithymics: (1) the improvement of the connection with the body; (2) the correction of personality problems; (3) the psychological assistance in the harmonization of the interpersonal relations. It has been shown that disrupted connection with the body is one of the most significant problems of the alexithymics and the factor which contributes to the development of psychosomatic diseases. For the improvement of the connection with the body the authors suggest such types of psychological work as the differentiation of physical feelings, a fuller understanding of the body map, the ability to control the condition of the body, the acceptance of the body and the increase in the satisfaction with it. The ways of working with the most significant personality problems of the alexithymics are singled out (correction of non-adaptive coping-strategies, low level of life satisfaction, rigidity, and instability of the emotional sphere). The areas of work on improving the relations of the alexithymics with the surrounding people are highlighted (gaining more knowledge about the emotional sphere, working with friends and relatives, teaching communication skills, taking into account the influence of alexithymia). Finally, the conclusion is made about the importance of the integrated psychological work with the people with a high level of alexithymia in order to develop the specific tools for comprehensive assistance to alexithymics.

RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics. 2019;16(1):55-70
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Attitude toward Dental Health and Treatment in Patients with Medical and Non-Medical Education
Sitkina E.V., Tregubenko I.A., Belyaeva E.A., Isaeva E.R.
Abstract

The article discusses the differences in attitudes towards dental health among persons with and without medical education. The authors described the criteria for assessing the quality of dental care, the preferred quality of a dentist and causes dental phobia in the adult population, as well as highlighted ways to improve compliance and reduce fear and anxiety before visiting the dentist. A total of 88 apparently healthy respondents who do not pass dental treatment at the time of the study (52 women and 36 men) took part in the study (the average age is 32 ± 12.5 years). The following techniques were used: (1) the survey Attitude to Health by R.A. Berezovskaya for assessing the respondents’ attitude to their own health (emotional, behavioral, cognitive, and valuemotivational scales); (2) the Life Quality Scale by N.E. Vodopianova for the assessment of the general life quality index and the self-assessment of the respondents life quality in such categories as: work, personal achievements, health, communication with relatives, support, optimism, tension, self-control, negative emotions; (3) the questionnaire Attitude to dental health developed for research at the Department of General and Clinical Psychology of Pavlov First Saint Petersburg State Medical University. Key research findings is: (1) most patients prefer an empathic-non-prescriptive type of dentist; (2) for most patients are important professional and communication skills of the dentist; (3) there are differences in attitudes towards dental health in patients with and without medical education.

RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics. 2019;16(1):71-87
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PSYCHOLOGICAL AND PEDAGOGICAL PROBLEMS OF EDUCATION
Analysis of the English Language Needs of Students at the Russian Technological University
Rossikhina O.G., Ermakova P.V., Aleshchenko O.A.
Abstract
The article looks into the English language needs of engineering students and young graduates at one of the leading technological universities in Russia - NUST MISiS. The authors used a mixed methodology approach to explore how often and in what real-life situations current and former students use the English language. 107 paper questionnaires were completed by master’s degree students in class and the answers were counted; 123 responses were received online from 2015 and 2016 graduates and processed statistically; 17 structured interviews with college administrators and subject professors were recorded and then coded for the main categories. The results demonstrate that despite dramatic changes at NUST MISiS under The Competitiveness Enhancement Program 5-100, good English competence is not a priority, with the majority of young graduates being ‘unsure’ about its benefits for their career and some administrators calling it ‘the least required competence’. However, the English language needs vary across subject departments. Thus, students majoring in new materials and programming use English on a regular basis, while economists and metallurgists might not really need it in both studies and future job. Overall, the most required skill is reading, and the least used ones are oral communication and academic writing in English. The authors discuss how orientation on potential rather than actual needs can affect the ESP/EAP course design in the context of engineering education in Russia.
RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics. 2019;16(1):88-100
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CROSS-NATIONAL SCIENTIFIC COOPERATION
First and Only Russian Psi Chi Chapter: 5 years at the RUDN University!
Novikova I.A., Tarkhova V.S., Kardashova S.Z., Kharitonenko A.A.
Abstract

In October 2018, the first and the only one in Russia Chapter of Psi Chi, the International Honor Society in Psychology, opened in 2013 at the Philology Department of the RUDN University, turned 5 years. This report is devoted to the history of creation, development and prospects of the Psi Chi Chapter at RUDN University.

Currently, the members of the Chapter are preparing to participate in the Psi Chi President elections to be held in March 2019, as well as in celebration of the 90th anniversary of the organization of Psi Chi and the 10th anniversary of the internationalization of the society, which will be held in September 2019. The publications in the following issues of RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics will be dedicated to this festive event.

RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics. 2019;16(1):101-109
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CONFERENCES
3rd All-Mongolian Conference on Modern Problems of Psychology: Scientific and Practical Research
Ankhbayar T.
Abstract
RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics. 2019;16(1):110-114
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